Articles | Volume 12, issue 7
05 Jul 2016
Research article | 05 Jul 2016
Paleoclimate in continental northwestern Europe during the Eemian and early Weichselian (125–97 ka): insights from a Belgian speleothem
Stef Vansteenberge et al.
No articles found.
Nina M. A. Wichern, Niels J. de Winter, Andrew L. A. Johnson, Stijn Goolaerts, Frank Wesselingh, Maartje F. Hamers, Pim Kaskes, Philippe Claeys, and Martin Ziegler
Fossil bivalves are an excellent climate archive due to their rapidly-forming growth increments and long lifespan. Here, we show that the extinct bivalve species Angulus benedeni benedeni can be used to reconstruct past temperatures using oxygen and clumped isotopes. This species has the potential to provide seasonally resolved temperature data for the Pliocene sediments of the southern North Sea area in which it is found.
Charlotte Honiat, Gabriella Koltai, Yuri Dublyansky, R. Larry Edwards, Haiwei Zhang, Hai Cheng, and Christoph Spötl
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Preprint under review for CPShort summary
A look at the climate evolution during the last warm period may allow to test ground for future climate conditions. We quantified the temperature evolution during the last interglacial using tiny amount of water trapped in the crystals of precisely dated stalagmites in caves from the southeastern European Alps. Our record indicates temperatures up to 2 °C warmer than today and an unstable climate during the first half of the Last Interglacial.
Heather M. Stoll, Chris Day, Franziska Lechleitner, Oliver Kost, Laura Endres, Jakub Sliwinski, Carlos Pérez-Mejías, Hai Cheng, and Denis Scholz
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Preprint under review for CPShort summary
Stalagmites formed in caves provide valuable information about past changes in climate and vegetation conditions. In this contribution, we present a new method to better estimate past changes in the soil and vegetation productivity using the carbon isotopes and trace elements measured in stalagmites. Applying this method to other stalagmites should provide a better indication of past vegetation feedbacks to climate change.
Paul Töchterle, Simon D. Steidle, R. Lawrence Edwards, Yuri Dublyansky, Christoph Spötl, Xianglei Li, John Gunn, and Gina E. Moseley
Geochronology, 4, 617–627,Short summary
Cryogenic cave carbonates (CCCs) provide a marker for past permafrost conditions. Their formation age is determined by Th / U dating. However, samples can be contaminated with small amounts of Th at formation, which can cause inaccurate ages and require correction. We analysed multiple CCCs and found that varying degrees of contamination can cause an apparent spread of ages, when samples actually formed within distinguishable freezing events. A correction method using isochrons is presented.
David De Vleeschouwer, Marion Peral, Marta Marchegiano, Angelina Füllberg, Niklas Meinicke, Heiko Pälike, Gerald Auer, Benjamin Petrick, Christophe Snoeck, Steven Goderis, and Philippe Claeys
Clim. Past, 18, 1231–1253,Short summary
The Leeuwin Current transports warm water along the western coast of Australia: from the tropics to the Southern Hemisphere midlatitudes. Therewith, the current influences climate in two ways: first, as a moisture source for precipitation in southwestern Australia; second, as a vehicle for Equator-to-pole heat transport. In this study, we study sediment cores along the Leeuwin Current pathway to understand its ocean–climate interactions between 4 and 2 Ma.
Matthias Sinnesael, Alfredo Loi, Marie-Pierre Dabard, Thijs R. A. Vandenbroucke, and Philippe Claeys
Geochronology, 4, 251–267,Short summary
We used new geochemical measurements to study the expression of astronomical climate cycles recorded in the Ordovician (~ 460 million years ago) geological sections of the Crozon Peninsula (France). This type of geological archive is not often studied in this way, but as they become more important going back in time, a better understanding of their potential astronomical cycles is crucial to advance our knowledge of deep-time climate dynamics and to construct high-resolution timescales.
