Articles | Volume 12, issue 12
22 Dec 2016
Research article | 22 Dec 2016
The simulated climate of the Last Glacial Maximum and insights into the global marine carbon cycle
Pearse J. Buchanan et al.
Pearse J. Buchanan, Richard J. Matear, Zanna Chase, Steven J. Phipps, and Nathan L. Bindoff
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1491–1523,Short summary
Oceanic sediment cores are commonly used to understand past climates. The composition of the sediments changes with the ocean above it. An understanding of oceanographic conditions that existed many thousands of years ago, in some cases many millions of years ago, can therefore be extracted from sediment cores. We simulate two chemical signatures (13C and 15N) of sediment cores in a model. This study assesses the model before it is applied to reinterpret the sedimentary record.
Lea Pesjak, Andrew McMinn, Zanna Chase, and Helen Bostock
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Climate of the Past (CP).Short summary
This study uses diatom assemblages, biogenic silica and Si/Al data over the last 140 k yrs from core TAN1302-44 (64°54 S, 144°32 E), East Antarctica, to define glacial to interglacial paleoenvironments with respect to sea ice and ocean circulation. It found sea ice increased gradually during late glacial and retreated rapidly at the end of the last glacial. Minor influence of increased Circumpolar Deep Water influx occurred during last glaciation and last two deglacials.
Christo Buizert, Sarah Shackleton, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, William H. G. Roberts, Alan Seltzer, Bernhard Bereiter, Kenji Kawamura, Daniel Baggenstos, Anaïs J. Orsi, Ikumi Oyabu, Benjamin Birner, Jacob D. Morgan, Edward J. Brook, David M. Etheridge, David Thornton, Nancy Bertler, Rebecca L. Pyne, Robert Mulvaney, Ellen Mosley-Thompson, Peter D. Neff, and Vasilii V. Petrenko
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Preprint under review for CPShort summary
It is unclear how different components of the global atmospheric circulation, such as the El Niño effect, respond to large-scale climate change. We present a new ice core gas proxy, called Krypton-86 excess, that reflects past storminess in Antarctica. We present data from 11 ice cores that suggest the new proxy works. We present a reconstruction of changes in West Antarctic storminess over the last 24,000 years, and suggest these are caused by north-south movement of the tropical rain belt.
Nicky M. Wright, Claire E. Krause, Steven J. Phipps, Ghyslaine Boschat, and Nerilie J. Abram
Clim. Past, 18, 1509–1528,Short summary
The Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is a major mode of climate variability. Proxy-based SAM reconstructions show changes that last millennium climate simulations do not reproduce. We test the SAM's sensitivity to solar forcing using simulations with a range of solar values and transient last millennium simulations with large-amplitude solar variations. We find that solar forcing can alter the SAM and that strong solar forcing transient simulations better match proxy-based reconstructions.
Jacob Jones, Karen E. Kohfeld, Helen Bostock, Xavier Crosta, Melanie Liston, Gavin Dunbar, Zanna Chase, Amy Leventer, Harris Anderson, and Geraldine Jacobsen
Clim. Past, 18, 465–483,Short summary
We provide new winter sea ice and summer sea surface temperature estimates for marine core TAN1302-96 (59° S, 157° E) in the Southern Ocean. We find that sea ice was not consolidated over the core site until ~65 ka and therefore believe that sea ice may not have been a major contributor to early glacial CO2 drawdown. Sea ice does appear to have coincided with Antarctic Intermediate Water production and subduction, suggesting it may have influenced intermediate ocean circulation changes.
Aaron Ferderer, Zanna Chase, Fraser Kennedy, Kai G. Schulz, and Lennart Thomas Bach
Revised manuscript under review for BGShort summary
Ocean alkalinity enhancement has the capacity to remove vast quantities of carbon from the atmosphere but its effect on marine ecosystems is largely unknown. We assessed the effect of increased alkalinity on a coastal phytoplankton community when seawater was 1) equilibrated and not equilibrated with atmospheric CO2. We found that the phytoplankton community was moderately affected by increased alkalinity and equilibration with atmospheric CO2 had little influence on this effect.
Hakase Hayashida, Meibing Jin, Nadja S. Steiner, Neil C. Swart, Eiji Watanabe, Russell Fiedler, Andrew McC. Hogg, Andrew E. Kiss, Richard J. Matear, and Peter G. Strutton
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6847–6861,Short summary
Ice algae are tiny plants like phytoplankton but they grow within sea ice. In polar regions, both phytoplankton and ice algae are the foundation of marine ecosystems and play an important role in taking up carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. However, state-of-the-art climate models typically do not include ice algae, and therefore their role in the climate system remains unclear. This project aims to address this knowledge gap by coordinating a set of experiments using sea-ice–ocean models.
Yaowen Zheng, Lenneke M. Jong, Steven J. Phipps, Jason L. Roberts, Andrew D. Moy, Mark A. J. Curran, and Tas D. van Ommen
Clim. Past, 17, 1973–1987,Short summary
South West Western Australia has experienced a prolonged drought in recent decades. The causes of this drought are unclear. We use an ice core from East Antarctica to reconstruct changes in rainfall over the past 2000 years. We find that the current drought is unusual, with only two other droughts of similar severity having occurred during this period. Climate modelling shows that greenhouse gas emissions during the industrial era are likely to have contributed to the recent drying trend.
Steven J. Phipps, Jason L. Roberts, and Matt A. King
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5107–5124,Short summary
Simplified schemes, known as parameterisations, are sometimes used to describe physical processes within numerical models. However, the values of the parameters are uncertain. This introduces uncertainty into the model outputs. We develop a simple approach to identify plausible ranges for model parameters. Using a model of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, we find that the value of one parameter can depend on the values of others. We conclude that a single optimal set of parameter values does not exist.
Ashok K. Luhar, David M. Etheridge, Zoë M. Loh, Julie Noonan, Darren Spencer, Lisa Smith, and Cindy Ong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15487–15511,Short summary
With the sharp rise in coal seam gas (CSG) production in Queensland’s Surat Basin, there is much interest in quantifying methane emissions from this area and from unconventional gas production in general. We develop and apply a regional Bayesian inverse model that uses hourly methane concentration data from two sites and modelled backward dispersion to quantify emissions. The model requires a narrow prior and suggests that the emissions from the CSG areas are 33% larger than bottom-up estimates.
Pierre Friedlingstein, Michael O'Sullivan, Matthew W. Jones, Robbie M. Andrew, Judith Hauck, Are Olsen, Glen P. Peters, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Stephen Sitch, Corinne Le Quéré, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Robert B. Jackson, Simone Alin, Luiz E. O. C. Aragão, Almut Arneth, Vivek Arora, Nicholas R. Bates, Meike Becker, Alice Benoit-Cattin, Henry C. Bittig, Laurent Bopp, Selma Bultan, Naveen Chandra, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Wiley Evans, Liesbeth Florentie, Piers M. Forster, Thomas Gasser, Marion Gehlen, Dennis Gilfillan, Thanos Gkritzalis, Luke Gregor, Nicolas Gruber, Ian Harris, Kerstin Hartung, Vanessa Haverd, Richard A. Houghton, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Emilie Joetzjer, Koji Kadono, Etsushi Kato, Vassilis Kitidis, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Zhu Liu, Danica Lombardozzi, Gregg Marland, Nicolas Metzl, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Yosuke Niwa, Kevin O'Brien, Tsuneo Ono, Paul I. Palmer, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Christian Rödenbeck, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Adam J. P. Smith, Adrienne J. Sutton, Toste Tanhua, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Guido van der Werf, Nicolas Vuichard, Anthony P. Walker, Rik Wanninkhof, Andrew J. Watson, David Willis, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Wenping Yuan, Xu Yue, and Sönke Zaehle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3269–3340,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2020 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Vivek K. Arora, Anna Katavouta, Richard G. Williams, Chris D. Jones, Victor Brovkin, Pierre Friedlingstein, Jörg Schwinger, Laurent Bopp, Olivier Boucher, Patricia Cadule, Matthew A. Chamberlain, James R. Christian, Christine Delire, Rosie A. Fisher, Tomohiro Hajima, Tatiana Ilyina, Emilie Joetzjer, Michio Kawamiya, Charles D. Koven, John P. Krasting, Rachel M. Law, David M. Lawrence, Andrew Lenton, Keith Lindsay, Julia Pongratz, Thomas Raddatz, Roland Séférian, Kaoru Tachiiri, Jerry F. Tjiputra, Andy Wiltshire, Tongwen Wu, and Tilo Ziehn
Biogeosciences, 17, 4173–4222,Short summary
Since the preindustrial period, land and ocean have taken up about half of the carbon emitted into the atmosphere by humans. Comparison of different earth system models with the carbon cycle allows us to assess how carbon uptake by land and ocean differs among models. This yields an estimate of uncertainty in our understanding of how land and ocean respond to increasing atmospheric CO2. This paper summarizes results from two such model intercomparison projects that use an idealized scenario.
Lester Kwiatkowski, Olivier Torres, Laurent Bopp, Olivier Aumont, Matthew Chamberlain, James R. Christian, John P. Dunne, Marion Gehlen, Tatiana Ilyina, Jasmin G. John, Andrew Lenton, Hongmei Li, Nicole S. Lovenduski, James C. Orr, Julien Palmieri, Yeray Santana-Falcón, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Charles A. Stock, Alessandro Tagliabue, Yohei Takano, Jerry Tjiputra, Katsuya Toyama, Hiroyuki Tsujino, Michio Watanabe, Akitomo Yamamoto, Andrew Yool, and Tilo Ziehn
Biogeosciences, 17, 3439–3470,Short summary
We assess 21st century projections of marine biogeochemistry in the CMIP6 Earth system models. These models represent the most up-to-date understanding of climate change. The models generally project greater surface ocean warming, acidification, subsurface deoxygenation, and euphotic nitrate reductions but lesser primary production declines than the previous generation of models. This has major implications for the impact of anthropogenic climate change on marine ecosystems.
Kévin Fourteau, Laurent Arnaud, Xavier Faïn, Patricia Martinerie, David M. Etheridge, Vladimir Lipenkov, and Jean-Marc Barnola
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1171–1177,Short summary
Measurements of the porosity of three polar firns were conducted in the 1990s by Jean-Marc Barnola using the method of gas pycnometry. From these data, a parametrization of firn pore closure was produced and used in different published articles. However, the data have not been published in their own right yet. We have made the data publicly accessible on the PANGAEA database and here propose describing how they were obtained and used to produce the pore closure parametrization.
Pierre Friedlingstein, Matthew W. Jones, Michael O'Sullivan, Robbie M. Andrew, Judith Hauck, Glen P. Peters, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Stephen Sitch, Corinne Le Quéré, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Robert B. Jackson, Peter Anthoni, Leticia Barbero, Ana Bastos, Vladislav Bastrikov, Meike Becker, Laurent Bopp, Erik Buitenhuis, Naveen Chandra, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Kim I. Currie, Richard A. Feely, Marion Gehlen, Dennis Gilfillan, Thanos Gkritzalis, Daniel S. Goll, Nicolas Gruber, Sören Gutekunst, Ian Harris, Vanessa Haverd, Richard A. Houghton, George Hurtt, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Emilie Joetzjer, Jed O. Kaplan, Etsushi Kato, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Peter Landschützer, Siv K. Lauvset, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Danica Lombardozzi, Gregg Marland, Patrick C. McGuire, Joe R. Melton, Nicolas Metzl, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Craig Neill, Abdirahman M. Omar, Tsuneo Ono, Anna Peregon, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Gregor Rehder, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Christian Rödenbeck, Roland Séférian, Jörg Schwinger, Naomi Smith, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Francesco N. Tubiello, Guido R. van der Werf, Andrew J. Wiltshire, and Sönke Zaehle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1783–1838,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2019 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Jens Mühle, Cathy M. Trudinger, Luke M. Western, Matthew Rigby, Martin K. Vollmer, Sunyoung Park, Alistair J. Manning, Daniel Say, Anita Ganesan, L. Paul Steele, Diane J. Ivy, Tim Arnold, Shanlan Li, Andreas Stohl, Christina M. Harth, Peter K. Salameh, Archie McCulloch, Simon O'Doherty, Mi-Kyung Park, Chun Ok Jo, Dickon Young, Kieran M. Stanley, Paul B. Krummel, Blagoj Mitrevski, Ove Hermansen, Chris Lunder, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Bo Yao, Jooil Kim, Benjamin Hmiel, Christo Buizert, Vasilii V. Petrenko, Jgor Arduini, Michela Maione, David M. Etheridge, Eleni Michalopoulou, Mike Czerniak, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, Stefan Reimann, Peter G. Simmonds, Paul J. Fraser, Ronald G. Prinn, and Ray F. Weiss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10335–10359,Short summary
We discuss atmospheric concentrations and emissions of the strong greenhouse gas perfluorocyclobutane. A large fraction of recent emissions stem from China, India, and Russia, probably as a by-product from the production of fluoropolymers and fluorochemicals. Most historic emissions likely stem from developed countries. Total emissions are higher than what is being reported. Clearly, more measurements and better reporting are needed to understand emissions of this and other greenhouse gases.
