Articles | Volume 19, issue 4
Research article
02 May 2023
Research article |  | 02 May 2023

Summer surface air temperature proxies point to near-sea-ice-free conditions in the Arctic at 127 ka

Louise C. Sime, Rahul Sivankutty, Irene Vallet-Malmierca, Agatha M. de Boer, and Marie Sicard

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Cited articles

Berger, A. and Loutre, M.-F.: Insolation values for the climate of the last 10 million years, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 10, 297–317, 1991. 
Busecke, J., Ritschel, M., Maroon, E., Nicholas, T., and readthedocs-assistant: jbusecke/xMIP: v0.7.1 (v0.7.1), Zenodo [code],, 2023. 
Cao, J., Wang, B., Yang, Y.-M., Ma, L., Li, J., Sun, B., Bao, Y., He, J., Zhou, X., and Wu, L.: The NUIST Earth System Model (NESM) version 3: description and preliminary evaluation, Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 2975–2993,, 2018. 
CAPE members: Last Interglacial Arctic warmth confirms polar amplification of climate change, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 25, 1383–1400, 2006. 
Short summary
It is not known if the Last Interglacial (LIG) experienced Arctic summers that were sea ice free: models show a wide spread in LIG Arctic temperature and sea ice results. Evaluation against sea ice markers is hampered by few observations. Here, an assessment of 11 climate model simulations against summer temperatures shows that the most skilful models have a 74 %–79 % reduction in LIG sea ice. The measurements of LIG areas indicate a likely mix of ice-free and near-ice-free LIG summers.