Articles | Volume 15, issue 1
Clim. Past, 15, 41–52, 2019
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Special issue: The 4.2 ka BP climatic event
Research article 10 Jan 2019
Research article | 10 Jan 2019
Comparing the spatial patterns of climate change in the 9th and 5th millennia BP from TRACE-21 model simulations
Liang Ning et al.
Mi Yan and Jian Liu
Clim. Past, 15, 265–277,
Raymond S. Bradley and Jostein Bakke
Clim. Past, 15, 1665–1676,Short summary
We review paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic records from the northern North Atlantic to assess the nature of climatic conditions at 4.2 ka BP. There was a general decline in temperatures after ~ 5 ka BP, which led to the onset of neoglaciation. Although a few records do show a distinct anomaly around 4.2 ka BP (associated with a glacial advance), this is not widespread and we interpret it as a local manifestation of the overall climatic deterioration that characterized the late Holocene.
Mi Yan and Jian Liu
Clim. Past, 15, 265–277,
Mi Yan, Bin Wang, Jian Liu, Axing Zhu, Liang Ning, and Jian Cao
Clim. Past, 14, 2037–2052,
Daniel R. Miller, M. Helen Habicht, Benjamin A. Keisling, Isla S. Castañeda, and Raymond S. Bradley
Clim. Past, 14, 1653–1667,Short summary
We measured biomarker production over a year in a small inland lake in the northeastern USA. Understanding biomarkers in the modern environment helps us improve reconstructions of past climate from lake sediment records. We use these results to interpret a 900-year decadally resolved temperature record from this lake. Our record highlights multi-decadal oscillations in temperature superimposed on a long-term cooling trend, providing novel insight into climate dynamics of the region.
François Lapointe, Pierre Francus, Scott F. Lamoureux, Mathias Vuille, Jean-Philippe Jenny, Raymond S. Bradley, and Charly Massa
Clim. Past, 13, 411–420,Short summary
Using a unique annually-laminated record (varve) from the western Canadian High Arctic, we found a significant relationship between our varve record and instrumental and reconstructed Pacific Decadal Oscillations (PDOs). The negative (positive) PDO (North Pacific Index) phases increase precipitation as low sea-ice extent, warmer temperature and winds reach our region more efficiently. Our results imply that future negative PDO phases will likely impact the already rapidly warming Arctic.
Mark C. Serreze, Bruce Raup, Carsten Braun, Douglas R. Hardy, and Raymond S. Bradley
The Cryosphere, 11, 169–177,Short summary
The Hazen Plateau of Ellesmere Island, Nunavat, Canada, is unglaciated with the exception of four small ice caps, the two St. Patrick Bay ice caps and the Murray and Simmons ice caps. Satellite data reveal that as of July 2016, the St. Patrick Bay ice caps have shrunk to 5 % of the area they covered in 1959 and will disappear in a few years. The Murray and Simmons ice caps have been reduced to 39 % and 25 %, respectively, of their former areas and may persist for another one or two decades.
N. L. Balascio, W. J. D'Andrea, and R. S. Bradley
Clim. Past, 11, 1587–1598,Short summary
Sediment cores were collected from a lake that captures runoff from two glaciers in Greenland. Our analysis of the sediments shows that these glaciers were active over the last 9,000 years and advanced and retreated in response to regional climate changes. The data also provide a long-term perspective on the rate of 20th century glacier retreat and indicate that recent anthropogenic-driven warming has already impacted the regional cryosphere in a manner outside the range of natural variability.