Pearse J. Buchanan, Richard J. Matear, Zanna Chase, Steven J. Phipps, and Nathan L. Bindoff
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1491–1523,Short summary
Oceanic sediment cores are commonly used to understand past climates. The composition of the sediments changes with the ocean above it. An understanding of oceanographic conditions that existed many thousands of years ago, in some cases many millions of years ago, can therefore be extracted from sediment cores. We simulate two chemical signatures (13C and 15N) of sediment cores in a model. This study assesses the model before it is applied to reinterpret the sedimentary record.
Mauro Rubino, David M. Etheridge, David P. Thornton, Russell Howden, Colin E. Allison, Roger J. Francey, Ray L. Langenfelds, L. Paul Steele, Cathy M. Trudinger, Darren A. Spencer, Mark A. J. Curran, Tas D. van Ommen, and Andrew M. Smith
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 473–492,Short summary
The scientific community uses numerical models to predict future atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases causing global warming. This study presents the history of atmospheric concentration of the major greenhouse gases over the last 2000 years measured in ice core bubbles from the site of Law Dome (East Antarctica). The associated dataset is useful to test climate models and help provide accurate predictions of future climate change.
Martin K. Vollmer, François Bernard, Blagoj Mitrevski, L. Paul Steele, Cathy M. Trudinger, Stefan Reimann, Ray L. Langenfelds, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, David M. Etheridge, Mark A. J. Curran, and James B. Burkholder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3481–3492,Short summary
We have discovered a new compound in the atmosphere, octafluorooxolane (c-C4F8O), from measurements in archived air samples. From our laboratory studies, we find that c-C4F8O is a very powerful greenhouse gas thereby contributing to global warming, and that it has a very long atmospheric lifetime of more than 3500 years. Based on our measurements we could reconstruct its atmospheric evolution over more than 4 decades. Based on this, we could estimate the global emissions of c-C4F8O.
Ben Kravitz, Philip J. Rasch, Hailong Wang, Alan Robock, Corey Gabriel, Olivier Boucher, Jason N. S. Cole, Jim Haywood, Duoying Ji, Andy Jones, Andrew Lenton, John C. Moore, Helene Muri, Ulrike Niemeier, Steven Phipps, Hauke Schmidt, Shingo Watanabe, Shuting Yang, and Jin-Ho Yoon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13097–13113,Short summary
Marine cloud brightening has been proposed as a means of geoengineering/climate intervention, or deliberately altering the climate system to offset anthropogenic climate change. In idealized simulations that highlight contrasts between land and ocean, we find that the globe warms, including the ocean due to transport of heat from land. This study reinforces that no net energy input into the Earth system does not mean that temperature will necessarily remain unchanged.
Duoying Ji, Songsong Fang, Charles L. Curry, Hiroki Kashimura, Shingo Watanabe, Jason N. S. Cole, Andrew Lenton, Helene Muri, Ben Kravitz, and John C. Moore
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10133–10156,Short summary
We examine extreme temperature and precipitation under climate-model-simulated solar dimming and stratospheric aerosol injection geoengineering schemes. Both types of geoengineering lead to lower minimum temperatures at higher latitudes and greater cooling of minimum temperatures and maximum temperatures over land compared with oceans. Stratospheric aerosol injection is more effective in reducing tropical extreme precipitation, while solar dimming is more effective over extra-tropical regions.
Andrew Lenton, Richard J. Matear, David P. Keller, Vivian Scott, and Naomi E. Vaughan
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 339–357,Short summary
Artificial ocean alkalinization (AOA) is capable of reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and surface warming while also addressing ocean acidification. We simulate the Earth system response to a fixed addition of AOA under low and high emissions. We explore the regional and global response to AOA. A key finding is that AOA is much more effective at reducing warming and ocean acidification under low emissions, despite lower carbon uptake.
David P. Keller, Andrew Lenton, Vivian Scott, Naomi E. Vaughan, Nico Bauer, Duoying Ji, Chris D. Jones, Ben Kravitz, Helene Muri, and Kirsten Zickfeld
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1133–1160,Short summary
There is little consensus on the impacts and efficacy of proposed carbon dioxide removal (CDR) methods as a potential means of mitigating climate change. To address this need, the Carbon Dioxide Removal Model Intercomparison Project (or CDR-MIP) has been initiated. This project brings together models of the Earth system in a common framework to explore the potential, impacts, and challenges of CDR. Here, we describe the first set of CDR-MIP experiments.
Peter G. Simmonds, Matthew Rigby, Archie McCulloch, Martin K. Vollmer, Stephan Henne, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Alistair J. Manning, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, Dickon Young, Ray F. Weiss, Peter K. Salameh, Christina M. Harth, Stefan Reimann, Cathy M. Trudinger, L. Paul Steele, Ray H. J. Wang, Diane J. Ivy, Ronald G. Prinn, Blagoj Mitrevski, and David M. Etheridge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4153–4169,Short summary
Recent measurements of the potent greenhouse gas HFC-23, a by-product of HCFC-22 production, show a 28 % increase in the atmospheric mole fraction from 2009 to 2016. A minimum in the atmospheric abundance of HFC-23 in 2009 was attributed to abatement of HFC-23 emissions by incineration under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Our results indicate that the recent increase in HFC-23 emissions is driven by failure of mitigation under the CDM to keep pace with increased HCFC-22 production.
Richard J. Matear and Andrew Lenton
Biogeosciences, 15, 1721–1732,Short summary
We show climate–carbon feedbacks accelerate and enhance ocean acidification. Such an acceleration of ocean acidification may further undermine the ability of marine biota to adapt to the changing environment. Our study also identifies the need to use Earth system models to make future ocean acidification projections (relevance to AR6) and the need to reduce the uncertainty in the climate–carbon feedbacks.
Masa Kageyama, Pascale Braconnot, Sandy P. Harrison, Alan M. Haywood, Johann H. Jungclaus, Bette L. Otto-Bliesner, Jean-Yves Peterschmitt, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, Samuel Albani, Patrick J. Bartlein, Chris Brierley, Michel Crucifix, Aisling Dolan, Laura Fernandez-Donado, Hubertus Fischer, Peter O. Hopcroft, Ruza F. Ivanovic, Fabrice Lambert, Daniel J. Lunt, Natalie M. Mahowald, W. Richard Peltier, Steven J. Phipps, Didier M. Roche, Gavin A. Schmidt, Lev Tarasov, Paul J. Valdes, Qiong Zhang, and Tianjun Zhou
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1033–1057,Short summary
The Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) takes advantage of the existence of past climate states radically different from the recent past to test climate models used for climate projections and to better understand these climates. This paper describes the PMIP contribution to CMIP6 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, 6th phase) and possible analyses based on PMIP results, as well as on other CMIP6 projects.
Corinne Le Quéré, Robbie M. Andrew, Pierre Friedlingstein, Stephen Sitch, Julia Pongratz, Andrew C. Manning, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Glen P. Peters, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Thomas A. Boden, Pieter P. Tans, Oliver D. Andrews, Vivek K. Arora, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Leticia Barbero, Meike Becker, Richard A. Betts, Laurent Bopp, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Philippe Ciais, Catherine E. Cosca, Jessica Cross, Kim Currie, Thomas Gasser, Ian Harris, Judith Hauck, Vanessa Haverd, Richard A. Houghton, Christopher W. Hunt, George Hurtt, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Etsushi Kato, Markus Kautz, Ralph F. Keeling, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Arne Körtzinger, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Ivan Lima, Danica Lombardozzi, Nicolas Metzl, Frank Millero, Pedro M. S. Monteiro, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Yukihiro Nojiri, X. Antonio Padin, Anna Peregon, Benjamin Pfeil, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Gregor Rehder, Janet Reimer, Christian Rödenbeck, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Benjamin D. Stocker, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Francesco N. Tubiello, Ingrid T. van der Laan-Luijkx, Guido R. van der Werf, Steven van Heuven, Nicolas Viovy, Nicolas Vuichard, Anthony P. Walker, Andrew J. Watson, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Sönke Zaehle, and Dan Zhu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 405–448,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2017 describes data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. It is the 12th annual update and the 6th published in this journal.
Martin K. Vollmer, Dickon Young, Cathy M. Trudinger, Jens Mühle, Stephan Henne, Matthew Rigby, Sunyoung Park, Shanlan Li, Myriam Guillevic, Blagoj Mitrevski, Christina M. Harth, Benjamin R. Miller, Stefan Reimann, Bo Yao, L. Paul Steele, Simon A. Wyss, Chris R. Lunder, Jgor Arduini, Archie McCulloch, Songhao Wu, Tae Siek Rhee, Ray H. J. Wang, Peter K. Salameh, Ove Hermansen, Matthias Hill, Ray L. Langenfelds, Diane Ivy, Simon O'Doherty, Paul B. Krummel, Michela Maione, David M. Etheridge, Lingxi Zhou, Paul J. Fraser, Ronald G. Prinn, Ray F. Weiss, and Peter G. Simmonds
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 979–1002,Short summary
We measured the three chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) CFC-13, CFC-114, and CFC-115 in the atmosphere because they are important in stratospheric ozone depletion. These compounds should have decreased in the atmosphere because they are banned by the Montreal Protocol but we find the opposite. Emissions over the last decade have not declined on a global scale. We use inverse modeling and our observations to find that a large part of the emissions originate in the Asian region.
Camilla W. Stjern, Helene Muri, Lars Ahlm, Olivier Boucher, Jason N. S. Cole, Duoying Ji, Andy Jones, Jim Haywood, Ben Kravitz, Andrew Lenton, John C. Moore, Ulrike Niemeier, Steven J. Phipps, Hauke Schmidt, Shingo Watanabe, and Jón Egill Kristjánsson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 621–634,Short summary
Marine cloud brightening (MCB) has been proposed to help limit global warming. We present here the first multi-model assessment of idealized MCB simulations from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project. While all models predict a global cooling as intended, there is considerable spread between the models both in terms of radiative forcing and the climate response, largely linked to the substantial differences in the models' representation of clouds.
PAGES Hydro2k Consortium
Clim. Past, 13, 1851–1900,Short summary
Water availability is fundamental to societies and ecosystems, but our understanding of variations in hydroclimate (including extreme events, flooding, and decadal periods of drought) is limited due to a paucity of modern instrumental observations. We review how proxy records of past climate and climate model simulations can be used in tandem to understand hydroclimate variability over the last 2000 years and how these tools can also inform risk assessments of future hydroclimatic extremes.
