Articles | Volume 20, issue 3
Research article
02 Apr 2024
Research article |  | 02 Apr 2024

Early 20th century Southern Hemisphere cooling

Stefan Brönnimann, Yuri Brugnara, and Clive Wilkinson

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Cited articles

Abram, N., Mulvaney, R., Vimeux, F., Phipps, S. J., Turner, J., and England, M. H.: Evolution of the Southern Annular Mode during the past millennium, Nat. Clim. Change, 4, 564–569,, 2014. 
Brönnimann, S.: Early twentieth-century warming, Nat. Geosci., 2, 735–736,, 2009. 
Brönnimann, S.: Historical Observations for Improving Reanalyses, Front. Clim., 4, 880473,, 2022. 
Brönnimann, S.: Daily temperature and sea-level pressure fields for the Southern Hemisphere 1901–1930, BORIS Portal [data set],, 2023. 
Short summary
The early 20th century warming – the first phase of global warming in the 20th century – started from a peculiar cold state around 1910. We digitised additional ship logbooks for these years to study this specific climate state and found that it is real and likely an overlap of several climatic anomalies, including oceanic variability (La Niña) and volcanic eruptions.