Kathleen A. Wendt, Xianglei Li, R. Lawrence Edwards, Hai Cheng, and Christoph Spötl
Clim. Past, 17, 1443–1454,Short summary
In this study, we tested the upper limits of U–Th dating precision by analyzing three stalagmites from the Austrian Alps that have high U concentrations. The composite record spans the penultimate interglacial (MIS 7) with an average 2σ age uncertainty of 400 years. This unprecedented age control allows us to constrain the timing of temperature shifts in the Alps during MIS 7 while offering new insight into millennial-scale changes in the North Atlantic leading up to Terminations III and IIIa.
Gabriella Koltai, Christoph Spötl, Alexander H. Jarosch, and Hai Cheng
Clim. Past, 17, 775–789,Short summary
This paper utilises a novel palaeoclimate archive from caves, cryogenic cave carbonates, which allow for precisely constraining permafrost thawing events in the past. Our study provides new insights into the climate of the Younger Dryas (12 800 to 11 700 years BP) in mid-Europe from the perspective of a high-elevation cave sensitive to permafrost development. We quantify seasonal temperature and precipitation changes by using a heat conduction model.
Chao-Jun Chen, Dao-Xian Yuan, Jun-Yun Li, Xian-Feng Wang, Hai Cheng, You-Feng Ning, R. Lawrence Edwards, Yao Wu, Si-Ya Xiao, Yu-Zhen Xu, Yang-Yang Huang, Hai-Ying Qiu, Jian Zhang, Ming-Qiang Liang, and Ting-Yong Li
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further review
Xianglei Li, Kathleen A. Wendt, Yuri Dublyansky, Gina E. Moseley, Christoph Spötl, and R. Lawrence Edwards
Geochronology, 3, 49–58,Short summary
In this study, we built a statistical model to determine the initial δ234U in submerged calcite crusts that coat the walls of Devils Hole 2 (DH2) cave (Nevada, USA) and, using a 234U–238U dating method, extended the chronology of the calcite deposition beyond previous well-established 230Th ages and determined the oldest calcite deposited in this cave, a time marker for cave genesis. The novel method presented here may be used in future speleothem studies in similar hydrogeological settings.
Niels J. de Winter, Clemens V. Ullmann, Anne M. Sørensen, Nicolas Thibault, Steven Goderis, Stijn J. M. Van Malderen, Christophe Snoeck, Stijn Goolaerts, Frank Vanhaecke, and Philippe Claeys
Biogeosciences, 17, 2897–2922,Short summary
In this study, we present a detailed investigation of the chemical composition of 12 specimens of very well preserved, 78-million-year-old oyster shells from southern Sweden. The chemical data show how the oysters grew, the environment in which they lived and how old they became and also provide valuable information about which chemical measurements we can use to learn more about ancient climate and environment from such shells. In turn, this can help improve climate reconstructions and models.
Yue Hu, Xiaoming Sun, Hai Cheng, and Hong Yan
Clim. Past, 16, 597–610,Short summary
Tridacna, as the largest marine bivalves, can be used for high-resolution paleoclimate reconstruction in its carbonate skeleton. In this contribution, the modern δ18O shell is suggested to be a proxy for sea surface temperature in the Xisha Islands, South China Sea. Data from a fossil Tridacna (3673 ± 28 BP) indicate a warmer climate and intense ENSO-related variability but reduced ENSO frequency and more extreme El Niño winters compared to modern Tridacna.
Ole Valk, Michiel M. Rutgers van der Loeff, Walter Geibert, Sandra Gdaniec, S. Bradley Moran, Kate Lepore, Robert Lawrence Edwards, Yanbin Lu, Viena Puigcorbé, Nuria Casacuberta, Ronja Paffrath, William Smethie, and Matthieu Roy-Barman
Ocean Sci., 16, 221–234,Short summary
After 2007 230Th decreased significantly in the central Amundsen Basin. This decrease is accompanied by a circulation change, indicated by changes in salinity. Ventilation of waters is most likely not the reason for the observed depletion in 230Th as atmospherically derived tracers do not reveal an increase in ventilation rate. It is suggested that these interior waters have undergone enhanced scavenging of Th during transit from Fram Strait and the Barents Sea to the central Amundsen Basin.