Heather Graven, Colin E. Allison, David M. Etheridge, Samuel Hammer, Ralph F. Keeling, Ingeborg Levin, Harro A. J. Meijer, Mauro Rubino, Pieter P. Tans, Cathy M. Trudinger, Bruce H. Vaughn, and James W. C. White
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4405–4417,Short summary
Modelling of carbon isotopes 13C and 14C in land and ocean components of Earth system models provides opportunities for new insights and improved understanding of global carbon cycling, and for model evaluation. We compiled existing historical datasets to define the annual mean carbon isotopic composition of atmospheric CO2 for 1850–2015 that can be used in CMIP6 and other modelling activities.
Duncan Ackerley, Jessica Reeves, Cameron Barr, Helen Bostock, Kathryn Fitzsimmons, Michael-Shawn Fletcher, Chris Gouramanis, Helen McGregor, Scott Mooney, Steven J. Phipps, John Tibby, and Jonathan Tyler
Clim. Past, 13, 1661–1684,Short summary
A selection of climate models have been used to simulate both pre-industrial (1750 CE) and mid-Holocene (6000 years ago) conditions. This study presents an assessment of the temperature, rainfall and flow over Australasia from those climate models. The model data are compared with available proxy data reconstructions (e.g. tree rings) for 6000 years ago to identify whether the models are reliable. Places where there is both agreement and conflict are highlighted and investigated further.
Johann H. Jungclaus, Edouard Bard, Mélanie Baroni, Pascale Braconnot, Jian Cao, Louise P. Chini, Tania Egorova, Michael Evans, J. Fidel González-Rouco, Hugues Goosse, George C. Hurtt, Fortunat Joos, Jed O. Kaplan, Myriam Khodri, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Natalie Krivova, Allegra N. LeGrande, Stephan J. Lorenz, Jürg Luterbacher, Wenmin Man, Amanda C. Maycock, Malte Meinshausen, Anders Moberg, Raimund Muscheler, Christoph Nehrbass-Ahles, Bette I. Otto-Bliesner, Steven J. Phipps, Julia Pongratz, Eugene Rozanov, Gavin A. Schmidt, Hauke Schmidt, Werner Schmutz, Andrew Schurer, Alexander I. Shapiro, Michael Sigl, Jason E. Smerdon, Sami K. Solanki, Claudia Timmreck, Matthew Toohey, Ilya G. Usoskin, Sebastian Wagner, Chi-Ju Wu, Kok Leng Yeo, Davide Zanchettin, Qiong Zhang, and Eduardo Zorita
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4005–4033,Short summary
Climate model simulations covering the last millennium provide context for the evolution of the modern climate and for the expected changes during the coming centuries. They can help identify plausible mechanisms underlying palaeoclimatic reconstructions. Here, we describe the forcing boundary conditions and the experimental protocol for simulations covering the pre-industrial millennium. We describe the PMIP4 past1000 simulations as contributions to CMIP6 and additional sensitivity experiments.
Bette L. Otto-Bliesner, Pascale Braconnot, Sandy P. Harrison, Daniel J. Lunt, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, Samuel Albani, Patrick J. Bartlein, Emilie Capron, Anders E. Carlson, Andrea Dutton, Hubertus Fischer, Heiko Goelzer, Aline Govin, Alan Haywood, Fortunat Joos, Allegra N. LeGrande, William H. Lipscomb, Gerrit Lohmann, Natalie Mahowald, Christoph Nehrbass-Ahles, Francesco S. R. Pausata, Jean-Yves Peterschmitt, Steven J. Phipps, Hans Renssen, and Qiong Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3979–4003,Short summary
The PMIP4 and CMIP6 mid-Holocene and Last Interglacial simulations provide an opportunity to examine the impact of two different changes in insolation forcing on climate at times when other forcings were relatively similar to present. This will allow exploration of the role of feedbacks relevant to future projections. Evaluating these simulations using paleoenvironmental data will provide direct out-of-sample tests of the reliability of state-of-the-art models to simulate climate changes.
Jason Roberts, Andrew Moy, Christopher Plummer, Tas van Ommen, Mark Curran, Tessa Vance, Samuel Poynter, Yaping Liu, Joel Pedro, Adam Treverrow, Carly Tozer, Lenneke Jong, Pippa Whitehouse, Laetitia Loulergue, Jerome Chappellaz, Vin Morgan, Renato Spahni, Adrian Schilt, Cecilia MacFarling Meure, David Etheridge, and Thomas Stocker
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Here we present a revised Law Dome, Dome Summit South (DSS) ice core age model (denoted LD2017) that significantly improves the chronology over the last 88 thousand years. An ensemble approach was used, allowing for the computation of both a median age and associated uncertainty as a function of depth. We use a non-linear interpolation between age ties and unlike previous studies, we made an independent estimate of the snow accumulation rate, where required, for the use of gas based age ties.
Rachel M. Law, Tilo Ziehn, Richard J. Matear, Andrew Lenton, Matthew A. Chamberlain, Lauren E. Stevens, Ying-Ping Wang, Jhan Srbinovsky, Daohua Bi, Hailin Yan, and Peter F. Vohralik
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2567–2590,Short summary
The paper describes a version of the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator that has been enabled to simulate the carbon cycle, which is designated ACCESS-ESM1. The model performance for pre-industrial conditions is assessed and land and ocean carbon fluxes are found to be simulated realistically.
Tilo Ziehn, Andrew Lenton, Rachel M. Law, Richard J. Matear, and Matthew A. Chamberlain
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2591–2614,Short summary
Our work presents the evaluation of the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS-ESM1) over the historical period (1850–2005). The main focus is on climate and carbon related variables. Globally integrated land–atmosphere and ocean–atmosphere fluxes and flux patterns are well reproduced and show good agreement with most recent observations. This makes ACCESS-ESM1 a useful tool to explore the change in land and oceanic carbon uptake in the future.
James C. Orr, Raymond G. Najjar, Olivier Aumont, Laurent Bopp, John L. Bullister, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Scott C. Doney, John P. Dunne, Jean-Claude Dutay, Heather Graven, Stephen M. Griffies, Jasmin G. John, Fortunat Joos, Ingeborg Levin, Keith Lindsay, Richard J. Matear, Galen A. McKinley, Anne Mouchet, Andreas Oschlies, Anastasia Romanou, Reiner Schlitzer, Alessandro Tagliabue, Toste Tanhua, and Andrew Yool
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2169–2199,Short summary
The Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP) is a model comparison effort under Phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). Its physical component is described elsewhere in this special issue. Here we describe its ocean biogeochemical component (OMIP-BGC), detailing simulation protocols and analysis diagnostics. Simulations focus on ocean carbon, other biogeochemical tracers, air-sea exchange of CO2 and related gases, and chemical tracers used to evaluate modeled circulation.
Malte Meinshausen, Elisabeth Vogel, Alexander Nauels, Katja Lorbacher, Nicolai Meinshausen, David M. Etheridge, Paul J. Fraser, Stephen A. Montzka, Peter J. Rayner, Cathy M. Trudinger, Paul B. Krummel, Urs Beyerle, Josep G. Canadell, John S. Daniel, Ian G. Enting, Rachel M. Law, Chris R. Lunder, Simon O'Doherty, Ron G. Prinn, Stefan Reimann, Mauro Rubino, Guus J. M. Velders, Martin K. Vollmer, Ray H. J. Wang, and Ray Weiss
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2057–2116,Short summary
Climate change is primarily driven by human-induced increases of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations. Based on ongoing community efforts (e.g. AGAGE and NOAA networks, ice cores), this study presents historical concentrations of CO2, CH4, N2O and 40 other GHGs from year 0 to year 2014. The data is recommended as input for climate models for pre-industrial, historical runs under CMIP6. Global means, but also latitudinal by monthly surface concentration fields are provided.
Markella Prokopiou, Patricia Martinerie, Célia J. Sapart, Emmanuel Witrant, Guillaume Monteil, Kentaro Ishijima, Sophie Bernard, Jan Kaiser, Ingeborg Levin, Thomas Blunier, David Etheridge, Ed Dlugokencky, Roderik S. W. van de Wal, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4539–4564,Short summary
Nitrous oxide is the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas with an increasing mole fraction. To understand its natural and anthropogenic sources we employ isotope measurements. Results show that while the N2O mole fraction increases, its heavy isotope content decreases. The isotopic changes observed underline the dominance of agricultural emissions especially at the early part of the record, whereas in the later decades the contribution from other anthropogenic sources increases.
Emlyn M. Jones, Mark E. Baird, Mathieu Mongin, John Parslow, Jenny Skerratt, Jenny Lovell, Nugzar Margvelashvili, Richard J. Matear, Karen Wild-Allen, Barbara Robson, Farhan Rizwi, Peter Oke, Edward King, Thomas Schroeder, Andy Steven, and John Taylor
Biogeosciences, 13, 6441–6469,Short summary
Marine biogeochemical models are often used to understand water quality, nutrient and blue-carbon dynamics at scales that range from estuaries and bays, through to the global ocean. We introduce a new methodology allowing for the assimilation of observed remote sensing reflectances, avoiding the need to use empirically derived chlorophyll-a concentrations. This method opens up the possibility to assimilate of reflectances from a variety of missions and potentially non-satellite platforms.
Corinne Le Quéré, Robbie M. Andrew, Josep G. Canadell, Stephen Sitch, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Glen P. Peters, Andrew C. Manning, Thomas A. Boden, Pieter P. Tans, Richard A. Houghton, Ralph F. Keeling, Simone Alin, Oliver D. Andrews, Peter Anthoni, Leticia Barbero, Laurent Bopp, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Philippe Ciais, Kim Currie, Christine Delire, Scott C. Doney, Pierre Friedlingstein, Thanos Gkritzalis, Ian Harris, Judith Hauck, Vanessa Haverd, Mario Hoppema, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Atul K. Jain, Etsushi Kato, Arne Körtzinger, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Danica Lombardozzi, Joe R. Melton, Nicolas Metzl, Frank Millero, Pedro M. S. Monteiro, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Kevin O'Brien, Are Olsen, Abdirahman M. Omar, Tsuneo Ono, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Christian Rödenbeck, Joe Salisbury, Ute Schuster, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Benjamin D. Stocker, Adrienne J. Sutton, Taro Takahashi, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Ingrid T. van der Laan-Luijkx, Guido R. van der Werf, Nicolas Viovy, Anthony P. Walker, Andrew J. Wiltshire, and Sönke Zaehle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 605–649,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2016 is the 11th annual update of emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. This data synthesis brings together measurements, statistical information, and analyses of model results in order to provide an assessment of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties for years 1959 to 2015, with a projection for year 2016.
Bette L. Otto-Bliesner, Pascale Braconnot, Sandy P. Harrison, Daniel J. Lunt, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, Samuel Albani, Patrick J. Bartlein, Emilie Capron, Anders E. Carlson, Andrea Dutton, Hubertus Fischer, Heiko Goelzer, Aline Govin, Alan Haywood, Fortunat Joos, Allegra N. Legrande, William H. Lipscomb, Gerrit Lohmann, Natalie Mahowald, Christoph Nehrbass-Ahles, Jean-Yves Peterschmidt, Francesco S.-R. Pausata, Steven Phipps, and Hans Renssen
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Steven J. Phipps, Christopher J. Fogwill, and Christian S. M. Turney
The Cryosphere, 10, 2317–2328,Short summary
We explore the effects of melting of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet on the Southern Ocean. Using a climate model, we find that melting changes the ocean circulation and causes warming of more than 1 °C at depth. We also discover the potential existence of a "domino effect", whereby the initial warming spreads westwards around the Antarctic continent. Melting of just one sector could therefore destabilise the wider Antarctic Ice Sheet, leading to substantial increases in global sea level.