Related subject area
Subject: Climate Modelling | Archive: Modelling only | Timescale: HoloceneImpact of dust in PMIP-CMIP6 mid-Holocene simulations with the IPSL modelTechnical note: Characterising and comparing different palaeoclimates with dynamical systems theoryThe remote response of the South Asian Monsoon to reduced dust emissions and Sahara greening during the middle HoloceneLarge-scale features and evaluation of the PMIP4-CMIP6 midHolocene simulationsCMIP6/PMIP4 simulations of the mid-Holocene and Last Interglacial using HadGEM3: comparison to the pre-industrial era, previous model versions and proxy dataWater isotopes – climate relationships for the mid-Holocene and preindustrial period simulated with an isotope-enabled version of MPI-ESMEffects of land use and anthropogenic aerosol emissions in the Roman EmpireStrengths and challenges for transient Mid- to Late Holocene simulations with dynamical vegetationPhysical processes of cooling and mega-drought during the 4.2 ka BP event: results from TraCE-21ka simulationsAbrupt cold events in the North Atlantic Ocean in a transient Holocene simulationRapid increase in simulated North Atlantic dust deposition due to fast change of northwest African landscape during the HoloceneEvaluation of PMIP2 and PMIP3 simulations of mid-Holocene climate in the Indo-Pacific, Australasian and Southern Ocean regionsBiome changes in Asia since the mid-Holocene – an analysis of different transient Earth system model simulationsModeling precipitation δ18O variability in East Asia since the Last Glacial Maximum: temperature and amount effects across different timescalesMid-to-late Holocene temperature evolution and atmospheric dynamics over Europe in regional model simulationsEffects of melting ice sheets and orbital forcing on the early Holocene warming in the extratropical Northern HemisphereThe biogeophysical climatic impacts of anthropogenic land use change during the HoloceneThe link between marine sediment records and changes in Holocene Saharan landscape: simulating the dust cycleStability of ENSO and its tropical Pacific teleconnections over the Last MillenniumEarly-Holocene warming in Beringia and its mediation by sea-level and vegetation changesThe impact of Sahara desertification on Arctic cooling during the HoloceneGlobal climate simulations at 3000-year intervals for the last 21 000 years with the GENMOM coupled atmosphere–ocean modelReexamining the barrier effect of the Tibetan Plateau on the South Asian summer monsoonModel–data comparison and data assimilation of mid-Holocene Arctic sea ice concentrationEvaluation of modern and mid-Holocene seasonal precipitation of the Mediterranean and northern Africa in the CMIP5 simulationsMid-Holocene ocean and vegetation feedbacks over East AsiaA regional climate palaeosimulation for Europe in the period 1500–1990 – Part 1: Model validationInfluence of dynamic vegetation on climate change and terrestrial carbon storage in the Last Glacial MaximumCan an Earth System Model simulate better climate change at mid-Holocene than an AOGCM? A comparison study of MIROC-ESM and MIROC3Historical and idealized climate model experiments: an intercomparison of Earth system models of intermediate complexityThe sensitivity of the Arctic sea ice to orbitally induced insolation changes: a study of the mid-Holocene Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project 2 and 3 simulationsModel sensitivity to North Atlantic freshwater forcing at 8.2 kaUsing data assimilation to investigate the causes of Southern Hemisphere high latitude cooling from 10 to 8 ka BPLast interglacial temperature evolution – a model inter-comparisonThe East Asian Summer Monsoon at mid-Holocene: results from PMIP3 simulationsLarge-scale temperature response to external forcing in simulations and reconstructions of the last millenniumComparison of 20th century and pre-industrial climate over South America in regional model simulationsEarly and mid-Holocene climate in the tropical Pacific: seasonal cycle and interannual variability induced by insolation changesMonsoonal response to mid-holocene orbital forcing in a high resolution GCMHolocene evolution of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds in transient simulations with global climate modelsUsing synoptic type analysis to understand New Zealand climate during the Mid-HoloceneEvolution of the seasonal temperature cycle in a transient Holocene simulation: orbital forcing and sea-iceUpper ocean climate of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during the Holocene Insolation Maximum – a model studyStrength of forest-albedo feedback in mid-Holocene climate simulationsA regional climate simulation over the Iberian Peninsula for the last millenniumSolar-forced shifts of the Southern Hemisphere Westerlies during the HoloceneThe effect of a dynamic background albedo scheme on Sahel/Sahara precipitation during the mid-HoloceneVariations of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation in control and transient simulations of the last millenniumClimate change between the mid and late Holocene in northern high latitudes – Part 2: Model-data comparisonsThe Southern Hemisphere semiannual oscillation and circulation variability during the Mid-Holocene
Pascale Braconnot, Samuel Albani, Yves Balkanski, Anne Cozic, Masa Kageyama, Adriana Sima, Olivier Marti, and Jean-Yves Peterschmitt
Clim. Past, 17, 1091–1117,Short summary
We investigate how mid-Holocene dust reduction affects the Earth’s energetics from a suite of climate simulations. Our analyses confirm the peculiar role of the dust radiative effect over bright surfaces such as African deserts. We highlight a strong dependence on the dust pattern. The relative dust forcing between West Africa and the Middle East impacts the relative response of Indian and African monsoons and between the western tropical Atlantic and the Atlantic meridional circulation.
Gabriele Messori and Davide Faranda
Clim. Past, 17, 545–563,Short summary
The palaeoclimate community must both analyse large amounts of model data and compare very different climates. Here, we present a seemingly very abstract analysis approach that may be fruitfully applied to palaeoclimate numerical simulations. This approach characterises the dynamics of a given climate through a small number of metrics and is thus suited to face the above challenges.
