Articles | Volume 11, issue 3
Clim. Past, 11, 605–618, 2015
Clim. Past, 11, 605–618, 2015
Research article
27 Mar 2015
Research article | 27 Mar 2015

Interannual climate variability seen in the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project

C. M. Brierley

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Cited articles

An, S.-I. and Choi, J.: Mid-Holocene tropical Pacific climate state, annual cycle, and ENSO in PMIP2 and PMIP3, Clim. Dynam., 43, 1–14,, 2013.
Ashok, K., Behera, S. K., Rao, S. A., Weng, H., and Yamagata, T.: El Niño Modoki and its possible teleconnection, J. Geophys. Res., 112, C11007,, 2007.
Bellenger, H., Guilyardi, E., Leloup, J., Lengaigne, M., and Vialard, J.: ENSO representation in climate models: from CMIP3 to CMIP5, Clim. Dynam., 42, 1999–2018,, 2013.
Bonham, S. G.: Dynamics of Tropical Climate and High-Latitude Teleconnections during the Pliocene, PhD thesis, Univ. Leeds, UK, 2011.
Bonham, S. G., Haywood, A. M., Lunt, D. J., Collins, M., and Salzmann, U.: El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Pliocene climate and equifinality, Philos. T. R. Soc. A, 367, 127–156,, 2009.
Short summary
Previously, model ensembles have shown little consensus in the response of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) to imposed forcings – either for the past or future. The recent coordinated experiment on the warm Pliocene (~3 million years ago) shows surprising agreement that there was a robustly weaker ENSO with a shift to lower frequencies. Suggested physical mechanisms cannot explain this coherent signal, and it warrants further investigation.