Haiwei Zhang, Hai Cheng, Yanjun Cai, Christoph Spötl, Ashish Sinha, Gayatri Kathayat, and Hanying Li
Clim. Past, 16, 211–225,Short summary
Few studies have paid attention to the important effect of nonsummer monsoon (NSM) precipitation on the speleothem δ18O in SE China. We find the summer monsoon precipitation is equivalent to NSM precipitation amount in the area of spring persistent rain in SE China, and we discuss the relationships between seasonal precipitation amount, moisture source, δ18O, and ENSO. Characterizing the spatial differences in seasonal precipitation is key to interpreting the speleothem δ18O record.
Stef Vansteenberge, Niels J. de Winter, Matthias Sinnesael, Sophie Verheyden, Steven Goderis, Stijn J. M. Van Malderen, Frank Vanhaecke, and Philippe Claeys
Clim. Past, 16, 141–160,Short summary
We measured the chemical composition (trace-element concentrations and stable-isotope ratios) of a Belgian speleothem that deposited annual layers. Our sub-annual resolution dataset allows us to investigate how the chemistry of this speleothem recorded changes in the environment and climate in northwestern Europe. We then use this information to reconstruct climate change during the 16th and 17th century on the seasonal scale and demonstrate that environmental change drives speleothem chemistry.
Gina E. Moseley, Christoph Spötl, Susanne Brandstätter, Tobias Erhardt, Marc Luetscher, and R. Lawrence Edwards
Clim. Past, 16, 29–50,Short summary
Abrupt climate change during the last ice age can be used to provide important insights into the timescales on which the climate is capable of changing and the mechanisms that drive those changes. In this study, we construct climate records for the period 60 to 120 ka using stalagmites that formed in caves along the northern rim of the European Alps and find good agreement with the timing of climate changes in Greenland and the Asian monsoon.
Hanying Li, Hai Cheng, Ashish Sinha, Gayatri Kathayat, Christoph Spötl, Aurèle Anquetil André, Arnaud Meunier, Jayant Biswas, Pengzhen Duan, Youfeng Ning, and Richard Lawrence Edwards
Clim. Past, 14, 1881–1891,Short summary
4.2 ka eventbetween 4.2 and 3.9 ka has been widely discussed in the Northern Hemsiphere but less reported in the Southern Hemisphere. Here, we use speleothem records from Rodrigues in the southwestern Indian Ocean spanning from 6000 to 3000 years ago to investigate the regional hydro-climatic variability. Our records show no evidence for an unusual climate anomaly between 4.2 and 3.9 ka. Instead, it shows a multi-centennial drought between 3.9 and 3.5 ka.
Gayatri Kathayat, Hai Cheng, Ashish Sinha, Max Berkelhammer, Haiwei Zhang, Pengzhen Duan, Hanying Li, Xianglei Li, Youfeng Ning, and R. Lawrence Edwards
Clim. Past, 14, 1869–1879,Short summary
The 4.2 ka event is generally characterized as an approximately 300-year period of major global climate anomaly. However, the climatic manifestation of this event remains unclear in the Indian monsoon domain. Our high-resolution and precisely dated speleothem record from Meghalaya, India, characterizes the event as consisting of a series of multi-decadal droughts between 3.9 and 4.0 ka rather than a singular pulse of multi-centennial drought as previously thought.
