Articles | Volume 14, issue 10
Research article
22 Oct 2018
Research article |  | 22 Oct 2018

Extratropical cyclone statistics during the last millennium and the 21st century

Christoph C. Raible, Martina Messmer, Flavio Lehner, Thomas F. Stocker, and Richard Blender

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Cited articles

Amann, B., Szidat, S., and Grosjean, M.: A millennial-long record of warm season precipitation and flood frequency for the North-western Alps inferred from varved lake sediments: Implications for the future, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 115, 89–100,, 2015. a, b, c, d
Bengtsson, L., Hodges, K. I., and Roeckner, E.: Storm tracks and climate change, J. Climate, 19, 3518–3543,, 2006. a
Bengtsson, L., Hodges, K. I., and Keenlyside, N.: Will extratropical storms intensify in a warmer climate?, J. Climate, 22, 2276–2301,, 2009. a, b
Beniston, M.: Linking extreme climate events and economic impacts: Examples from the Swiss Alps, Energ. Policy, 35, 5384–5392,, 2007. a
Björck, S. and Clemmensen, L. B.: Aeolian sediment in raised bog deposits, Halland, SW Sweden: A new proxy record of Holocene winter storminess variation in southern Scandinavia?, Holocene, 14, 677–688,, 2004. a
Short summary
Extratropical cyclones in winter and their characteristics are investigated in depth for the Atlantic European region from 850 to 2100 CE. During the Common Era, cyclone characteristics show pronounced variations mainly caused by internal variability of the coupled climate system. When anthropogenic forcing becomes dominant, a strong increase of extreme cyclone-related precipitation is found due to thermodynamics, though dynamical processes can play an important role during the last millennium.