Articles | Volume 14, issue 4
Clim. Past, 14, 527–557, 2018
Clim. Past, 14, 527–557, 2018

Research article 24 Apr 2018

Research article | 24 Apr 2018

Spatio-temporal variability of Arctic summer temperatures over the past 2 millennia

Johannes P. Werner et al.

Related authors

Assessing the performance of the BARCAST climate field reconstruction technique for a climate with long-range memory
Tine Nilsen, Johannes P. Werner, Dmitry V. Divine, and Martin Rypdal
Clim. Past, 14, 947–967,,, 2018
Short summary
Arctic hydroclimate variability during the last 2000 years: current understanding and research challenges
Hans W. Linderholm, Marie Nicolle, Pierre Francus, Konrad Gajewski, Samuli Helama, Atte Korhola, Olga Solomina, Zicheng Yu, Peng Zhang, William J. D'Andrea, Maxime Debret, Dmitry V. Divine, Björn E. Gunnarson, Neil J. Loader, Nicolas Massei, Kristina Seftigen, Elizabeth K. Thomas, Johannes Werner, Sofia Andersson, Annika Berntsson, Tomi P. Luoto, Liisa Nevalainen, Saija Saarni, and Minna Väliranta
Clim. Past, 14, 473–514,,, 2018
Short summary
Climate variability in the subarctic area for the last 2 millennia
Marie Nicolle, Maxime Debret, Nicolas Massei, Christophe Colin, Anne deVernal, Dmitry Divine, Johannes P. Werner, Anne Hormes, Atte Korhola, and Hans W. Linderholm
Clim. Past, 14, 101–116,,, 2018
Short summary
Reconstructing Late Holocene North Atlantic atmospheric circulation changes using functional paleoclimate networks
Jasper G. Franke, Johannes P. Werner, and Reik V. Donner
Clim. Past, 13, 1593–1608,,, 2017
Short summary
Technical Note: Probabilistically constraining proxy age–depth models within a Bayesian hierarchical reconstruction model
J. P. Werner and M. P. Tingley
Clim. Past, 11, 533–545,,, 2015
Short summary

Related subject area

Subject: Proxy Use-Development-Validation | Archive: Terrestrial Archives | Timescale: Centennial-Decadal
Reconstructing past hydrology of eastern Canadian boreal catchments using clastic varved sediments and hydro-climatic modelling: 160 years of fluvial inflows
Antoine Gagnon-Poiré, Pierre Brigode, Pierre Francus, David Fortin, Patrick Lajeunesse, Hugues Dorion, and Annie-Pier Trottier
Clim. Past, 17, 653–673,,, 2021
Short summary
A 2600-year summer climate reconstruction in central Japan by integrating tree-ring stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes
Takeshi Nakatsuka, Masaki Sano, Zhen Li, Chenxi Xu, Akane Tsushima, Yuki Shigeoka, Kenjiro Sho, Keiko Ohnishi, Minoru Sakamoto, Hiromasa Ozaki, Noboru Higami, Nanae Nakao, Misao Yokoyama, and Takumi Mitsutani
Clim. Past, 16, 2153–2172,,, 2020
Short summary
An overview on isotopic divergences – causes for instability of tree-ring isotopes and climate correlations
Martine M. Savard and Valérie Daux
Clim. Past, 16, 1223–1243,,, 2020
Short summary
Proxy surrogate reconstructions for Europe and the estimation of their uncertainties
Oliver Bothe and Eduardo Zorita
Clim. Past, 16, 341–369,,, 2020
Short summary
The 4.2 ka event in the central Mediterranean: new data from a Corchia speleothem (Apuan Alps, central Italy)
Ilaria Isola, Giovanni Zanchetta, Russell N. Drysdale, Eleonora Regattieri, Monica Bini, Petra Bajo, John C. Hellstrom, Ilaria Baneschi, Piero Lionello, Jon Woodhead, and Alan Greig
Clim. Past, 15, 135–151,,, 2019
Short summary

Cited articles

Altekar, G., Dwarkadas, S., Huelsenbeck, J. P., and Ronquist, F.: Parallel Metropolis coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo for Bayesian phylogenetic inference, Bioinformatics, 20, 407–415,, 2004.
Anchukaitis, K. J., D'Arrigo, R. D., Andreu-Hayles, L., Frank, D., Verstege, A., Curtis, A., Buckley, B. M., Jacoby, G. C., and Cook, E. R.: Tree-Ring-Reconstructed Summer Temperatures from Northwestern North America during the Last Nine Centuries, J. Climate, 26, 3001–3012,, 2013 (data available at:, last access: 7 March 2017).
Babst, F., Poulter, B., Bodesheim, P., Mahecha, M. D., and Frank, D. C.: Improved tree-ring archives will support earth-system science, Nature Ecol. Evolut., 1, 1–2, 2017.
Bakke, J., Balascio, N., van der Bilt, W., Bradley, R., D'Andrea, W., Gjerde, M., Ólafsdóttir, S., Røthe, T., and De Wet, G.: The Island of Amsterdamøya: a key site for studying past climate in the Arctic Archipelago of Svalbard, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 183, 157–163,, 2017.
Barclay, D. J., Wiles, G. C., and Calkin, P. E.: A 1119-year tree-ring-width chronology from western Prince William Sound, southern Alaska, Holocene, 9, 79–84,, 1999 (data available at:, last access: 7 March 2017).
Short summary
We present a new gridded Arctic summer temperature reconstruction back to the first millennium CE. Our method respects the age uncertainties of the data, which results in a more precise reconstruction.

The spatial average shows a millennium-scale cooling trend which is reversed in the mid-19th century. While temperatures in the 10th century were probably as warm as in the 20th century, the spatial coherence of the recent warm episodes seems unprecedented.