Cathy M. Trudinger, Paul J. Fraser, David M. Etheridge, William T. Sturges, Martin K. Vollmer, Matt Rigby, Patricia Martinerie, Jens Mühle, David R. Worton, Paul B. Krummel, L. Paul Steele, Benjamin R. Miller, Johannes Laube, Francis S. Mani, Peter J. Rayner, Christina M. Harth, Emmanuel Witrant, Thomas Blunier, Jakob Schwander, Simon O'Doherty, and Mark Battle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11733–11754,Short summary
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are potent, long-lived and mostly man-made greenhouse gases released to the atmosphere mainly during aluminium production and semiconductor manufacture. Here we present the first continuous histories of three PFCs from 1800 to 2014, derived from measurements of these PFCs in the atmosphere and in air bubbles in polar ice. The records show how human actions have affected these important greenhouse gases over the past century.
Theo Manuel Jenk, Mauro Rubino, David Etheridge, Viorela Gabriela Ciobanu, and Thomas Blunier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3687–3706,Short summary
Atmospheric CO2 and δ13C-CO2 records from polar ice cores provide important constraints on the natural carbon cycle variability. Still, data exist only from a limited number of sampling sites and time periods due to demanding analytical challenges. Additional analytical state-of-the-art resources are desirable. This study describes such a new facility. Its analytical performance and new approaches for dealing with procedural blank contribution and analytical outliers are discussed in detail.
Andrew Lenton, Bronte Tilbrook, Richard J. Matear, Tristan P. Sasse, and Yukihiro Nojiri
Biogeosciences, 13, 1753–1765,Short summary
We reconstruct the observed variability and mean state in pH and aragonite saturation state around Australia at high spatial resolution and reconstruct the changes that have occurred in the Australian region over the last 140 years. We find that large changes in aragonite saturation state and pH have very different spatial patterns, which suggests that the biological responses to ocean acidification are likely to be non-uniform and dependent on the relative sensitivity of organisms to change.
Paulina Cetina-Heredia, Erik van Sebille, Richard Matear, and Moninya Roughan
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Characterizing phytoplankton growth influences fisheries and climate. We use a lagrangian approach to identify phytoplankton blooms in the Great Australian Bight (GAB), and associate them with nitrate sources. We find that 88 % of the nitrate utilized in blooms is originated between the GAB and the SubAntarctic Front. Large nitrate concentrations are supplied at depth but do not reach the euphotic zone often. As a result, 55 % of blooms utilize nitrate supplied in the top 100 m.
X. Zhang, P. R. Oke, M. Feng, M. A. Chamberlain, J. A. Church, D. Monselesan, C. Sun, R. J. Matear, A. Schiller, and R. Fiedler
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Eddy-resolving global ocean models are highly desired, but expensive to run, and also subject to many problems including drift. Here we modified a near-global eddy-resolving OGCM for climate studies with some novel strategies. We demonstrated that the historical experiment driven by Japanese atmospheric reanalysis product, didn't have significant drifts, and also provided an eddy-resolving simulation of the global ocean over 1979–2014. Our experiences can be helpful to other modelling groups.
C. Le Quéré, R. Moriarty, R. M. Andrew, J. G. Canadell, S. Sitch, J. I. Korsbakken, P. Friedlingstein, G. P. Peters, R. J. Andres, T. A. Boden, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, R. F. Keeling, P. Tans, A. Arneth, D. C. E. Bakker, L. Barbero, L. Bopp, J. Chang, F. Chevallier, L. P. Chini, P. Ciais, M. Fader, R. A. Feely, T. Gkritzalis, I. Harris, J. Hauck, T. Ilyina, A. K. Jain, E. Kato, V. Kitidis, K. Klein Goldewijk, C. Koven, P. Landschützer, S. K. Lauvset, N. Lefèvre, A. Lenton, I. D. Lima, N. Metzl, F. Millero, D. R. Munro, A. Murata, J. E. M. S. Nabel, S. Nakaoka, Y. Nojiri, K. O'Brien, A. Olsen, T. Ono, F. F. Pérez, B. Pfeil, D. Pierrot, B. Poulter, G. Rehder, C. Rödenbeck, S. Saito, U. Schuster, J. Schwinger, R. Séférian, T. Steinhoff, B. D. Stocker, A. J. Sutton, T. Takahashi, B. Tilbrook, I. T. van der Laan-Luijkx, G. R. van der Werf, S. van Heuven, D. Vandemark, N. Viovy, A. Wiltshire, S. Zaehle, and N. Zeng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 7, 349–396,Short summary
Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. We describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on a range of data and models and their interpretation by a broad scientific community.
B. Kravitz, A. Robock, S. Tilmes, O. Boucher, J. M. English, P. J. Irvine, A. Jones, M. G. Lawrence, M. MacCracken, H. Muri, J. C. Moore, U. Niemeier, S. J. Phipps, J. Sillmann, T. Storelvmo, H. Wang, and S. Watanabe
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3379–3392,
T. P. Sasse, B. I. McNeil, R. J. Matear, and A. Lenton
Biogeosciences, 12, 6017–6031,Short summary
Our results show that accounting for oceanic CO2 seasonality is crucial to projecting the future onset of critical ocean acidification levels (i.e. aragonite undersaturation). In particular, seasonality will bring forward the initial onset of month-long undersaturation by a global average of 17 years. Importantly, widespread undersaturation is projected to occur once atmospheric CO2 reaches 496ppm in the North Pacific and 511ppm in the Southern Ocean, independent of emissions scenario.
C. Le Quéré, R. Moriarty, R. M. Andrew, G. P. Peters, P. Ciais, P. Friedlingstein, S. D. Jones, S. Sitch, P. Tans, A. Arneth, T. A. Boden, L. Bopp, Y. Bozec, J. G. Canadell, L. P. Chini, F. Chevallier, C. E. Cosca, I. Harris, M. Hoppema, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, A. K. Jain, T. Johannessen, E. Kato, R. F. Keeling, V. Kitidis, K. Klein Goldewijk, C. Koven, C. S. Landa, P. Landschützer, A. Lenton, I. D. Lima, G. Marland, J. T. Mathis, N. Metzl, Y. Nojiri, A. Olsen, T. Ono, S. Peng, W. Peters, B. Pfeil, B. Poulter, M. R. Raupach, P. Regnier, C. Rödenbeck, S. Saito, J. E. Salisbury, U. Schuster, J. Schwinger, R. Séférian, J. Segschneider, T. Steinhoff, B. D. Stocker, A. J. Sutton, T. Takahashi, B. Tilbrook, G. R. van der Werf, N. Viovy, Y.-P. Wang, R. Wanninkhof, A. Wiltshire, and N. Zeng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 7, 47–85,Short summary
Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from human activities (burning fossil fuels and cement production, deforestation and other land-use change) are set to rise again in 2014. This study (updated yearly) makes an accurate assessment of anthropogenic CO2 emissions and their redistribution between the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere in order to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change.
C. Evenhuis, A. Lenton, N. E. Cantin, and J. M. Lough
Biogeosciences, 12, 2607–2630,Short summary
Coral reefs are diverse ecosystems threatened by rising CO2 levels through increases in sea surface temperature and ocean acidification. This study presents a new unified model, based on experimental and observational data, that links changes in temperature and carbonate chemistry to coral health. We show that, despite the implicit complexity of the coral reef environment, our simple model can give important insights into how corals respond to changes in temperature and ocean acidification.
P. G. Strutton, V. J. Coles, R. R. Hood, R. J. Matear, M. J. McPhaden, and H. E. Phillips
Biogeosciences, 12, 2367–2382,Short summary
In 2010, a first-of-its-kind deployment of biological sensors on a mooring in the central Indian Ocean revealed interesting variability in chlorophyll (a proxy for ocean productivity) at timescales of about 2 weeks. Using the mooring data with satellite observations and a biogeochemical model, it was determined that local wind mixing and entrainment, rather than mixed Rossby gravity waves, were likely responsible for much of the observed variability.
R. J. Matear, A. Lenton, D. Etheridge, and S. J. Phipps
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
Global climate models provide an important tool for simulating the earth's climate. Here we present a simulation of the climate of the Last Glacial Maximum, which was obtained by setting atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and the earth's orbital parameters to the 21 000 years before present values. We simulate an ocean behaviour that agrees with paleoclimate reconstructions supporting our ability to model the climate system and use the model to explore the impacts on the carbon cycle.
A. Ghosh, P. K. Patra, K. Ishijima, T. Umezawa, A. Ito, D. M. Etheridge, S. Sugawara, K. Kawamura, J. B. Miller, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. B. Krummel, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, R. L. Langenfelds, C. M. Trudinger, J. W. C. White, B. Vaughn, T. Saeki, S. Aoki, and T. Nakazawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2595–2612,Short summary
Atmospheric CH4 increased from 900ppb to 1800ppb during the period 1900–2010 at a rate unprecedented in any observational records. We use bottom-up emissions and a chemistry-transport model to simulate CH4. The optimized global total CH4 emission, estimated from the model–observation differences, increased at fastest rate during 1940–1990. Using δ13C of CH4 measurements we attribute this emission increase to biomass burning. Total CH4 lifetime is shortened by 4% over the simulation period.
R. J. Matear and A. Lenton
Biogeosciences, 11, 3965–3983,
U. Heikkilä, X. Shi, S. J. Phipps, and A. M. Smith
Clim. Past, 10, 687–696,
D. Helmig, V. Petrenko, P. Martinerie, E. Witrant, T. Röckmann, A. Zuiderweg, R. Holzinger, J. Hueber, C. Thompson, J. W. C. White, W. Sturges, A. Baker, T. Blunier, D. Etheridge, M. Rubino, and P. Tans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1463–1483,
M. Ishii, R. A. Feely, K. B. Rodgers, G.-H. Park, R. Wanninkhof, D. Sasano, H. Sugimoto, C. E. Cosca, S. Nakaoka, M. Telszewski, Y. Nojiri, S. E. Mikaloff Fletcher, Y. Niwa, P. K. Patra, V. Valsala, H. Nakano, I. Lima, S. C. Doney, E. T. Buitenhuis, O. Aumont, J. P. Dunne, A. Lenton, and T. Takahashi
Biogeosciences, 11, 709–734,
O. Duteil, W. Koeve, A. Oschlies, D. Bianchi, E. Galbraith, I. Kriest, and R. Matear
Biogeosciences, 10, 7723–7738,
U. Heikkilä, S. J. Phipps, and A. M. Smith
Clim. Past, 9, 2641–2649,
V. V. S. S. Sarma, A. Lenton, R. M. Law, N. Metzl, P. K. Patra, S. Doney, I. D. Lima, E. Dlugokencky, M. Ramonet, and V. Valsala
Biogeosciences, 10, 7035–7052,
V. V. Petrenko, P. Martinerie, P. Novelli, D. M. Etheridge, I. Levin, Z. Wang, T. Blunier, J. Chappellaz, J. Kaiser, P. Lang, L. P. Steele, S. Hammer, J. Mak, R. L. Langenfelds, J. Schwander, J. P. Severinghaus, E. Witrant, G. Petron, M. O. Battle, G. Forster, W. T. Sturges, J.-F. Lamarque, K. Steffen, and J. W. C. White
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7567–7585,
A. Lenton, B. Tilbrook, R. M. Law, D. Bakker, S. C. Doney, N. Gruber, M. Ishii, M. Hoppema, N. S. Lovenduski, R. J. Matear, B. I. McNeil, N. Metzl, S. E. Mikaloff Fletcher, P. M. S. Monteiro, C. Rödenbeck, C. Sweeney, and T. Takahashi
Biogeosciences, 10, 4037–4054,
P. R. Oke, D. A. Griffin, A. Schiller, R. J. Matear, R. Fiedler, J. Mansbridge, A. Lenton, M. Cahill, M. A. Chamberlain, and K. Ridgway
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 591–615,
B. I. McNeil and R. J. Matear
Biogeosciences, 10, 2219–2228,
R. Wanninkhof, G. -H. Park, T. Takahashi, C. Sweeney, R. Feely, Y. Nojiri, N. Gruber, S. C. Doney, G. A. McKinley, A. Lenton, C. Le Quéré, C. Heinze, J. Schwinger, H. Graven, and S. Khatiwala
Biogeosciences, 10, 1983–2000,
C. M. Trudinger, I. G. Enting, P. J. Rayner, D. M. Etheridge, C. Buizert, M. Rubino, P. B. Krummel, and T. Blunier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1485–1510,
Related subject area
Subject: Carbon Cycle | Archive: Modelling only | Timescale: PleistoceneMarine carbon cycle response to a warmer Southern Ocean: the case of the last interglacialLocal oceanic CO2 outgassing triggered by terrestrial carbon fluxes during deglacial floodingSequential changes in ocean circulation and biological export productivity during the last glacial–interglacial cycle: a model–data studyCoupled climate–carbon cycle simulation of the Last Glacial Maximum atmospheric CO2 decrease using a large ensemble of modern plausible parameter setsLong-term deglacial permafrost carbon dynamics in MPI-ESMQuantifying the ocean's role in glacial CO2 reductionsA multi-variable box model approach to the soft tissue carbon pump
Dipayan Choudhury, Laurie Menviel, Katrin J. Meissner, Nicholas K. H. Yeung, Matthew Chamberlain, and Tilo Ziehn
Clim. Past, 18, 507–523,Short summary
We investigate the effects of a warmer climate from the Earth's paleoclimate (last interglacial) on the marine carbon cycle of the Southern Ocean using a carbon-cycle-enabled state-of-the-art climate model. We find a 150 % increase in CO2 outgassing during this period, which results from competition between higher sea surface temperatures and weaker oceanic circulation. From this we unequivocally infer that the carbon uptake by the Southern Ocean will reduce under a future warming scenario.
