Articles | Volume 13, issue 12
Research article
 | Highlight paper
29 Nov 2017
Research article | Highlight paper |  | 29 Nov 2017

Simulation of climate, ice sheets and CO2 evolution during the last four glacial cycles with an Earth system model of intermediate complexity

Andrey Ganopolski and Victor Brovkin

Related authors

The Earth system model CLIMBER-X v1.0 – Part 2: The global carbon cycle
Matteo Willeit, Tatiana Ilyina, Bo Liu, Christoph Heinze, Mahé Perrette, Malte Heinemann, Daniela Dalmonech, Victor Brovkin, Guy Munhoven, Janine Börker, Jens Hartmann, Gibran Romero-Mujalli, and Andrey Ganopolski
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,,, 2023
Preprint under review for GMD
Short summary
The Earth system model CLIMBER-X v1.0 – Part 1: Climate model description and validation​​​​​​​​​​​​​​
Matteo Willeit, Andrey Ganopolski, Alexander Robinson, and Neil R. Edwards
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5905–5948,,, 2022
Short summary
Reduced-complexity model for the impact of anthropogenic CO2 emissions on future glacial cycles
Stefanie Talento and Andrey Ganopolski
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 1275–1293,,, 2021
Short summary
Modeling the response of Greenland outlet glaciers to global warming using a coupled flow line–plume model
Johanna Beckmann, Mahé Perrette, Sebastian Beyer, Reinhard Calov, Matteo Willeit, and Andrey Ganopolski
The Cryosphere, 13, 2281–2301,,, 2019
Short summary
Simulation of the future sea level contribution of Greenland with a new glacial system model
Reinhard Calov, Sebastian Beyer, Ralf Greve, Johanna Beckmann, Matteo Willeit, Thomas Kleiner, Martin Rückamp, Angelika Humbert, and Andrey Ganopolski
The Cryosphere, 12, 3097–3121,,, 2018
Short summary

Related subject area

Subject: Carbon Cycle | Archive: Modelling only | Timescale: Milankovitch
Modeling the evolution of pulse-like perturbations in atmospheric carbon and carbon isotopes: the role of weathering–sedimentation imbalances
Aurich Jeltsch-Thömmes and Fortunat Joos
Clim. Past, 16, 423–451,,, 2020
Short summary
Low terrestrial carbon storage at the Last Glacial Maximum: constraints from multi-proxy data
Aurich Jeltsch-Thömmes, Gianna Battaglia, Olivier Cartapanis, Samuel L. Jaccard, and Fortunat Joos
Clim. Past, 15, 849–879,,, 2019
Short summary
Response of the carbon cycle in an intermediate complexity model to the different climate configurations of the last nine interglacials
Nathaelle Bouttes, Didier Swingedouw, Didier M. Roche, Maria F. Sanchez-Goni, and Xavier Crosta
Clim. Past, 14, 239–253,,, 2018
Short summary
The Plio-Pleistocene climatic evolution as a consequence of orbital forcing on the carbon cycle
Didier Paillard
Clim. Past, 13, 1259–1267,,, 2017
Short summary
Effects of eustatic sea-level change, ocean dynamics, and nutrient utilization on atmospheric pCO2 and seawater composition over the last 130 000 years: a model study
K. Wallmann, B. Schneider, and M. Sarnthein
Clim. Past, 12, 339–375,,, 2016
Short summary

Cited articles

Abe-Ouchi, A., Saito, F., Kawamura, K., Raymo, M. E., Okuno, J., Takahashi, K., and Blatter, H.: Insolation-driven 100,000-year glacial cycles and hysteresis of ice-sheet volume, Nature, 500, 190–194,, 2013.
Adkins, J. F., McIntyre, K., and Schrag, D. P.: The salinity, temperature, and δ18O of the glacial deep ocean, Science, 298, 1769–1773,, 2002.
Archer, D.: A data-driven model of the global calcite lysocline, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 10, 511–526,, 1996.
Archer, D., Winguth, A., Lea, D., and Mahowald, N.: What caused the glacial/interglacial atmospheric pCO2 cycles?, Rev. Geophys., 38, 159–189,, 2000.
Arz, H. W., Lamy, F., Ganopolski, A., Nowaczyk, N., and Patzold, J.: Dominant Northern Hemisphere climate control over millennial-scale glacial sea-level variability, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 26, 312–321,, 2007.
Short summary
Ice cores reveal that atmospheric CO2 concentration varied synchronously with the global ice volume. Explaining the mechanism of glacial–interglacial variations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations and the link between CO2 and ice sheets evolution still remains a challenge. Here using the Earth system model of intermediate complexity we performed for the first time simulations of co-evolution of climate, ice sheets and carbon cycle using the astronomical forcing as the only external forcing.