Articles | Volume 19, issue 11
Research article
02 Nov 2023
Research article |  | 02 Nov 2023

Unraveling the complexities of the Last Glacial Maximum climate: the role of individual boundary conditions and forcings

Xiaoxu Shi, Martin Werner, Hu Yang, Roberta D'Agostino, Jiping Liu, Chaoyuan Yang, and Gerrit Lohmann

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Cited articles

Acosta Navarro, J. C., Ekman, A. M., Pausata, F. S., Lewinschal, A., Varma, V., Seland, Ø., Gauss, M., Iversen, T., Kirkevåg, A., Riipinen, I., and Hansson, H. C.: Future response of temperature and precipitation to reduced aerosol emissions as compared with increased greenhouse gas concentrations, J. Climate, 30, 939–954, 2017. a
An, S.-I., Timmermann, A., Bejarano, L., Jin, F.-F., Justino, F., Liu, Z., and Tudhope, A.: Modeling evidence for enhanced El Niño–Southern Oscillation amplitude during the last glacial maximum, Paleoceanography, 19, PA4009,, 2004. a
Annan, J. D. and Hargreaves, J. C.: A new global reconstruction of temperature changes at the Last Glacial Maximum, Clim. Past, 9, 367–376,, 2013. a, b
Annan, J. D., Hargreaves, J. C., and Mauritsen, T.: A new global surface temperature reconstruction for the Last Glacial Maximum, Clim. Past, 18, 1883–1896,, 2022. a, b
Bartlein, P. J., Harrison, S., Brewer, S., Connor, S., Davis, B., Gajewski, K., Guiot, J., Harrison-Prentice, T., Henderson, A., Peyron, O., Prentice, I. C., Scholze, M., Seppä, H., Shuman, B., Sugita, S., Thompson, R. S., Viau, A. E., Williams, J., and Wu, H.: Pollen-based continental climate reconstructions at 6 and 21 ka: a global synthesis, Clim. Dynam., 37, 775–802, 2011. a, b, c, d, e
Short summary
The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) marks the most recent extremely cold and dry time period of our planet. Using AWI-ESM, we quantify the relative importance of Earth's orbit, greenhouse gases (GHG) and ice sheets (IS) in determining the LGM climate. Our results suggest that both GHG and IS play important roles in shaping the LGM temperature. Continental ice sheets exert a major control on precipitation, atmospheric dynamics, and the intensity of El Niño–Southern Oscillation.