Articles | Volume 19, issue 11
Research article
02 Nov 2023
Research article |  | 02 Nov 2023

Unraveling the complexities of the Last Glacial Maximum climate: the role of individual boundary conditions and forcings

Xiaoxu Shi, Martin Werner, Hu Yang, Roberta D'Agostino, Jiping Liu, Chaoyuan Yang, and Gerrit Lohmann

Data sets

LGM simulations based on AWIESM X. Shi

Short summary
The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) marks the most recent extremely cold and dry time period of our planet. Using AWI-ESM, we quantify the relative importance of Earth's orbit, greenhouse gases (GHG) and ice sheets (IS) in determining the LGM climate. Our results suggest that both GHG and IS play important roles in shaping the LGM temperature. Continental ice sheets exert a major control on precipitation, atmospheric dynamics, and the intensity of El Niño–Southern Oscillation.