Thomas Extier, Katharina D. Six, Bo Liu, Hanna Paulsen, and Tatiana Ilyina
Clim. Past, 18, 273–292,Short summary
The role of land–sea fluxes during deglacial flooding in ocean biogeochemistry and CO2 exchange remains poorly constrained due to the lack of climate models that consider such fluxes. We implement the terrestrial organic matter fluxes into the ocean at a transiently changing land–sea interface in MPI-ESM and investigate their effect during the last deglaciation. Most of the terrestrial carbon goes to the ocean during flooding events of Meltwater Pulse 1a, which leads to regional CO2 outgassing.
Cameron M. O'Neill, Andrew McC. Hogg, Michael J. Ellwood, Bradley N. Opdyke, and Stephen M. Eggins
Clim. Past, 17, 171–201,Short summary
We undertake a model–data study of the last glacial–interglacial cycle of atmospheric CO2, spanning 0–130 ka. We apply a carbon cycle box model, constrained with glacial–interglacial observations, and solve for optimal model parameter values against atmospheric and ocean proxy data. The results indicate that the last glacial drawdown in atmospheric CO2 was delivered mainly by slowing ocean circulation, lower sea surface temperatures and also increased Southern Ocean biological productivity.
Krista M. S. Kemppinen, Philip B. Holden, Neil R. Edwards, Andy Ridgwell, and Andrew D. Friend
Clim. Past, 15, 1039–1062,Short summary
We simulate the Last Glacial Maximum atmospheric CO2 decrease with a large ensemble of parameter sets to investigate the range of possible physical and biogeochemical Earth system changes accompanying the CO2 decrease. Amongst the dominant ensemble changes is an increase in terrestrial carbon, which we attribute to a slower soil respiration rate, and the preservation of carbon by the LGM ice sheets. Further investigation into the role of terrestrial carbon is warranted.
Thomas Schneider von Deimling, Thomas Kleinen, Gustaf Hugelius, Christian Knoblauch, Christian Beer, and Victor Brovkin
Clim. Past, 14, 2011–2036,Short summary
Past cold ice age temperatures and the subsequent warming towards the Holocene had large consequences for soil organic carbon (SOC) stored in perennially frozen grounds. Using an Earth system model we show how the spread in areas affected by permafrost have changed under deglacial warming, along with changes in SOC accumulation. Our model simulations suggest phases of circum-Arctic permafrost SOC gain and losses, with a net increase in SOC between the last glacial maximum and the pre-industrial.
M. O. Chikamoto, A. Abe-Ouchi, A. Oka, R. Ohgaito, and A. Timmermann
Clim. Past, 8, 545–563,
A. M. de Boer, A. J. Watson, N. R. Edwards, and K. I. C. Oliver
Clim. Past, 6, 827–841,
Abbey, E., Webster, J. M., and Beaman, R. J.: Geomorphology of submerged reefs on the shelf edge of the Great Barrier Reef: The influence of oscillating Pleistocene sea-levels, Mar. Geol., 288, 61–78, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2011.08.006, 2011.
Adkins, J. F.: The role of deep ocean circulation in setting glacial climates, Paleoceanography, 28, 539–561, https://doi.org/10.1002/palo.20046, 2013.
Alder, J. R. and Hostetler, S. W.: Global climate simulations at 3000-year intervals for the last 21 000 years with the GENMOM coupled atmosphere–ocean model, Clim. Past, 11, 449–471, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-11-449-2015, 2015.
Anderson, R. F., Chase, Z., Fleisher, M. Q., and Sachs, J.: The Southern Ocean's biological pump during the Last Glacial Maximum, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 49, 1909–1938, 2002.
Anderson, R. F., Barker, S., Fleisher, M., Gersonde, R., Goldstein, S. L., Kuhn, G., Mortyn, P. G., Pahnke, K., and Sachs, J. P.: Biological response to millennial variability of dust and nutrient supply in the Subantarctic South Atlantic Ocean, Philos. T. R. Soc. A, 372, 20130054, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2013.0054, 2014.
Annan, J. and Hargreaves, J.: A perspective on model-data surface temperature comparison at the Last Glacial Maximum, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 107, 1–10, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.09.019, 2015.
Annan, J. D. and Hargreaves, J. C.: A new global reconstruction of temperature changes at the Last Glacial Maximum, Clim. Past, 9, 367–376, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-9-367-2013, 2013.
Archer, D. and Maier-Reimer, E.: Effect of deep-sea sedimentary calcite preservation on atmospheric CO2 concentration, Nature, 367, 260–263, https://doi.org/10.1038/367260a0, 1994.
Archer, D., Winguth, A., Lea, D., and Mahowald, N.: What caused the glacial/interglacial atmospheric pCO2 cycles?, Rev. Geophys., 38, 159–189, https://doi.org/10.1029/1999RG000066, 2000.
Ballantyne, A. P., Lavine, M., Crowley, T. J., Liu, J., and Baker, P. B.: Meta-analysis of tropical surface temperatures during the Last Glacial Maximum, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, 1–4, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GL021217, 2005.
Benz, V., Esper, O., Gersonde, R., Lamy, F., and Tiedemann, R.: Last Glacial Maximum sea surface temperature and sea-ice extent in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 146, 216–237, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2016.06.006, 2016.
Bostock, H. C., Barrows, T. T., Carter, L., Chase, Z., Cortese, G., Dunbar, G. B., Ellwood, M., Hayward, B., Howard, W., Neil, H. L., Noble, T. L., Mackintosh, A., Moss, P. T., Moy, A. D., White, D., Williams, M. J. M., and Armand, L. K.: A review of the Australian-New Zealand sector of the Southern Ocean over the last 30 ka (Aus-INTIMATE project), Quaternary Sci. Rev., 74, 35–57, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2012.07.018, 2013.
Boyle, E. A.: Cadmium and Δ13C Paleochemical Ocean Distributions During the Stage 2 Glacial Maximum, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sc., 20, 245–287, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ea.20.050192.001333, 1992.
Braconnot, P., Otto-Bliesner, B., Harrison, S., Joussaume, S., Peterchmitt, J.-Y., Abe-Ouchi, A., Crucifix, M., Driesschaert, E., Fichefet, Th., Hewitt, C. D., Kageyama, M., Kitoh, A., Laîné, A., Loutre, M.-F., Marti, O., Merkel, U., Ramstein, G., Valdes, P., Weber, S. L., Yu, Y., and Zhao, Y.: Results of PMIP2 coupled simulations of the Mid-Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum – Part 1: experiments and large-scale features, Clim. Past, 3, 261–277, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-3-261-2007, 2007.
Bradtmiller, L. I., Anderson, R. F., Fleisher, M. Q., and Burckle, L. H.: Comparing glacial and Holocene opal fluxes in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean, Paleoceanography, 24, 1–20, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008PA001693, 2009.
Broecker, W. S.: Glacial to interglacial changes in ocean chemistry, Progress in Oceanography, 11, 151–197, https://doi.org/10.1016/0079-6611(82)90007-6, 1982.
Broecker, W. S. and Henderson, G. M.: The sequence of events surrounding termination II and their implications for the causes of glacial interglacial CO2 changes, Paleoceanography, 13, 352–364, 1998.
Brovkin, V., Ganopolski, A., Archer, D., and Rahmstorf, S.: Lowering of glacial atmospheric CO2 in response to changes in oceanic circulation and marine biogeochemistry, Paleoceanography, 22, PA4202, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006PA001380, 2007.
Burckel, P., Waelbroeck, C., Luo, Y., Roche, D. M., Pichat, S., Jaccard, S. L., Gherardi, J., Govin, A., Lippold, J., and Thil, F.: Changes in the geometry and strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the last glacial (20–50 ka), Clim. Past, 12, 2061–2075, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-12-2061-2016, 2016.
Buchanan, P.: Simulations of glacial climate and ocean biogeochemistry with the CSIRO Mk3L v1.0, https://doi.org/10.4225/41/5859eeac6b473, 2016.
Cannariato, K. G. and Kennett, J. P.: Climatically related millennial-scale fluctuations in strength of California margin oxygen-minimum zone during the past 60 k.y., Geology, 27, 975–978, https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1999)027<0975:CRMSFI>2.3.CO;2, 1999.
Cartapanis, O., Tachikawa, K., and Bard, E.: Northeastern Pacific oxygen minimum zone variability over the past 70 kyr: Impact of biological production and oceanic ventilation, Paleoceanography, 26, PA4208, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011PA002126, 2011.
Catubig, N. R., Archer, D. E., Francois, R., DeMenocal, P., Howard, W., and Yu, E.-F.: Global deep-sea burial rate of calcium carbonate during the Last Glacial Maximum, Paleoceanography, 13, 298–310, https://doi.org/10.1029/98PA00609, 1998.
Chang, A. S., Pedersen, T. F., and Hendy, I. L.: Effects of productivity, glaciation, and ventilation on late Quaternary sedimentary redox and trace element accumulation on the Vancouver Island margin, western Canada, Paleoceanography, 29, 730–746, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013PA002581, 2014.
Chang, A. S., Pichevin, L., Pedersen, T. F., Gray, V., and Ganeshram, R.: New insights into productivity and redox-controlled trace element (Ag, Cd, Re, and Mo) accumulation in a 55 kyr long sediment record from Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California, Paleoceanography, 30, 77–94, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014PA002681, 2015.
Chase, Z., Anderson, R. F., and Fleisher, M. Q.: Evidence from authigenic uranium for increased productivity of the glacial Subantarctic Ocean, Paleoceanography, 16, 468–478, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000PA000542, 2001.
Chase, Z., Anderson, R. F., Fleisher, M. Q., and Kubik, P. W.: Accumulation of biogenic and lithogenic material in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean during the past 40,000 years, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 50, 799–832, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(02)00595-7, 2003.
Ciais, P., Tagliabue, A., Cuntz, M., Bopp, L., Scholze, M., Hoffmann, G., Lourantou, A., Harrison, S. P., Prentice, I. C., Kelley, D. I., Koven, C., and Piao, S. L.: Large inert carbon pool in the terrestrial biosphere during the Last Glacial Maximum, Nat. Geosci., 5, 74–79, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1324, 2011.
