Articles | Volume 6, issue 5
Clim. Past, 6, 591–608, 2010
© Author(s) 2010. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Special issue: Holocene climate variability over Scandinavia
17 Sep 2010
17 Sep 2010
Climate change between the mid and late Holocene in northern high latitudes – Part 1: Survey of temperature and precipitation proxy data
H. S. Sundqvist et al.
Related subject area
Subject: Proxy Use-Development-Validation | Archive: Terrestrial Archives | Timescale: HoloceneSampling density and date along with species selection influence spatial representation of tree-ring reconstructionsChanges in high-intensity precipitation on the northern Apennines (Italy) as revealed by multidisciplinary data over the last 9000 yearsNeoglacial trends in diatom dynamics from a small alpine lake in the Qinling mountains of central ChinaCentennial- to millennial-scale monsoon changes since the last deglaciation linked to solar activities and North Atlantic coolingAlgal lipids reveal unprecedented warming rates in alpine areas of SW Europe during the industrial periodReconstructing seasonality through stable-isotope and trace-element analyses of the Proserpine stalagmite, Han-sur-Lesse cave, Belgium: indications for climate-driven changes during the last 400 yearsTwo millennia of Main region (southern Germany) hydroclimate variabilityCombining a pollen and macrofossil synthesis with climate simulations for spatial reconstructions of European climate using Bayesian filteringLignin oxidation products as a potential proxy for vegetation and environmental changes in speleothems and cave drip water – a first record from the Herbstlabyrinth, central GermanyHow dry was the Younger Dryas? Evidence from a coupled δ2H–δ18O biomarker paleohygrometer applied to the Gemündener Maar sediments, Western Eifel, GermanySiberian tree-ring and stable isotope proxies as indicators of temperature and moisture changes after major stratospheric volcanic eruptionsThe 4.2 ka BP Event in the Mediterranean region: an overviewTechnical note: Optimizing the utility of combined GPR, OSL, and Lidar (GOaL) to extract paleoenvironmental records and decipher shoreline evolutionThe onset of neoglaciation in Iceland and the 4.2 ka eventHydroclimatic variations in southeastern China during the 4.2 ka event reflected by stalagmite recordsFire, vegetation, and Holocene climate in a southeastern Tibetan lake: a multi-biomarker reconstruction from Paru CoClimate impact on the development of Pre-Classic Maya civilisationSynchronizing 10Be in two varved lake sediment records to IntCal13 14C during three grand solar minimaTechnical note: Open-paleo-data implementation pilot – the PAGES 2k special issueA chironomid-based record of temperature variability during the past 4000 years in northern China and its possible societal implicationsInsights into Atlantic multidecadal variability using the Last Millennium Reanalysis frameworkThree distinct Holocene intervals of stalagmite deposition and nondeposition revealed in NW Madagascar, and their paleoclimate implicationsExamining bias in pollen-based quantitative climate reconstructions induced by human impact on vegetation in ChinaA dual-biomarker approach for quantification of changes in relative humidity from sedimentary lipid D∕H ratiosPseudo-proxy tests of the analogue method to reconstruct spatially resolved global temperature during the Common EraDevelopment and evaluation of a system of proxy data assimilation for paleoclimate reconstructionA chironomid-based mean July temperature inference model from the south-east margin of the Tibetan Plateau, ChinaAssessing performance and seasonal bias of pollen-based climate reconstructions in a perfect model worldQuantitative reconstruction of summer precipitation using a mid-Holocene δ13C common millet record from Guanzhong Basin, northern ChinaNorth Atlantic Oscillation controls on oxygen and hydrogen isotope gradients in winter precipitation across Europe; implications for palaeoclimate studiesA 368-year maximum temperature reconstruction based on tree-ring data in the northwestern Sichuan Plateau (NWSP), ChinaInferring late-Holocene climate in the Ecuadorian Andes using a chironomid-based temperature inference modelA high-altitude peatland record of environmental changes in the NW Argentine Andes (24 ° S) over the last 2100 yearsTechnical note: The