Haiwei Zhang, Hai Cheng, Yanjun Cai, Christoph Spötl, Gayatri Kathayat, Ashish Sinha, R. Lawrence Edwards, and Liangcheng Tan
Clim. Past, 14, 1805–1817,Short summary
The collapses of several Neolithic cultures in China are considered to have been associated with abrupt climate change during the 4.2 ka BP event; however, the hydroclimate of this event in China is still poorly known. Based on stalagmite records from monsoonal China, we found that north China was dry but south China was wet during this event. We propose that the rain belt remained longer at its southern position, giving rise to a pronounced humidity gradient between north and south China.
Florian Adolphi, Christopher Bronk Ramsey, Tobias Erhardt, R. Lawrence Edwards, Hai Cheng, Chris S. M. Turney, Alan Cooper, Anders Svensson, Sune O. Rasmussen, Hubertus Fischer, and Raimund Muscheler
Clim. Past, 14, 1755–1781,Short summary
The last glacial period was characterized by a number of rapid climate changes seen, for example, as abrupt warmings in Greenland and changes in monsoon rainfall intensity. However, due to chronological uncertainties it is challenging to know how tightly coupled these changes were. Here we exploit cosmogenic signals caused by changes in the Sun and Earth magnetic fields to link different climate archives and improve our understanding of the dynamics of abrupt climate change.
Niels J. de Winter, Johan Vellekoop, Robin Vorsselmans, Asefeh Golreihan, Jeroen Soete, Sierra V. Petersen, Kyle W. Meyer, Silvio Casadio, Robert P. Speijer, and Philippe Claeys
Clim. Past, 14, 725–749,Short summary
In this work, we apply a range of methods to measure the geochemical composition of the calcite from fossil shells of Pycnodonte vesicularis (so-called honeycomb oysters). The goal is to investigate how the composition of these shells reflect the environment in which the animals grew. Ultimately, we propose a methodology to check whether the shells of pycnodonte oysters are well-preserved and to reconstruct meaningful information about the seasonal changes in the past climate and environment.
Gabriella Koltai, Hai Cheng, and Christoph Spötl
Clim. Past, 14, 369–381,Short summary
Here we present a multi-proxy study of flowstones in fractures of crystalline rocks with the aim of assessing the palaeoclimate significance of this new type of speleothem archive. Our results indicate a high degree of spatial heterogeneity, whereby changes in speleothem mineralogy and carbon isotope composition are likely governed by aquifer-internal processes. In contrast, the oxygen isotope composition reflects first-order climate variability.
Ny Riavo Gilbertinie Voarintsoa, Loren Bruce Railsback, George Albert Brook, Lixin Wang, Gayatri Kathayat, Hai Cheng, Xianglei Li, Richard Lawrence Edwards, Amos Fety Michel Rakotondrazafy, and Marie Olga Madison Razanatseheno
Clim. Past, 13, 1771–1790,Short summary
This research has been an investigation of two stalagmites from two caves in NW Madagascar to reconstruct the region's paleoenvironmental changes, and to understand the linkage of such changes to the dynamics of the ITCZ. Stable isotopes, mineralogy, and petrography suggest wetter climate conditions than today during the early and late Holocene, when the mean ITCZ was south, and drier during the mid-Holocene when the ITCZ was north.
Morgane Philippe, Jean-Louis Tison, Karen Fjøsne, Bryn Hubbard, Helle A. Kjær, Jan T. M. Lenaerts, Reinhard Drews, Simon G. Sheldon, Kevin De Bondt, Philippe Claeys, and Frank Pattyn
The Cryosphere, 10, 2501–2516,Short summary
The reconstruction of past snow accumulation rates is crucial in the context of recent climate change and sea level rise. We measured ~ 250 years of snow accumulation using a 120 m ice core drilled in coastal East Antarctica, where such long records are very scarce. This study is the first to show an increase in snow accumulation, beginning in the 20th and particularly marked in the last 50 years, thereby confirming model predictions of increased snowfall associated with climate change.
