Articles | Volume 16, issue 1
Research article
09 Jan 2020
Research article |  | 09 Jan 2020

Reconstruction of the track and a simulation of the storm surge associated with the calamitous typhoon affecting the Pearl River Estuary in September 1874

Hing Yim Mok, Wing Hong Lui, Dick Shum Lau, and Wang Chun Woo

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Subject: Atmospheric Dynamics | Archive: Historical Records | Timescale: Instrumental Period
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Cited articles

Arquivo Historico De Macao: The Times of Typhoon, Macao, China, 2014. 
Atkinson, G. D. and Holliday, C. R.: Tropical Cyclone Minimum Sea Level Pressure/Maximum Sustained Wind Relationship for the Western North Pacific, Mon. Weather Rev., 105, 421–427, 1977. 
China Mail: The China Mail published on 23 September 1874, Hong Kong, China, 1874. 
García-Herrera, R., Ribera, P., Hernández, E., and Gimeno, L.: Typhoons in the Philippine Islands 1566–1900, available at:, last access: 3 January 2020. 
Heywood, G. S. P.: Hong Kong Typhoons, Hong Kong Observatory, Hong Kong, China, 1950. 
Short summary
Using available information from historical documents, the maximum storm surge and storm tide at Hong Kong during the passage of a typhoon in 1874 were determined by reconstructing the possible typhoon track and found to be higher than all existing records since the 1883 establishment of the Hong Kong Observatory. This reveals that a more detailed frequency analysis of extreme sea levels taking the 1874 typhoon into account is essential for realistic storm surge risk assessments in Hong Kong.