Francesco S. R. Pausata, Gabriele Messori, Jayoung Yun, Chetankumar A. Jalihal, Massimo A. Bollasina, and Thomas M. Marchitto
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for CPShort summary
Far afield changes in vegetation such as those occurred over the Sahara during the middle Holocene and the consequent changes in dust emissions can affect the intensity of the South Asian Monsoon (SAM) rainfall the lengthening of the monsoon season. This remote influence is mediated by anomalies in Indian Ocean sea-surface temperatures and may have shaped the evolution of the SAM during the termination of the African Humid Period.
Chris M. Brierley, Anni Zhao, Sandy P. Harrison, Pascale Braconnot, Charles J. R. Williams, David J. R. Thornalley, Xiaoxu Shi, Jean-Yves Peterschmitt, Rumi Ohgaito, Darrell S. Kaufman, Masa Kageyama, Julia C. Hargreaves, Michael P. Erb, Julien Emile-Geay, Roberta D'Agostino, Deepak Chandan, Matthieu Carré, Partrick J. Bartlein, Weipeng Zheng, Zhongshi Zhang, Qiong Zhang, Hu Yang, Evgeny M. Volodin, Robert A. Tomas, Cody Routson, W. Richard Peltier, Bette Otto-Bliesner, Polina A. Morozova, Nicholas P. McKay, Gerrit Lohmann, Allegra N. Legrande, Chuncheng Guo, Jian Cao, Esther Brady, James D. Annan, and Ayako Abe-Ouchi
Clim. Past, 16, 1847–1872,Short summary
This paper provides an initial exploration and comparison to climate reconstructions of the new climate model simulations of the mid-Holocene (6000 years ago). These use state-of-the-art models developed for CMIP6 and apply the same experimental set-up. The models capture several key aspects of the climate, but some persistent issues remain.
Charles J. R. Williams, Maria-Vittoria Guarino, Emilie Capron, Irene Malmierca-Vallet, Joy S. Singarayer, Louise C. Sime, Daniel J. Lunt, and Paul J. Valdes
Clim. Past, 16, 1429–1450,Short summary
Computer simulations of the geological past are an important tool to improve our understanding of climate change. We present results from two simulations using the latest version of the UK's climate model, the mid-Holocene (6000 years ago) and Last Interglacial (127 000 years ago). The simulations reproduce temperatures consistent with the pattern of incoming radiation. Model–data comparisons indicate that some regions (and some seasons) produce better matches to the data than others.
Alexandre Cauquoin, Martin Werner, and Gerrit Lohmann
Clim. Past, 15, 1913–1937,Short summary
We present here the first model results of a newly developed isotope-enhanced version of the Earth system model MPI-ESM. Our model setup has a finer spatial resolution compared to other isotope-enabled fully coupled models. We evaluate the model for preindustrial and mid-Holocene climate conditions. Our analyses show a good to very good agreement with various isotopic data. The spatial and temporal links between isotopes and climate variables under warm climatic conditions are also analyzed.
Anina Gilgen, Stiig Wilkenskjeld, Jed O. Kaplan, Thomas Kühn, and Ulrike Lohmann
Clim. Past, 15, 1885–1911,Short summary
Using the global aerosol–climate model ECHAM-HAM-SALSA, the effect of humans on European climate in the Roman Empire was quantified. Both land use and novel estimates of anthropogenic aerosol emissions were considered. We conducted simulations with fixed sea-surface temperatures to gain a first impression about the anthropogenic impact. While land use effects induced a regional warming for one of the reconstructions, aerosol emissions led to a cooling associated with aerosol–cloud interactions.
Pascale Braconnot, Dan Zhu, Olivier Marti, and Jérôme Servonnat
Clim. Past, 15, 997–1024,Short summary
This study discusses a simulation of the last 6000 years realized with a climate model in which the vegetation and carbon cycle are fully interactive. The long-term southward shift in Northern Hemisphere tree line and Afro-Asian monsoon rain are reproduced. The results show substantial change in tree composition with time over Eurasia and the role of trace gases in the recent past. They highlight the limitations due to model setup and multiple preindustrial vegetation states.
Mi Yan and Jian Liu
Clim. Past, 15, 265–277,
Andrea Klus, Matthias Prange, Vidya Varma, Louis Bruno Tremblay, and Michael Schulz
Clim. Past, 14, 1165–1178,Short summary
Numerous proxy records from the northern North Atlantic suggest substantial climate variability including the occurrence of multi-decadal-to-centennial cold events during the Holocene. We analyzed two abrupt cold events in a Holocene simulation using a comprehensive climate model. It is shown that the events were ultimately triggered by prolonged phases of positive North Atlantic Oscillation causing changes in ocean circulation followed by severe cooling, freshening, and expansion of sea ice.