Sietske J. Batenburg, David De Vleeschouwer, Mario Sprovieri, Frederik J. Hilgen, Andrew S. Gale, Brad S. Singer, Christian Koeberl, Rodolfo Coccioni, Philippe Claeys, and Alessandro Montanari
Clim. Past, 12, 1995–2009,Short summary
The relative contributions of astronomical forcing and tectonics to ocean anoxia in the Cretaceous are unclear. This study establishes the pacing of Late Cretaceous black cherts and shales. We present a 6-million-year astrochronology from the Furlo and Bottaccione sections in Italy that spans the Cenomanian–Turonian transition and OAE2. Together with a new radioisotopic age for the mid-Cenomanian event, we show that astronomical forcing determined the timing of these carbon cycle perturbations.
Matthias Sinnesael, Miroslav Zivanovic, David De Vleeschouwer, Philippe Claeys, and Johan Schoukens
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3517–3531,Short summary
Classical spectral analysis often relies on methods based on (Fast) Fourier Transformation. This technique has no unique solution separating variations in amplitude and frequency. This drawback is circumvented by using a polynomial approach (ACE v.1 model) to estimate instantaneous amplitude and frequency in orbital components. The model is illustrated and validated using a synthetic insolation signal and tested on two case studies: a benthic δ18O record and a magnetic susceptibility record.
C. Nehme, S. Verheyden, S. R. Noble, A. R. Farrant, D. Sahy, J. Hellstrom, J. J. Delannoy, and P. Claeys
Clim. Past, 11, 1785–1799,Short summary
The Levant is a key area to study palaeoclimatic responses over G-IG cycles. A precisely dated MIS 5 stalagmite (129–84ka) from Kanaan Cave, Lebanon, with growth rate and isotopic records variations indicate a warm humid phase at the last interglacial (~129-125ka). A shift in δ18O values (125-122ka) is driven by the source effect of the eastern Med. during sapropel 5 (S5). Low growth rates and high δ18O-δ13C values (~122-84ka) mark the onset of glacial inception and transition to drier phase.
M. Van Rampelbergh, S. Verheyden, M. Allan, Y. Quinif, H. Cheng, L. R. Edwards, E. Keppens, and P. Claeys
Clim. Past, 11, 789–802,
M. Van Rampelbergh, S. Verheyden, M Allan, Y. Quinif, E. Keppens, and P. Claeys
Clim. Past, 10, 1871–1885,
Related subject area
Subject: Vegetation Dynamics | Archive: Terrestrial Archives | Timescale: PleistoceneSpring onset and seasonality patterns during the Late Glacial period in the eastern Baltic regionPollen-based quantitative land-cover reconstruction for northern Asia covering the last 40 ka cal BPLate Quaternary climate variability at Mfabeni peatland, eastern South AfricaThe last glacial termination on the eastern flank of the central Patagonian Andes (47 ° S)Terrestrial biosphere changes over the last 120 kyrVegetation responses to interglacial warming in the Arctic: examples from Lake El'gygytgyn, Far East Russian ArcticHominin responses to environmental changes during the Middle Pleistocene in central and southern ItalyHigh-latitude environmental change during MIS 9 and 11: biogeochemical evidence from Lake El'gygytgyn, Far East RussiaMasked millennial-scale climate variations in South West Africa during the last glaciation
Leeli Amon, Friederike Wagner-Cremer, Jüri Vassiljev, and Siim Veski
Clim. Past, 18, 2143–2153,Short summary
The spring onset and growing season dynamics during the Late Glacial period in the Baltic region were reconstructed using the micro-phenology based on dwarf birch subfossil leaf cuticles. The comparison of pollen- and chironomid-inferred past temperature estimations with spring onset, growth degree day, and plant macrofossil data shows coherent patterns during the cooler Older Dryas and warmer Bølling–Allerød periods but more complicated climate dynamics during the Younger Dryas cold reversal.