Clementson, L. A., Parslow, J. S., Griffiths, F. B., Lyne, V. D., Mackey, D. J., Harris, G. P., Mckenzie, D. C., Bonham, P. I., Rathbone, C. A., and Rintoul, S.: Controls on phytoplankton production in the Australasian sector of the subtropical convergence, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 45, 1627–1661, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0637(98)00035-1, 1998.
Collins, L. G., Pike, J., Allen, C. S., and Hodgson, D. A.: High-resolution reconstruction of southwest Atlantic sea-ice and its role in the carbon cycle during marine isotope stages 3 and 2, Paleoceanography, 27, 1–17, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011PA002264, 2012.
Costa, K. M., McManus, J. F., Anderson, R. F., Ren, H., Sigman, D. M., Winckler, G., Fleisher, M. Q., Marcantonio, F., and Ravelo, A. C.: No iron fertilization in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during the last ice age, Nature, 529, 519–522, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature16453, 2016.
Crusius, J., Pedersen, T. F., Kienast, S., Keigwin, L., and Labeyrie, L.: Influence of northwest Pacific productivity on North Pacific Intermediate Water oxygen concentrations during the Bolling-Allerod interval (14.7–12.9 ka), Geology, 32, 633–636, https://doi.org/10.1130/G20508.1, 2004.
Curran, M. A. J., van Ommen, T. D., Morgan, V. I., Phillips, K. L., and Palmer, A. S.: Ice Core Evidence for Antarctic Sea Ice Decline Since the 1950s, Science, 302, 1203–1206, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1087888, 2003.
Curry, W. B. and Oppo, D. W.: Glacial water mass geometry and the distribution of δ13C of ΣCO2 in the western Atlantic Ocean, Paleoceanography, 20, PA1017, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004PA001021, 2005.
de la Fuente, M., Skinner, L., Calvo, E., Pelejero, C., and Cacho, I.: Increased reservoir ages and poorly ventilated deep waters inferred in the glacial Eastern Equatorial Pacific, Nat. Commun., 6, 7420, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms8420, 2015.
De Vernal, A., Eynaud, F., Henry, M., Hillaire-Marcel, C., Londeix, L., Mangin, S., Matthiessen, J., Marret, F., Radi, T., Rochon, A., Solignac, S., and Turon, J. L.: Reconstruction of sea-surface conditions at middle to high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) based on dinoflagellate cyst assemblages, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 24, 897–924, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.06.014, 2005.
Dean, W. E.: Sediment geochemical records of productivity and oxygen depletion along the margin of western North America during the past 60,000 years: teleconnections with Greenland Ice and the Cariaco Basin, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 26, 98–114, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2006.08.006, 2007.
Dubois, N., Kienast, M., Kienast, S. S., and Timmermann, A.: Millennial-scale Atlantic/East Pacific sea surface temperature linkages during the last 100,000 years, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 396, 134–142, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2014.04.008, 2014.
Duplessy, J. C., Shackleton, N. J., Fairbanks, R. G., Labeyrie, L., Oppo, D., and Kallel, N.: Deepwater source variations during the last climatic cycle and their impact on the global deepwater circulation, Paleoceanography, 3, 343–360, https://doi.org/10.1029/PA003i003p00343, 1988.
Duteil, O., Koeve, W., Oschlies, A., Aumont, O., Bianchi, D., Bopp, L., Galbraith, E., Matear, R., Moore, J. K., Sarmiento, J. L., and Segschneider, J.: Preformed and regenerated phosphate in ocean general circulation models: can right total concentrations be wrong?, Biogeosciences, 9, 1797–1807, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-9-1797-2012, 2012.
Elderfield, H. and Rickaby, R.: Oceanic Cd ∕ P ratio and nutrient utilization in the glacial Southern Ocean, Nature, 405, 305–10, https://doi.org/10.1038/35012507, 2000.
Emiliani, C.: Isotopic Paleotemperatures, Science, 154, 851–857, 1966.
Eppley, R. W.: Temperature and phytoplankton growth in the sea, Fish. B.-NOAA, 70, 1063–1085, 1972.
Ferrari, R., Jansen, M. F., Adkins, J. F., Burke, A., Stewart, A. L., and Thompson, A. F.: Antarctic sea ice control on ocean circulation in present and glacial climates, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 111, 8753–8758, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1323922111, 2014.
Foster, G. L. and Vance, D.: Negligible glacial-interglacial variation in continental chemical weathering rates, Nature, 444, 918–921, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05365, 2006.
Francois, R., Altabet, M. A., Yu, E.-F. F., Sigman, D. M., Bacon, M. P., Frank, M., Bohrmann, G., Bareille, G., and Labeyrie, L. D.: Contribution of Southern Ocean surface-water stratification to low atmospheric CO2 concentrations during the last glacial period, Nature, 389, 929–935, https://doi.org/10.1038/40073, 1997.
Frank, M., Gersonde, R., van der Loeff, M. R., Bohrmann, G., Nürnberg, C. C., Kubik, P. W., Suter, M., and Mangini, A.: Similar glacial and interglacial export bioproductivity in the Atlantic Sector of the Southern Ocean: Multiproxy evidence and implications for glacial atmospheric CO2, Paleoceanography, 15, 642–658, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000PA000497, 2000.
Galbraith, E. D. and Jaccard, S. L.: Deglacial weakening of the oceanic soft tissue pump: global constraints from sedimentary nitrogen isotopes and oxygenation proxies, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 109, 38–48, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.11.012, 2015.
Galbraith, E. D., Kienast, M., Pedersen, T. F., and Calvert, S. E.: Glacial-interglacial modulation of the marine nitrogen cycle by high-latitude O2 supply to the global thermocline, Paleoceanography, 19, 1–12, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003PA001000, 2004.
Garcia, H. E.: On the variability of dissolved oxygen and apparent oxygen utilization content for the upper world ocean: 1955 to 1998, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L09604, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GL022286, 2005.
Garcia, H. E., Locarnini, R. A., Boyer, T. P., Antonov, J. I., Mishonov, A. V., Baranova, O. K., Zweng, M. M., Reagan, J. R., and Johnson, D. R.: World Ocean Atlas 2013. Vol. 3: Dissolved Oxygen, Apparent Oxygen Utilization, and Oxygen Saturation, edited by: Levitus, S., A. Mishonov, Technical Ed., Tech. rep., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 75, 2013.
Gebbie, G.: How much did Glacial North Atlantic Water shoal?, Paleoceanography, 29, 190–209, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013PA002557, 2014.
Gersonde, R., Crosta, X., Abelmann, A., and Armand, L.: Sea-surface temperature and sea ice distribution of the Southern Ocean at the EPILOG Last Glacial Maximum – A circum-Antarctic view based on siliceous microfossil records, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 24, 869–896, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.07.015, 2005.
Gibbs, M. T. and Kump, L. R.: Global Chemical Erosion During the Last Glacial Maximum and the Present – Sensitivity To Changes in Lithology and Hydrology, Paleoceanography, 9, 529–543, https://doi.org/10.1029/94pa01009, 1994.
Gloersen, P., Campbell, W. J., Cavalieri, D. J., Cosimo, J. C., Parkinson, C. L., and Zwalley, H. J.: Satellite passive microwave observations and analysis of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, 1978–1987, Ann. Glaciol., 17, 149–154, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9169(95)90010-1, 1993.
Gottschalk, J., Skinner, L. C., Lippold, J., Vogel, H., Frank, N., Jaccard, S. L., and Waelbroeck, C.: Biological and physical controls in the Southern Ocean on past millennial-scale atmospheric CO2 changes, Nat. Commun., 7, 11539, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms11539, 2016.
Grootes, P. M. and Stuiver, M.: Oxygen 18/16 variability in Greenland snow and ice with 103- to 105-year time resolution, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 26455–26470, https://doi.org/10.1029/97JC00880, 1997.
Hain, M. P., Sigman, D. M., and Haug, G. H.: Carbon dioxide effects of Antarctic stratification, North Atlantic Intermediate Water formation, and subantarctic nutrient drawdown during the last ice age: Diagnosis and synthesis in a geochemical box model, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 24, 1–20, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GB003790, 2010.
Herguera, J. C.: Last glacial paleoproductivity patterns in the eastern equatorial Pacific: benthic foraminifera records, Mar. Micropaleontol., 40, 259–275, 2000.
Ho, S. L. and Laepple, T.: Glacial cooling as inferred from marine temperature proxies TEXH86 and UK37, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 409, 15–22, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2014.10.033, 2015.
Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Mumby, P. J., Hooten, A. J., Steneck, R. S., Greenfield, P., Gomez, E., Harvell, C. D., Sale, P. F., Edwards, A. J., Caldeira, K., Knowlton, N., Eakin, C. M., Iglesias-Prieto, R., Muthiga, N., Bradbury, R. H., Dubi, A., and Hatziolos, M. E.: Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification, Science, 318, 1737–1742, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1152509, 2007.
Hoogakker, B. A. A., Elderfield, H., Schmiedl, G., McCave, I. N., and Rickaby, R. E. M.: Glacial–interglacial changes in bottom-water oxygen content on the Portuguese margin, Nat. Geosci., 8, 2–5, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2317, 2014.
Howe, J. N. W., Piotrowski, A. M., Noble, T. L., Mulitza, S., Chiessi, C. M., and Bayon, G.: North Atlantic Deep Water Production during the Last Glacial Maximum, Nat. Commun., 7, 11765, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms11765, 2016.
Hunter, J. D.: Matplotlib: A 2-D graphics environment, Computing In Science & Engineering, 9, 90–95, 2007.
Ikehara, K.: Late Quaternary seasonal sea-ice history of the northeastern Japan Sea, J. Oceanogr., 59, 585–593, https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOCE.0000009588.49944.3d, 2003.
Ishizaki, Y., Ohkushi, K., Ito, T., and Kawahata, H.: Abrupt changes of intermediate-water oxygen in the northwestern Pacific during the last 27 kyr, Geo-Mar. Lett., 29, 125–131, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00367-008-0128-0, 2009.
Jaccard, S., Galbraith, E., Frölicher, T., and Gruber, N.: Ocean (De)oxygenation Across the Last Deglaciation: Insights for the Future, Oceanography, 27, 26–35, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2014.05, 2014.
Jaccard, S. L. and Galbraith, E. D.: Large climate-driven changes of oceanic oxygen concentrations during the last deglaciation, Nat. Geosci., 5, 151–156, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1352, 2012.
Jaccard, S. L., Haug, G. H., Sigman, D. M., Pedersen, T. F., Thierstein, H. R., and Röhl, U.: Glacial/interglacial changes in subarctic north pacific stratification, Science, 308, 1003–1006, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1108696, 2005.
Jaccard, S. L., Hayes, C. T., Hodell, D. A., Anderson, R. F., Sigman, D. M., and Haug, G. H.: Two modes of change in Southern Ocean productivity over the past million years, Science, 339, 1419–1423, 2013.
Jaccard, S. L., Galbraith, E. D., Martínez-García, A., and Anderson, R. F.: Covariation of deep Southern Ocean oxygenation and atmospheric CO2 through the last ice age, Nature, 530, 207–10, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature16514, 2016.
Jones, I., Munhoven, G., Tranter, M., Huybrechts, P., and Sharp, M.: Modelled glacial and non-glacial HCO3, Si and Ge fluxes since the LGM: little potential for impact on atmospheric CO2 concentrations and a potential proxy of continental chemical erosion, the marine Ge/Si ratio, Global Planet. Change, 33, 139–153, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8181(02)00067-X, 2002.
Jouzel, J., Lorius, C., Petit, J. R., Genthon, C., Barkov, N. I., Kotlyakov, V. M., and Petrov, V. M.: Vostok ice core: a continuous isotope temperature record over the last climatic cycle (160,000 years), Nature, 329, 403–408, https://doi.org/10.1038/329403a0, 1987.