Sabine Egerer, Martin Claussen, and Christian Reick
Clim. Past, 14, 1051–1066,Short summary
We find a rapid increase in simulated dust deposition between 6 and 4 ka BP that is fairly consistent with an abrupt change in dust deposition that was observed in marine sediment records at around 5 ka BP. This rapid change is caused by a rapid increase in simulated dust emissions in the western Sahara due to a fast decline in vegetation cover and a locally strong reduction of lake area. Our study identifies spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the transition of the North African landscape.
Duncan Ackerley, Jessica Reeves, Cameron Barr, Helen Bostock, Kathryn Fitzsimmons, Michael-Shawn Fletcher, Chris Gouramanis, Helen McGregor, Scott Mooney, Steven J. Phipps, John Tibby, and Jonathan Tyler
Clim. Past, 13, 1661–1684,Short summary
A selection of climate models have been used to simulate both pre-industrial (1750 CE) and mid-Holocene (6000 years ago) conditions. This study presents an assessment of the temperature, rainfall and flow over Australasia from those climate models. The model data are compared with available proxy data reconstructions (e.g. tree rings) for 6000 years ago to identify whether the models are reliable. Places where there is both agreement and conflict are highlighted and investigated further.
Anne Dallmeyer, Martin Claussen, Jian Ni, Xianyong Cao, Yongbo Wang, Nils Fischer, Madlene Pfeiffer, Liya Jin, Vyacheslav Khon, Sebastian Wagner, Kerstin Haberkorn, and Ulrike Herzschuh
Clim. Past, 13, 107–134,Short summary
The vegetation distribution in eastern Asia is supposed to be very sensitive to climate change. Since proxy records are scarce, hitherto a mechanistic understanding of the past spatio-temporal climate–vegetation relationship is lacking. To assess the Holocene vegetation change, we forced the diagnostic biome model BIOME4 with climate anomalies of different transient climate simulations.
Xinyu Wen, Zhengyu Liu, Zhongxiao Chen, Esther Brady, David Noone, Qingzhao Zhu, and Jian Guan
Clim. Past, 12, 2077–2085,Short summary
In this paper, we challenge the usefulness of temperature effect and amount effect, the basic assumptions in past climate reconstruction using a stable water isotope proxy, in East Asia on multiple timescales. By modeling several time slices in the past 22 000 years using an isotope-enabled general circulation model, we suggest great caution when interpreting δ18O records in this area as indicators of surface temperature and/or local monsoonal precipitation, especially on a millennial timescale.
Emmanuele Russo and Ulrich Cubasch
Clim. Past, 12, 1645–1662,Short summary
In this study we use a RCM for three different goals. Proposing a model configuration suitable for paleoclimate studies; evaluating the added value of a regional climate model for paleoclimate studies; investigating temperature evolution of the European continent during mid-to-late Holocene. Results suggest that the RCM seems to produce results in better agreement with reconstructions than its driving GCM. Simulated temperature evolution seems to be too sensitive to changes in insolation.
Yurui Zhang, Hans Renssen, and Heikki Seppä
Clim. Past, 12, 1119–1135,Short summary
We explore how forcings contributed to climate change during the early Holocene that marked the final transition to the warm and stable stage. Our results indicate that 1) temperature at the Holocene onset was lower than in the preindustrial over the northern extratropics with the exception in Alaska, and the magnitude of this cooling varies regionally as a response to varying climate forcings and diverse mechanisms, and 2) the rate of the early Holocene warming was also spatially heterogeneous.
M. Clare Smith, Joy S. Singarayer, Paul J. Valdes, Jed O. Kaplan, and Nicholas P. Branch
Clim. Past, 12, 923–941,Short summary
We used climate modelling to estimate the biogeophysical impacts of agriculture on the climate over the last 8000 years of the Holocene. Our results show statistically significant surface temperature changes (mainly cooling) from as early as 7000 BP in the JJA season and throughout the entire annual cycle by 2–3000 BP. The changes were greatest in the areas of land use change but were also seen in other areas. Precipitation was also affected, particularly in Europe, India, and the ITCZ region.
Sabine Egerer, Martin Claussen, Christian Reick, and Tanja Stanelle
Clim. Past, 12, 1009–1027,Short summary
We demonstrate for the first time the direct link between dust accumulation in marine sediment cores and Saharan land surface by simulating the mid-Holocene and pre-industrial dust cycle as a function of Saharan land surface cover and atmosphere-ocean conditions using the coupled atmosphere-aerosol model ECHAM6-HAM2.1. Mid-Holocene surface characteristics, including vegetation cover and lake surface area, are derived from proxy data and simulations.