Xianyong Cao, Fang Tian, Furong Li, Marie-José Gaillard, Natalia Rudaya, Qinghai Xu, and Ulrike Herzschuh
Clim. Past, 15, 1503–1536,Short summary
The high-quality pollen records (collected from lakes and peat bogs) of the last 40 ka cal BP form north Asia are homogenized and the plant abundance signals are calibrated by the modern relative pollen productivity estimates. Calibrated plant abundances for each site are generally consistent with in situ modern vegetation, and vegetation changes within the regions are characterized by minor changes in the abundance of major taxa rather than by invasions of new taxa during the last 40 ka cal BP.
Charlotte Miller, Jemma Finch, Trevor Hill, Francien Peterse, Marc Humphries, Matthias Zabel, and Enno Schefuß
Clim. Past, 15, 1153–1170,Short summary
Here we reconstruct vegetation and precipitation, in eastern South Africa, over the last 32 000 years, by measuring the stable carbon and hydrogen isotope composition of plant waxes from Mfabeni peat bog (KwaZulu-Natal). Our results indicate that the late Quaternary climate in eastern South Africa did not respond directly to orbital forcing or to changes in sea-surface temperatures. Our findings stress the influence of the Southern Hemisphere westerlies in driving climate change in the region.
William I. Henríquez, Rodrigo Villa-Martínez, Isabel Vilanova, Ricardo De Pol-Holz, and Patricio I. Moreno
Clim. Past, 13, 879–895,Short summary
Results from Lago Edita, central-western Patagonia (47° S), allow examination of the timing and direction of paleoclimate signals during the last glacial termination (T1) in southern midlatitudes. Cold and wet conditions prevailed during T1, terminated by warm pulses at 13 000 and 11 000 yr BP. Delayed warming, relative to sites along the Pacific coast, raises the possibility that residual ice masses in the Andes induced regional cooling along downwind sectors of central Patagonia during T1.
B. A. A. Hoogakker, R. S. Smith, J. S. Singarayer, R. Marchant, I. C. Prentice, J. R. M. Allen, R. S. Anderson, S. A. Bhagwat, H. Behling, O. Borisova, M. Bush, A. Correa-Metrio, A. de Vernal, J. M. Finch, B. Fréchette, S. Lozano-Garcia, W. D. Gosling, W. Granoszewski, E. C. Grimm, E. Grüger, J. Hanselman, S. P. Harrison, T. R. Hill, B. Huntley, G. Jiménez-Moreno, P. Kershaw, M.-P. Ledru, D. Magri, M. McKenzie, U. Müller, T. Nakagawa, E. Novenko, D. Penny, L. Sadori, L. Scott, J. Stevenson, P. J. Valdes, M. Vandergoes, A. Velichko, C. Whitlock, and C. Tzedakis
Clim. Past, 12, 51–73,Short summary
In this paper we use two climate models to test how Earth’s vegetation responded to changes in climate over the last 120 000 years, looking at warm interglacial climates like today, cold ice-age glacial climates, and intermediate climates. The models agree well with observations from pollen, showing smaller forested areas and larger desert areas during cold periods. Forests store most terrestrial carbon; the terrestrial carbon lost during cold climates was most likely relocated to the oceans.
A. V. Lozhkin and P. M. Anderson
Clim. Past, 9, 1211–1219,
R. Orain, V. Lebreton, E. Russo Ermolli, A.-M. Sémah, S. Nomade, Q. Shao, J.-J. Bahain, U. Thun Hohenstein, and C. Peretto
Clim. Past, 9, 687–697,
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Clim. Past, 9, 567–581,
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Clim. Past, 8, 841–853,
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The use of stalagmites for last interglacial continental climate reconstructions in Europe has been successful in the past; however to expand the geographical coverage, additional data from Belgium is presented. It has been shown that stalagmite growth, morphology and stable isotope content reflect regional and local climate conditions, with Eemian optimum climate occurring between 125.3 and 117.3 ka. The start the Weichselian is expressed by a stop of growth caused by a drying climate.
The use of stalagmites for last interglacial continental climate reconstructions in Europe has...