Keigwin, L. D.: Radiocarbon and stable isotope constraints on Last Glacial Maximum and Younger Dryas ventilation in the western North Atlantic, Paleoceanography, 19, 1–15, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004PA001029, 2004.
Key, R. M., Kozyr, A., Sabine, C. L., Lee, K., Wanninkhof, R., Bullister, J. L., Feely, R. A., Millero, F. J., Mordy, C., and Peng, T.-H.: A global ocean carbon climatology: Results from Global Data Analysis Project (GLODAP), Global Biogeochem. Cy., 18, GB4031, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GB002247, 2004.
Kohfeld, K. E. and Chase, Z.: Controls on deglacial changes in biogenic fluxes in the North Pacific Ocean, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 30, 3350–3363, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2011.08.007, 2011.
Kohfeld, K. E. and Ridgwell, A.: Glacial-interglacial variability in atmospheric CO2, in: Surface Ocean – Lower Atmosphere Processes, edited by: Le Quéré, C. and Saltzman, E. S., 251–286, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GM000845, 2009.
Kohfeld, K. E., Le Quéré, C., Harrison, S. P., and Anderson, R. F.: Role of marine biology in glacial-interglacial CO2 cycles, Science, 308, 74–78, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1105375, 2005.
Kucera, M., Weinelt, M., Kiefer, T., Pflaumann, U., Hayes, A., Weinelt, M., Chen, M. T., Mix, A. C., Barrows, T. T., Cortijo, E., Duprat, J., Juggins, S., and Waelbroeck, C.: Reconstruction of sea-surface temperatures from assemblages of planktonic foraminifera: Multi-technique approach based on geographically constrained calibration data sets and its application to glacial Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 24, 951–998, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.07.014, 2005.
Kumar, N., Anderson, R. F., Mortlock, R. A., Froelich, P. N., Kubik, P., Dittrich-Hannen, B., and Suter, M.: Increased biological productivity and export production in the glacial Southern Ocean, Nature, 378, 675–680, 1995.
Kurahashi-Nakamura, T., Abe-Ouchi, A., Yamanaka, Y., and Misumi, K.: Compound effects of Antarctic sea ice on atmospheric pCO2 change during glacial-interglacial cycle, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, 1–5, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL030898, 2007.
Lamy, F., Gersonde, R., Winckler, G., Esper, O., Jaeschke, A., Kuhn, G., Ullermann, J., Martinez-Garcia, A., Lambert, F., and Kilian, R.: Increased dust deposition in the Pacific Southern Ocean during glacial periods, Science, 343, 403–407, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1245424, 2014.
Leduc, G., Schneider, R., Kim, J. H., and Lohmann, G.: Holocene and Eemian sea surface temperature trends as revealed by alkenone and Mg/Ca paleothermometry, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 29, 989–1004, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.01.004, 2010.
Levitus, S.: World Ocean Database, Vol. 13, US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmosphere Agency, 2001.
Loubere, P., Richaud, M., and Mireles, S.: Variability in tropical thermocline nutrient chemistry on the glacial/interglacial timescale, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 54, 747–761, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2007.01.005, 2007.
Lynch-Stieglitz, J., Ito, T., and Michel, E.: Antarctic density stratification and the strength of the circumpolar current during the Last Glacial Maximum, Paleoceanography, 31, 539–552, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015PA002915, 2016.
Marchitto, T. M. and Broecker, W. S.: Deep water mass geometry in the glacial Atlantic Ocean: A review of constraints from the paleonutrient proxy Cd/Ca, Geochem. Geophy. Geosys., 7, Q12003, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GC001323, 2006.
Marinov, I., Gnanadesikan, A., Toggweiler, J. R., and Sarmiento, J. L.: The Southern Ocean biogeochemical divide, Nature, 441, 964–967, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04883, 2006.
Martin, J. H.: Glacial-interglacial CO2 change: the iron hypothesis, Paleoceanography, 5, 1–13, 1990.
Martinez, P., Lamy, F., Robinson, R. R., Pichevin, L., and Billy, I.: Atypical δ15N variations at the southern boundary of the East Pacific oxygen minimum zone over the last 50 ka, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 25, 3017–3028, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2006.04.009, 2006.
Martinez-Garcia, A., Sigman, D. M., Ren, H., Anderson, R. F., Straub, M., Hodell, D. A., Jaccard, S. L., Eglinton, T. I., and Haug, G. H.: Iron Fertilization of the Subantarctic Ocean During the Last Ice Age, Science, 343, 1347–1350, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1246848, 2014.
Matear, R. J. and Lenton, A.: Quantifying the impact of ocean acidification on our future climate, Biogeosciences, 11, 3965–3983, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-11-3965-2014, 2014.
Matsumoto, K.: Biology-mediated temperature control on atmospheric pCO2 and ocean biogeochemistry, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L20605, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL031301, 2007.
Matsumoto, K., Sarmiento, J. L., and Brzezinski, M. A.: Silicic acid leakage from the Southern Ocean: A possible explanation for glacial atmospheric pCO2, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 16, 5-1–5-23, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001GB001442, 2002.
McKay, C. L., Groeneveld, J., Filipsson, H. L., Gallego-Torres, D., Whitehouse, M. J., Toyofuku, T., and Romero, O. E.: A comparison of benthic foraminiferal Mn ∕ Ca and sedimentary Mn ∕ Al as proxies of relative bottom-water oxygenation in the low-latitude NE Atlantic upwelling system, Biogeosciences, 12, 5415–5428, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-5415-2015, 2015.
McManus, J. F., Francois, R., Gherardi, J.-M., Keigwin, L. D., and Brown-Leger, S.: Collapse and rapid resumption of Atlantic meridional circulation linked to deglacial climate changes, Nature, 428, 834–837, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02494, 2004.
Menviel, L., Joos, F., and Ritz, S. P.: Simulating atmospheric CO2, 13C and the marine carbon cycle during the Last Glacial-Interglacial cycle: Possible role for a deepening of the mean remineralization depth and an increase in the oceanic nutrient inventory, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 56, 46–68, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2012.09.012, 2012.
Menviel, L., Yu, J., Joos, F., Mouchet, A., Meissner, K. J., and England, M. H.: Poorly ventilated deep ocean at the Last Glacial Maximum inferred from carbon isotopes: a data-model comparison study, Paleoceanography, 31, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016PA003024, online first, 2016.
Mortlock, R. A., Charles, C. D., Froelich, P. N., Zibello, M. A., Saltzman, J., Hays, J. D., and Burckle, L. H.: Evidence for lower productivity in the Antarctic Ocean during the last glaciation, Nature, 351, 220–223, https://doi.org/10.1038/351220a0, 1991.
Muglia, J. and Schmittner, A.: Glacial Atlantic overturning increased by wind stress in climate models, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 1–8, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL064583, 2015.
Müller, J., Massé, G., Stein, R., and Belt, S. T.: Variability of sea-ice conditions in the Fram Strait over the past 30,000 years, Nat. Geosci., 2, 772–776, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo665, 2009.
Muratli, J. M., Chase, Z., Mix, A. C., and McManus, J.: Increased glacial-age ventilation of the Chilean margin by Antarctic Intermediate Water, Nat. Geosci., 3, 23–26, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo715, 2010.
Murgese, D. S., De Deckker, P., Spooner, M. I., and Young, M.: A 35,000 year record of changes in the eastern Indian Ocean offshore Sumatra, Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl., 265, 195–213, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2008.06.001, 2008.
Nameroff, T. J., Calvert, S. E., and Murray, J. W.: Glacial-interglacial variability in the eastern tropical North Pacific oxygen minimum zone recorded by redox-sensitive trace metals, Paleoceanography, 19, 1–19, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003PA000912, 2004.
Ninnemann, U. S. and Charles, C. D.: Regional differences in Quaternary Subantarctic nutrient cycling: Link to intermediate and deep water ventilation, Paleoceanography, 12, 560–567, 1997.
Nürnberg, C. C., Bohrmann, G., Schlüter, M., and Frank, M.: Barium accumulation in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean: Results From 190,000-year records, Paleoceanography, 12, 594–603, https://doi.org/10.1029/97PA01130, 1997.
Nürnberg, D. and Tiedemann, R.: Environmental change in the Sea of Okhotsk during the last 1.1 million years, Paleoceanography, 19, 1–23, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004PA001023, 2004.
Ohkushi, K., Kennett, J. P., Zeleski, C. M., Moffitt, S. E., Hill, T. M., Robert, C., Beaufort, L., and Behl, R. J.: Quantified intermediate water oxygenation history of the NE Pacific: A new benthic foraminiferal record from Santa Barbara basin, Paleoceanography, 28, 453–467, https://doi.org/10.1002/palo.20043, 2013.
Oliver, K. I. C., Hoogakker, B. A. A., Crowhurst, S., Henderson, G. M., Rickaby, R. E. M., Edwards, N. R., and Elderfield, H.: A synthesis of marine sediment core δ13C data over the last 150 000 years, Clim. Past, 6, 645–673, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-6-645-2010, 2010.
Ortiz, J. D., O'Connell, S. B., DelViscio, J., Dean, W., Carriquiry, J. D., Marchitto, T., Zheng, Y., and van Geen, A.: Enhanced marine productivity off western North America during warm climate intervals of the past 52 k.y, Geology, 32, 521–524, https://doi.org/10.1130/G20234.1, 2004.
Otto-Bliesner, B. L., Hewitt, C. D., Marchitto, T. M., Brady, E., Abe-Ouchi, A., Crucifix, M., Murakami, S., and Weber, S. L.: Last Glacial Maximum ocean thermohaline circulation: PMIP2 model intercomparisons and data constraints, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, 1–6, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL029475, 2007.
Otto-Bliesner, B. L., Schneider, R., Brady, E. C., Kucera, M., Abe-Ouchi, A., Bard, E., Braconnot, P., Crucifix, M., Hewitt, C. D., Kageyama, M., Marti, O., Paul, A., Rosell-Melé, A., Waelbroeck, C., Weber, S. L., Weinelt, M., and Yu, Y.: A comparison of PMIP2 model simulations and the MARGO proxy reconstruction for tropical sea surface temperatures at last glacial maximum, Clim. Dynam., 32, 799–815, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-008-0509-0, 2009.
Parrenin, F., Masson-Delmotte, V., Köhler, P., Raynaud, D., Paillard, D., Schwander, J., Barbante, C., Landais, A., Wegner, A., and Jouzel, J.: Synchronous change of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature during the last deglacial warming, Science, 339, 1060–1063, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1226368, 2013.
Petit, R. J., Raynaud, D., Basile, I., Chappellaz, J., Ritz, C., Delmotte, M., Legrand, M., Lorius, C., and Pe, L.: Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica, Nature, 399, 429–413, https://doi.org/10.1038/20859, 1999.
Pflaumann, U., Sarnthein, M., Chapman, M., D'Abreu, L., Funnell, B., Huels, M., Kiefer, T., Maslin, M., Schulz, H., Swallow, J., van Kreveld, S., Vautravers, M., Vogelsang, E., and Weinelt, M.: Glacial North Atlantic: sea-surface conditions reconstructed by GLAMAP 2000, Paleoceanography, 18, 1065, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002PA000774, 2003.
Phipps, S. J., Rotstayn, L. D., Gordon, H. B., Roberts, J. L., Hirst, A. C., and Budd, W. F.: The CSIRO Mk3L climate system model version 1.0 – Part 1: Description and evaluation, Geosci. Model Dev., 4, 483–509, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-4-483-2011, 2011.
Phipps, S. J., Rotstayn, L. D., Gordon, H. B., Roberts, J. L., Hirst, A. C., and Budd, W. F.: The CSIRO Mk3L climate system model version 1.0 – Part 2: Response to external forcings, Geosci. Model Dev., 5, 649–682, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-5-649-2012, 2012.