S. C. Lewis and A. N. LeGrande
Clim. Past, 11, 1347–1360,
P. J. Bartlein, M. E. Edwards, S. W. Hostetler, S. L. Shafer, P. M. Anderson, L. B. Brubaker, and A. V. Lozhkin
Clim. Past, 11, 1197–1222,Short summary
The ongoing warming of the Arctic is producing changes in vegetation and hydrology that, coupled with rising sea level, could mediate global changes. We explored this possibility using regional climate model simulations of a past interval of warming in Beringia and found that the regional-scale changes do strongly mediate the responses to global changes, amplifying them in some cases, damping them in others, and, overall, generating considerable spatial heterogeneity in climate change.
F. J. Davies, H. Renssen, M. Blaschek, and F. Muschitiello
Clim. Past, 11, 571–586,
J. R. Alder and S. W. Hostetler
Clim. Past, 11, 449–471,
G.-S. Chen, Z. Liu, and J. E. Kutzbach
Clim. Past, 10, 1269–1275,
F. Klein, H. Goosse, A. Mairesse, and A. de Vernal
Clim. Past, 10, 1145–1163,
A. Perez-Sanz, G. Li, P. González-Sampériz, and S. P. Harrison
Clim. Past, 10, 551–568,
Z. Tian and D. Jiang
Clim. Past, 9, 2153–2171,
J. J. Gómez-Navarro, J. P. Montávez, S. Wagner, and E. Zorita
Clim. Past, 9, 1667–1682,
R. O'ishi and A. Abe-Ouchi
Clim. Past, 9, 1571–1587,
R. Ohgaito, T. Sueyoshi, A. Abe-Ouchi, T. Hajima, S. Watanabe, H.-J. Kim, A. Yamamoto, and M. Kawamiya
Clim. Past, 9, 1519–1542,
M. Eby, A. J. Weaver, K. Alexander, K. Zickfeld, A. Abe-Ouchi, A. A. Cimatoribus, E. Crespin, S. S. Drijfhout, N. R. Edwards, A. V. Eliseev, G. Feulner, T. Fichefet, C. E. Forest, H. Goosse, P. B. Holden, F. Joos, M. Kawamiya, D. Kicklighter, H. Kienert, K. Matsumoto, I. I. Mokhov, E. Monier, S. M. Olsen, J. O. P. Pedersen, M. Perrette, G. Philippon-Berthier, A. Ridgwell, A. Schlosser, T. Schneider von Deimling, G. Shaffer, R. S. Smith, R. Spahni, A. P. Sokolov, M. Steinacher, K. Tachiiri, K. Tokos, M. Yoshimori, N. Zeng, and F. Zhao
Clim. Past, 9, 1111–1140,
M. Berger, J. Brandefelt, and J. Nilsson
Clim. Past, 9, 969–982,
C. Morrill, A. N. LeGrande, H. Renssen, P. Bakker, and B. L. Otto-Bliesner
Clim. Past, 9, 955–968,
P. Mathiot, H. Goosse, X. Crosta, B. Stenni, M. Braida, H. Renssen, C. J. Van Meerbeeck, V. Masson-Delmotte, A. Mairesse, and S. Dubinkina
Clim. Past, 9, 887–901,
P. Bakker, E. J. Stone, S. Charbit, M. Gröger, U. Krebs-Kanzow, S. P. Ritz, V. Varma, V. Khon, D. J. Lunt, U. Mikolajewicz, M. Prange, H. Renssen, B. Schneider, and M. Schulz
Clim. Past, 9, 605–619,
W. Zheng, B. Wu, J. He, and Y. Yu
Clim. Past, 9, 453–466,
L. Fernández-Donado, J. F. González-Rouco, C. C. Raible, C. M. Ammann, D. Barriopedro, E. García-Bustamante, J. H. Jungclaus, S. J. Lorenz, J. Luterbacher, S. J. Phipps, J. Servonnat, D. Swingedouw, S. F. B. Tett, S. Wagner, P. Yiou, and E. Zorita
Clim. Past, 9, 393–421,
S. Wagner, I. Fast, and F. Kaspar
Clim. Past, 8, 1599–1620,
Y. Luan, P. Braconnot, Y. Yu, W. Zheng, and O. Marti
Clim. Past, 8, 1093–1108,
J. H. C. Bosmans, S. S. Drijfhout, E. Tuenter, L. J. Lourens, F. J. Hilgen, and S. L. Weber
Clim. Past, 8, 723–740,
V. Varma, M. Prange, U. Merkel, T. Kleinen, G. Lohmann, M. Pfeiffer, H. Renssen, A. Wagner, S. Wagner, and M. Schulz
Clim. Past, 8, 391–402,
D. Ackerley, A. Lorrey, J. A. Renwick, S. J. Phipps, S. Wagner, S. Dean, J. Singarayer, P. Valdes, A. Abe-Ouchi, R. Ohgaito, and J. M. Jones
Clim. Past, 7, 1189–1207,
N. Fischer and J. H. Jungclaus
Clim. Past, 7, 1139–1148,
F. Adloff, U. Mikolajewicz, M. Kučera, R. Grimm, E. Maier-Reimer, G. Schmiedl, and K.-C. Emeis
Clim. Past, 7, 1103–1122,
J. Otto, T. Raddatz, and M. Claussen
Clim. Past, 7, 1027–1039,
