Articles | Volume 17, issue 5
Clim. Past, 17, 2273–2289, 2021
Clim. Past, 17, 2273–2289, 2021

Research article 27 Oct 2021

Research article | 27 Oct 2021

Evolution of mean ocean temperature in Marine Isotope Stage 4

Sarah Shackleton et al.

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Cited articles

Abe-ouchi, A., Saito, F., Kawamura, K., Raymo, M. E., Okuno, J., Takahashi, K., and Blatter, H.: Insolation-driven 100,000-year glacial cycles and hysteresis of ice-sheet volume, Nature, 500, 190–193,, 2013. 
Adkins, J. F.: The role of deep ocean circulation in setting glacial climates, Paleoceanography, 28, 539–561​​​​​​​,, 2013. 
Adkins, J. F., Mcintyre, K., and Schrag, D. P.: The Salinity, Temperature, and δ18O of the Glacial Deep Ocean, Science, 298, 1769–1773,, 2002. 
Ahn, J. and Brook, E. J.: Atmospheric CO2 and Climate on Millennial Time Scales During the Last Glacial Period, Science, 322, 83–85,, 2008. 
Short summary
In this study, we measure atmospheric noble gases trapped in ice cores to reconstruct ocean temperature during the last glaciation. Comparing the new reconstruction to other climate records, we show that the ocean reached its coldest temperatures before ice sheets reached maximum volumes and atmospheric CO2 reached its lowest concentrations. Ocean cooling played a major role in lowering atmospheric CO2 early in the glaciation, but it only played a minor role later.