Articles | Volume 14, issue 4
Clim. Past, 14, 527–557, 2018
Clim. Past, 14, 527–557, 2018

Research article 24 Apr 2018

Research article | 24 Apr 2018

Spatio-temporal variability of Arctic summer temperatures over the past 2 millennia

Johannes P. Werner et al.

Data sets

A global multiproxy database for temperature reconstructions of the Common Era (,, PAGES 2k Consortium

On the variability of ENSO over the past six centuries ( R. D. D'Arrigo, E. R. Cook, R. J. Wilson, R. Allan, and M. E. Mann

Blue intensity and density from northern Fennoscandian tree rings, exploring the potential to improve summer temperature reconstructions with earlywood information ( J. A. Björklund, B. E. Gunnarson, K. Seftigen, J. Esper, and H. W. Linderholm

Trends in recent temperature and radial tree growth spanning 2000 years across northwest Eurasia K. R. Briffa, V. V. Shishov, T. M. Melvin, E. A. Vaganov, H. Grudd, R. M. Hantemirov, M. Eronen, and M. M. Naurzbaev

Reconstructed Northern Hemisphere annual temperature since 1671 based on high-latitude tree-ring data from North America (, G. C. Jacoby and R. D'Arrigo

A palaeotemperature record for the Finnish Lakeland based on microdensitometric variations in tree rings ( S. Helama, M. Vartiainen, J. Holopainen, H. Mäkelä, T. Kolström, and J. Meriläinen

Tree-Ring-Reconstructed Summer Temperatures from Northwestern North America during the Last Nine Centuries ( K. J. Anchukaitis, R. D. D'Arrigo, L. Andreu-Hayles, D. Frank, A. Verstege, A. Curtis, B. M. Buckley, G. C. Jacoby, and E. R. Cook

A 1200-year multiproxy record of tree growth and summer temperature at the northern pine forest limit of Europe ( D. McCarroll, N. J. Loader, R. Jalkanen, M. H. Gagen, H. Grudd, B. E. Gunnarson, A. J. Kirchhefer, M. Friedrich, H. W. Linderholm, M. Lindholm, T. Boettger, S. O. Los, S. Remmele, Y. M. Kononov, Y. H. Yamazaki, G. H. Young, and E. Zorita

Surface air temperature variability reconstructed with tree rings for the Gulf of Alaska over the past 1200 years ( G. C. Wiles, R. D. D'Arrigo, D. Barclay, R. S. Wilson, S. K. Jarvis, L. Vargo, and D. Frank

Twentieth-century summer warmth in northern Yakutia in a 600-year context M. K. Hughes, E. A. Vaganov, S. Shiyatov, R. Touchan, and G. Funkhouser

1200 years of warm-season temperature variability in central Scandinavia inferred from tree-ring density ( P. Zhang, H. W. Linderholm, B. E. Gunnarson, J. Björklund, and D. Chen

Rapid changes in the level of Kluane Lake in Yukon Territory over the last millennium ( J. J. Clague, B. H. Luckman, R. D. Van Dorp, R. Gilbert, D. Froese, B. J. Jensen, and A. V. Reyes

A 538-Year Record of Climate and Treeline Dynamics from the Lower Lena River Region of Northern Siberia, Russia ( G. M. MacDonald, R. A. Case, and J. M. Szeicz

Boreal temperature variability inferred from maximum latewood density and tree-ring width data, Wrangell Mountain region, Alaska ( N. Davi

Orbital forcing of tree-ring data ( J. Esper, D. Frank, M. Timonen, E. Zorita, R. Wilson, J. Luterbacher, S. Holzkämper, N. Fischer, S. Wagner, D. Nievergelt, A. Verstege, and U. Büntgen

Revising midlatitude summer temperatures back to A.D. 600 based on a wood density network ( L. Schneider, J. E. Smerdon, U. B\"{u}ntgen, R. J. S. Wilson, V. S. Myglan, A. V. Kirdyanov, and J. Esper

A 1119-year tree-ring-width chronology from western Prince William Sound, southern Alaska ( D. J. Barclay, G. C. Wiles, and P. E. Calkin

On the long-term context for late twentieth century warming (, R. D'Arrigo, R. Wilson, and G. Jacoby

Potential bias in "updating'' tree-ring chronologies using regional curve standardisation: Re-processing 1500 years of Torneträsk density and ring-width data ( T. M. Melvin, H. Grudd, and K. R. Briffa

Reassessing the evidence for tree-growth and inferred temperature change during the Common Era in Yamalia, northwest Siberia ( K. R. Briffa, T. M. Melvin, T. J. Osborn, R. M. Hantemirov, A. V. Kirdyanov, V. S. Mazepa, S. G. Shiyatov, and J. Esper

Short summary
We present a new gridded Arctic summer temperature reconstruction back to the first millennium CE. Our method respects the age uncertainties of the data, which results in a more precise reconstruction.

The spatial average shows a millennium-scale cooling trend which is reversed in the mid-19th century. While temperatures in the 10th century were probably as warm as in the 20th century, the spatial coherence of the recent warm episodes seems unprecedented.