J. J. Gómez-Navarro, J. P. Montávez, S. Jerez, P. Jiménez-Guerrero, R. Lorente-Plazas, J. F. González-Rouco, and E. Zorita
Clim. Past, 7, 451–472,
V. Varma, M. Prange, F. Lamy, U. Merkel, and M. Schulz
Clim. Past, 7, 339–347,
F. S. E. Vamborg, V. Brovkin, and M. Claussen
Clim. Past, 7, 117–131,
D. Hofer, C. C. Raible, and T. F. Stocker
Clim. Past, 7, 133–150,
Q. Zhang, H. S. Sundqvist, A. Moberg, H. Körnich, J. Nilsson, and K. Holmgren
Clim. Past, 6, 609–626,
D. Ackerley and J. A. Renwick
Clim. Past, 6, 415–430,
Alley, R. B. and Agustsdottir, A. M.: The 8k event: cause and consequences of a major Holocene abrupt climate change, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 24, 1123–1149, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.12.004, 2005.
Barber, D. C., Dyke, A., Hillaire-Marcel, C., Jennings, A. E., Andrews, J. T., Kerwin, M. W., Bilodeau, G., McNeely, R., Southon, J., Morehead, M. D., and Gagnon, J. M.: Forcing of the cold event of 8,200 years ago by catastrophic drainage of Laurentide lakes, Nature, 400, 344–348, https://doi.org/10.1038/22504, 1999.
Barclay, D. J., Wiles, G. C., and Calkin, P. E.: Holocene glacier fluctuations in Alaska, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 28, 2034–2048, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.01.016, 2009.
Berger, A. L.: Long-term variations of daily insolation and Quaternary climatic changes, J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 2362–2367, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1978)035<2362:LTVODI>2.0.CO;2, 1978.
Bernal, J. P., Cruz, F. W., Stríkis, N. M., Wang, X., Deininger, M., Catunda, M. C. A., Ortega-Obregón, C., Cheng, H., Edwards, R. L., and Auler, A. S.: High-resolution Holocene South American monsoon history recorded by a speleothem from Botuverá Cave, Brazil, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 450, 186–196, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2016.06.008, 2016.
Bianchi, G. and McCave, I. N.: Holocene periodicity in north Atlantic climate and deep ocean flow south of Iceland, Nature, 397, 515–518, https://doi.org/10.1038/17362, 1999.
Bond, G., Kromer, B., Beer, J., Muscheler, R., Evans, M. N., Showers, W., Hoffmann, S., Lotti-bond, R., Hajdas, I., and Bonani, G.: Persistent solar influence on North Atlantic climate during the Holocene, Science, 294, 2130–2136, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1065680, 2001.
Booth, R. K., Jackson, S. T., Forman, S. L., Kutzbach, J. E., Bettis III, E. A., Kreig, J., and Wright, D. K.: A severe centennial-scale drought in mid-continental North America 4200 years ago and apparent global linkage. Holocene, 15, 321–328, https://doi.org/10.1191/0959683605hl825ft, 2005.
Bradley, R. S. and Bakke, J.: Is there evidence for a 4.2 ka BP event in the northern North Atlantic region?, Clim. Past Discuss., in preparation, 2019.
Burns, S. J.: Speleothem records of changes in tropical hydrology over the Holocene and possible implications for atmospheric methane, Holocene, 21, 735–741, https://doi.org/10.1177/0959683611400194, 2011.
Cook, E. R., Anchukaitis, K. J., Buckley, B. M., D'Arrigo, R. D., Jacoby, G. C., and Wright, W. E.: Asian monsoon failure and megadrought during the last millennium, Science, 328, 486–489, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1185188, 2010.
Deininger, M., McDermott, F., Mudelsee, M., Werner, M., Frank, N., and Mangini, A.: Coherency of late Holocene European speleothem δ18O records linked to North Atlantic Ocean circulation, Clim. Dynam., 49, 595–618, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-016-3360-8, 2017.