Phipps, S. J., Mcgregor, H. V., Gergis, J., Gallant, A. J. E., Neukom, R., Stevenson, S., Ackerley, D., Brown, J. R., Fischer, M. J., and Van Ommen, T. D.: Paleoclimate data-model comparison and the role of climate forcings over the past 1500 years, J. Climate, 26, 6915–6936, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00108.1, 2013.
Pride, C., Thunell, R., Sigman, D. M., Keigwin, L. D., Altabet, M. A., and Tappa, E.: Nitrogen isotopic variations in the Gulf of California since the last deglaciation: Response to global climate change, Paleoceanography, 14, 397–409, 1999.
Reichart, G. J., Lourens, L. J., and Zachariasse, W. J.: Temporal variability in the northern Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) during the last 225,000 years, Paleoceanography, 13, 607, https://doi.org/10.1029/98PA02203, 1998.
Riebe, C. S., Kirchner, J. W., and Finkel, R. C.: Erosional and climatic effects on long-term chemical weathering rates in granitic landscapes spanning diverse climate regimes, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 224, 547–562, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2004.05.019, 2004.
Riethdorf, J.-R., Nürnberg, D., Max, L., Tiedemann, R., Gorbarenko, S. A., and Malakhov, M. I.: Millennial-scale variability of marine productivity and terrigenous matter supply in the western Bering Sea over the past 180 kyr, Clim. Past, 9, 1345–1373, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-9-1345-2013, 2013.
Rivkin, R. B. and Legendre, L.: Biogenic carbon cycling in the upper ocean: effects of microbial respiration, Science (New York, N.Y.), 291, 2398–2400, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.291.5512.2398, 2001.
Sakamoto, T., Ikehara, M., Aoki, K., Iijima, K., Kimura, N., Nakatsuka, T., and Wakatsuchi, M.: Ice-rafted debris (IRD)-based sea-ice expansion events during the past 100 kyrs in the Okhotsk Sea, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 52, 2275–2301, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2005.08.007, 2005.
Salvatteci, R., Gutierrez, D., Sifeddine, A., Ortlieb, L., Druffel, E., Boussafir, M., and Schneider, R.: Centennial to millennial-scale changes in oxygenation and productivity in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific during the last 25,000 years, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 131, 102–117, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2015.10.044, 2016.
Sarkar, A., Bhattacharya, S., and Sarin, M.: Geochemical evidence for anoxic deep water in the Arabian Sea during the last glaciation, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 57, 1009–1016, https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(93)90036-V, 1993.
Sarmiento, J. L., Gruber, N., Brzezinski, M. A., and Dunne, J. P.: High-latitude controls of thermocline nutrients and low latitude biological productivity, Nature, 427, 56–60, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10605, 2004.
Schmiedl, G. and Mackensen, A.: Multispecies stable isotopes of benthic foraminifers reveal past changes of organic matter decomposition and deepwater oxygenation in the Arabian Sea, Paleoceanography, 21, 1–14, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006PA001284, 2006.
Schmittner, A. and Somes, C. J.: Complementary constraints from carbon (13C) and nitrogen (15N) isotopes on the glacial ocean's soft-tissue biological pump, Paleoceanography, 31, 669–693, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015PA002905, 2016.
Shackleton, N.: Oxygen Isotope Analyses and Pleistocene Temperatures Re-assessed, Nature, 215, 15–17, https://doi.org/10.1038/215015a0, 1967.
Shackleton, N. J.: Carbon-13 in Uvigerina: Tropical rain forest history and the equatorial Pacific carbonate dissolution cycle, in: Andersen, N. R. and Malahoff, A., The Fate of Fossil Fuel in the Oceans, New York (Plenum), 401–427, 1977.
Shemesh, A. A., Macko, S. A., Charles, C. D., and Rau, G. H.: Isotopic Evidence for Reduced Productivity in the Glacial Southern Ocean, Science, 262, 407–410, 1993.
Shibahara, A., Ohkushi, K., Kennett, J. P., and Ikehara, K.: Late Quaternary changes in intermediate water oxygenation and oxygen minimum zone, northern Japan: A benthic foraminiferal perspective, Paleoceanography, 22, 1–13, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005PA001234, 2007.
Siddall, M., Rohling, E., Almogi-Labin, A., Hemleben, C., Meischner, D., Schmelzer, I., and Smeed, D. A.: Sea-level fluctuations during the last glacial cycle, Nature, 423, 19–24, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01690, 2003.
Sigman, D. M. and Boyle, E. A.: Glacial/interglacial variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide, Nature, 407, 859–869, 2000.
Sigman, D. M., McCorkle, D. C., and Martin, W. R.: The calcite lysocline as a constraint on glacial/interglacial low-latitude production changes, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 12, 409, https://doi.org/10.1029/98GB01184, 1998.
Sigman, D. M., Hain, M. P., and Haug, G. H.: The polar ocean and glacial cycles in atmospheric CO(2) concentration, Nature, 466, 47–55, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09149, 2010.
Singh, A. D., Jung, S. J. A., Darling, K., Ganeshram, R., Ivanochko, T., and Kroon, D.: Productivity collapses in the Arabian Sea during glacial cold phases, Paleoceanography, 26, PA3210, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009PA001923, 2011.
Skinner, L., McCave, I., Carter, L., Fallon, S., Scrivner, A., and Primeau, F.: Reduced ventilation and enhanced magnitude of the deep Pacific carbon pool during the last glacial period, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 411, 45–52, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2014.11.024, 2015.
Skinner, L. C., Fallon, S., Waelbroeck, C., Michel, E., and Barker, S.: Ventilation of the deep Southern Ocean and deglacial CO2 rise, Science, 328, 1147–1151, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1183627, 2010.
Sowers, T., Bender, M., Raynaud, D., Korotkevich, Y. S., and Orchardo, J.: The δ18O of atmospheric O2 from air inclusions in the Vostok Ice Core: Timing of CO2 and ice volume changes during the penultimate deglaciation, Paleoceanography, 6, 679–696, https://doi.org/10.1029/91PA02023, 1991.
Stephens, B. B. and Keeling, R. F.: The influence of Antarctic sea ice on glacial-interglacial CO2 variations, Nature, 404, 171–174, https://doi.org/10.1038/35004556, 2000.
Stoll, H. M., Klaas, C. M., Probert, I., Encinar, J. R., and Garcia Alonso, J. I.: Calcification rate and temperature effects on Sr partitioning in coccoliths of multiple species of coccolithophorids in culture, Global Planet. Change, 34, 153–171, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8181(02)00112-1, 2002.
Sun, X. and Matsumoto, K.: Effects of sea ice on atmopsheric pCO2: A revised view and implications for glacial and future climates, J. Geophys Res., 115, 1–9, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JG001023, 2010.
Suthhof, A., Ittekkot, V., and Gaye-Haake, B.: Millenial-scale oscillation of denitrification intensity in the Arabian Sea during late Quaternary and its potential influence on atmospheric N2O and global climate, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 15, 637–649, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000GB001337, 2001.
Tagliabue, A., Bopp, L., Roche, D. M., Bouttes, N., Dutay, J.-C., Alkama, R., Kageyama, M., Michel, E., and Paillard, D.: Quantifying the roles of ocean circulation and biogeochemistry in governing ocean carbon-13 and atmospheric carbon dioxide at the last glacial maximum, Clim. Past, 5, 695–706, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-5-695-2009, 2009.
Telesiński, M. M., Spielhagen, R. F., and Bauch, H. A.: Water mass evolution of the Greenland Sea since late glacial times, Clim. Past, 10, 123–136, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-10-123-2014, 2014.
Thomas, E., Booth, L., Maslin, M., and Shackleton, N. J.: Northeastern Atlantic benthic foraminifera and implications of productivity during the last 40,000 years, Paleoceanography, 10, 545–562, 1995.
Thyng, K. M., Greene, C. A., Hetland, R. D., Zimmerle, H. M., and DiMarco, S. F.: Choosing good colormaps, Oceanography, 9, 9–13, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.66, 2016.
van der Weijden, C. H., Reichart, G.-J., and van Os, B. J.: Sedimentary trace element records over the last 200 kyr from within and below the northern Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone, Mar. Geol., 231, 69–88, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2006.05.013, 2006.
van Geen, A., Zheng, Y., Bernard, J. M., Cannariato, K. G., Carriquiry, J., Dean, W. E., Eakins, B. W., Ortiz, J. D., and Pike, J.: On the preservation of laminated sediments along the western margin of North America, Paleoceanography, 18, 1098, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003PA000911, 2003.
Waelbroeck, C., Paul, A., Kucera, M., Rosell-Melé, A., Weinelt, M., Schneider, R., Mix, A. C., Abelmann, A., Armand, L., Bard, E., Barker, S., Barrows, T. T., Benway, H., Cacho, I., Chen, M.-T., Cortijo, E., Crosta, X., de Vernal, A., Dokken, T., Duprat, J., Elderfield, H., Eynaud, F., Gersonde, R., Hayes, A., Henry, M., Hillaire-Marcel, C., Huang, C.-C., Jansen, E., Juggins, S., Kallel, N., Kiefer, T., Kienast, M., Labeyrie, L., Leclaire, H., Londeix, L., Mangin, S., Matthiessen, J., Marret, F., Meland, M., Morey, A. E., Mulitza, S., Pflaumann, U., Pisias, N. G., Radi, T., Rochon, A., Rohling, E. J., Sbaffi, L., Schäfer-Neth, C., Solignac, S., Spero, H., Tachikawa, K., and Turon, J.-L.: Constraints on the magnitude and patterns of ocean cooling at the Last Glacial Maximum, Nat. Geosci., 2, 127–132, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo411, 2009.
Watson, A. J. and Naveira Garabato, A. C.: The role of Southern Ocean mixing and upwelling in glacial-interglacial atmospheric CO2 change, Tellus B, 58, 73–87, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0889.2005.00167.x, 2006.
Weber, S. L., Drijfhout, S. S., Abe-Ouchi, A., Crucifix, M., Eby, M., Ganopolski, A., Murakami, S., Otto-Bliesner, B., and Peltier, W. R.: The modern and glacial overturning circulation in the Atlantic ocean in PMIP coupled model simulations, Clim. Past, 3, 51–64, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-3-51-2007, 2007.
Wilson, D. J., Piotrowski, A. M., Galy, A., and Banakar, V. K.: Interhemispheric controls on deep ocean circulation and carbon chemistry during the last two glacial cycles, Paleoceanography, 30, 621–641, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014PA002707, 2015.
Xiao, W., Esper, O., and Gersonde, R.: Last Glacial – Holocene climate variability in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 135, 115–137, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2016.01.023, 2016.
Yokoyama, Y., Webster, J. M., Cotterill, C., Braga, J. C., Jovane, L., Mills, H., Morgan, S., Suzuki, A., and the IODP Expedition 325 Scientists: IODP Expedition 325: Great Barrier Reefs Reveals Past Sea-Level, Climate and Environmental Changes Since the Last Ice Age, Sci. Dril., 12, 32–45, https://doi.org/10.2204/iodp.sd.12.04.2011, 2011.
Yu, J., Anderson, R. F., and Rohling, E. J.: Deep ocean carbonate chemistry and glacial-interglacial atmospheric CO2 changes, Oceanography, 27, 16–25, 2014.
We quantify the contributions of physical and biogeochemical changes in the ocean to enhancing ocean carbon storage at the Last Glacial Maximum. We find that simulated circulation and surface conditions cannot explain changes in carbon storage or other major biogeochemical fields that existed during the glacial climate. Key modifications to the functioning of the biological pump are therefore required to explain the glacial climate and improve model–proxy agreement for all fields.
We quantify the contributions of physical and biogeochemical changes in the ocean to enhancing...