Delworth, T. L. and Mann, M. E.: Observed and simulated multidecadal variability in the Northern Hemisphere, Clim. Dynam., 16, 661–676, https://doi.org/10.1007/s003820000075, 2000.
Finkenbinder, M. S., Abbott, M. B., and Steinman, B. A.: Holocene climate change in Newfoundland reconstructed using oxygen isotope analysis of lake sediment cores, Global Planet. Change, 143, 251–261, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2016.06.014, 2016.
Gupta, M. and Marshall, J.: The climate response to multiple volcanic eruptions mediated by ocean heat uptake: damping processes and accumulation potential, J. Climate, 31, 8669–8687, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0703.1, 2018.
He, F.: Simulation transient climate evolution of the last deglaciation with CCSM3, PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 185 pp., 2011.
He, F., Shakun, J. D., Clark, P. U., Carlson, A. E., Liu, Z., Otto-Bliesner, B. L., and Kutzbach, J. E.: Northern Hemisphere forcing of Southern Hemisphere climate during the last deglaciation, Nature, 494, 81–85, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11822, 2013.
Hong, Y. T., Hong, B., Lin, Q. H., Shibata, Y., Hirota, M., Zhu, Y. X., Leng, X. T., Wang, Y., Wang, H., and Yi, L.: Inverse phase oscillations between the East Asian and Indian Ocean summer monsoons during the last 12 000 years and paleo-El Niño, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 231, 337–346, 2005.
Joos, F. and Spahni, R.: Rates of change in natural and anthropogenic radiative forcing over the past 20,000 years, P. Natl. Acad. Sci., 105, 1425–1430, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0707386105, 2008.
Kathayat, G., Cheng, H., Sinha, A., Yi, L., Li, X., Zhang, H., Li, H., Ning, Y., and Edwards, R. L.: The Indian monsoon variability and civilization changes in the Indian subcontinent, Science Advances, 3, e1701296, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1701296, 2017.
Lachniet, M. S., Asmerom, Y., Bernal, J. P., Polyak, V. J., and Vazquez-Selem, L.: Orbital pacing and ocean circulation-induced collapses of the Mesoamerican monsoon over the past 22,000 y, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 110, 9255–9260, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1222804110, 2013.
LeGrande, A. N., Schmidt, G. A., Shindell, D. T., Field, C. V., Miller, R. L., Koch, D. M., Faluvegi, G., and Hoffmann, G.: Consistent simulations of multiple proxy responses to an abrupt climate change event, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 103, 837–842, 2006.
Liu, Z., Otto-Bliesner, B. L., He, F., Brady, E. C., Tomas, R., Clark, P. U., Carlson, A. E., Lynch-Stieglitz, J., Curry, W., Brook, E., and Erickson, D.: Transient simulation of last deglaciation with a new mechanism for Bølling-Allerød warming, Science, 325, 310–314, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1171041, 2009.
Liu, Z., Zhu, J., Rosenthal, Y., Zhang, X., Otto-Bliesner, B. L., Timmermann, A., Smith, R. S., Lohmann, G., Zheng, W., and Timm, O. E.: The Holocene temperature conundrum, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 111, E3501–E3505, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1407229111, 2014a.
Liu, Z., Yoshimura, K., Bowen, G. J., Buenning, N. H., Risi, C., Welker, J. M., and Yuan, F.: Paired oxygen isotope records reveal modern North American atmospheric dynamics during the Holocene, Nat. Commun., 5, 3701, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms4701, 2014b.
Marcott, S. A., Shakun, J. D., Clark, P. U., and Mix, A. C.: A reconstruction of regional and global temperature for the past 11,300 years, Science, 339, 1198–1201, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1228026, 2013.
McManus, J. F., Francois, R., Gherardi, J.-M., Keigwin, L. D., and Brown-Leger, S.: Collapse and rapid resumption of Atlantic meridional circulation linked to deglacial climate changes, Nature, 428, 834–837, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02494, 2004.
Moreno-Chamarro, E., Zanchettin, D., Lohmann, K., and Jungclaus, J. H.: An abrupt weakening of the subpolar gyre as trigger of Little Ice Age-type episodes, Clim. Dynam., 48, 727–744, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-016-3106-7, 2017.
Ottera, O. H., Bentsen, M., Drange, H., and Suo, L.: External forcing as a metronome for Atlantic multidecadal variability, Nat. Geosci., 3, 688–694, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo955, 2010.
Otto-Bliesner, B. L., Brady, E. C., Clauzet, G., Tomas, R., Levis, S., and Kothavala, Z.: Last Glacial Maximum and Holocene climate in CCSM3, J. Climate, 19, 2526–2544, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3748.1, 2006.
Peltier, W. R.: Global glacial isostasy and the surface of the ice-age Earth-The ICE-5G (VM2) model and GRACE, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sc., 32, 111–149, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.earth.32.082503.144359, 2004.
Porter, S. C.: Onset of neoglaciation in the Southern Hemisphere, J. Quaternary Sci., 15, 395–408, https://doi.org/10.1002/1099-1417(200005)15:4<395::AID-JQS535>3.0.CO;2-H, 2000.
Solomina, O. N., Bradley, R. S., Hodgson, D. A., Ivy-Ochs, S., Jomelli, V., Mackintosh, A. N., Nesje, A., Owen, L. A., Wanner, H., Wiles, G. C., and Young, N. E.: Holocene glacier fluctuations, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 111, 9–34, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.11.018, 2015.
Staubwasser, M. and Weiss, H.: Holocene climate and cultural evolution in late prehistoric-early historic West Asia, Quaternary Res., 66, 372–387, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yqres.2006.09.001, 2006.
Tan, L., Cai, Y., Cheng, H., Edwards, L. R., Gao, Y., Xu, H., Zhang, H., and An, Z.: Centennial- to decadal- scale monsoon precipitation variations in the upper Hanjiang River region, China over the past 6650 years, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 482, 580–590, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2017.11.044, 2018a.
Tan, L., Cai, Y., Cheng, H., Edwards, L. R., Lan, J, Zhang, H., Li, D, Ma, L. Zhao, P., and Gao, Y.: High resolution monsoon precipitation changes on southeastern Tibetan Plateau over the past 2300 years, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 195, 122–132, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2018.07.021, 2018b.
Walker, M. J., Berkelhammer, M., Björck, S., Cwynar, L. C., Fisher, D. A., Long, A. J., Lowe, J. J., Newnham, R. M., Rasmussen, S. O., and Weiss, H.: Formal subdivision of the Holocene Series/Epoch: a Discussion Paper by a Working Group of INTIMATE (Integration of ice-core, marine and terrestrial records) and the Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy (International Commission on Stratigraphy), J. Quaternary Sci., 27, 649–659, https://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.2565, 2012.
Walker, M. J., Berkelhammer, M., Björck, S., Cwynar, L. C., Fisher, D. A., Long, A. J., Lowe, J. J., Newnham, R. M., Rasmussen, S. O., and Weiss, H.: Formal ratification of the subdivision of the Holocene Series/Epoch (Quaternary System/Period): two new Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) and three new stages/subseries, Episodes, 41, p. 213, 2018.
Wang, S.: Holocene climate, Advances in Climate Change Research, 5, 247–248, 2009a (in Chinese with English abstract).
Wang, S.: Holocene cold events in the north Atlantic chronology and climatic impact, Quaternary Sci., 29, 1146–1153, 2009b (in Chinese with English abstract).
Wang, Y., Cheng, H., Edwards, L. R., He, Y., Kong, X., An, Z., Wu, J., Kelly, M. J., Dykoski, C. A., and Li, X.: The Holocene Asian monsoon: links to solar changes and north Atlantic climate, Science, 308, 854–857, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1106296, 2005.
Wanner, H., Solomina, O., Grosjean, M., Ritz, S. P., and Jetel, M.: Structure and origin of Holocene cold events, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 30, 3109–3123, 2011.
Weiss, H.: Megadrought, collapse, and resilience in late 3rd millennium BC Mesopotamia, in: 2200 BC – A climatic breakdown as a cause for collapse of the Old World?, edited by: Meller, H., Arz, H. W., Jung, R., and Risch, R., Halle: Landesmuseum fur Vorgeschichte, 35–52, 2015.
Weiss, H.: Global megadrought, societal collapse and resilience at 4.2–3.9 ka BP across the Mediterranean and west Asia, PAGES Magazine, 24, 62–63, 2016.
Weiss, H.: 4.2 ka BP megadrought and the Akkadian collapse, in: Megadrought and Collapse, edited by: Weiss, H., Oxford University Press, 93–159, https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780199329199.003.0004, 2017.
Wen, X., Liu, Z., Wang, S., Cheng, J., and Zhu, J.: Correlation and anti-correlation of the East Asian summer and winter monsoons during the last 21,000 years, Nat. Commun., 7, 11999, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms11999, 2016.
Yan, M., Liu, J., and Ning, L.: Physical processes of cooling and megadrought in 4.2 ka BP event: results from TraCE-21ka simulations, Clim. Past Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-2018-131, in review, 2018.