Linked Paleo Data framework – a common tongue for paleoclimatologyA Bayesian hierarchical model for reconstructing relative sea level: from raw data to rates of changeInferring climate variability from nonlinear proxies: application to palaeo-ENSO studiesTechnical Note: How accurate can stalagmite formation temperatures be determined using vapour bubble radius measurements in fluid inclusions?High-resolution leaf wax carbon and hydrogen isotopic record of the late Holocene paleoclimate in arid Central AsiaArctic Holocene proxy climate database – new approaches to assessing geochronological accuracy and encoding climate variablesTesting long-term summer temperature reconstruction based on maximum density chronologies obtained by reanalysis of tree-ring data sets from northernmost Sweden and FinlandConstraining Holocene hydrological changes in the Carpathian–Balkan region using speleothem δ18O and pollen-based temperature reconstructionsSediment transport processes across the Tibetan Plateau inferred from robust grain-size end members in lake sedimentsSimilarity estimators for irregular and age-uncertain time seriesMid- and late Holocene dust deposition in western Europe: the Misten peat bog (Hautes Fagnes – Belgium)A mid-Holocene climate reconstruction for eastern South AmericaNorth–south palaeohydrological contrasts in the central Mediterranean during the Holocene: tentative synthesis and working hypothesesLate Neolithic Mondsee Culture in Austria: living on lakes and living with flood risk?Tree-ring–based summer mean temperature variations in the Adamello–Presanella Group (Italian Central Alps), 1610–2008 ADLong-term summer sunshine/moisture stress reconstruction from tree-ring widths from Bosnia and HerzegovinaStalagmite water content as a proxy for drip water supply in tropical and subtropical areas
Justin T. Maxwell, Grant L. Harley, Trevis J. Matheus, Brandon M. Strange, Kayla Van Aken, Tsun Fung Au, and Joshua C. Bregy
Clim. Past, 16, 1901–1916,Short summary
We found that increasing the density of chronologies in the tree-ring network resulted in estimated soil moisture conditions that better matched the spatial variability of the values that were instrumentally recorded for droughts and, to a lesser extent, pluvials. By sampling trees in 2010 compared to 1980, the sensitivity of tree rings to soil moisture decreased in the southern portion of our region, where severe drought conditions have been absent over recent decades.
Stefano Segadelli, Federico Grazzini, Veronica Rossi, Margherita Aguzzi, Silvia Marvelli, Marco Marchesini, Alessandro Chelli, Roberto Francese, Maria Teresa De Nardo, and Sandro Nanni
Clim. Past, 16, 1547–1564,Short summary
In an attempt to consolidate trends in the hydrological cycle induced by recent warming, we conducted a multidisciplinary study combining meteorological data, climate proxies from the literature, and original coring and pollen data acquired in an area that has been hit by record-breaking precipitation events. A detailed study of recent flash-flood deposits compared with fossil peat bog and lake sediments supports the expected increase in precipitation intensity during warm climatic phases.
Bo Cheng, Jennifer Adams, Jianhui Chen, Aifeng Zhou, Qing Zhang, and Anson W. Mackay
Clim. Past, 16, 543–554,Short summary
The Qinling mountains in China are biodiversity rich. We studied one of the high-latitude lakes on Mount Taibai with a view to looking at how aquatic diversity responded to long-term changes in climate over the past 3500 years. We specifically looked at a group of single-celled algae called diatoms, as they are very sensitive to the environment. We found that these algae changed gradually over time, but they showed abrupt change during the period known as the Little Ice Age, about 400 years ago.
Xingxing Liu, Youbin Sun, Jef Vandenberghe, Peng Cheng, Xu Zhang, Evan J. Gowan, Gerrit Lohmann, and Zhisheng An
Clim. Past, 16, 315–324,Short summary
The East Asian summer monsoon and winter monsoon are anticorrelated on a centennial timescale during 16–1 ka. The centennial monsoon variability is connected to changes of both solar activity and North Atlantic cooling events during the Early Holocene. Then, North Atlantic cooling became the major forcing of events during the Late Holocene. This work presents the great challenge and potential to understand the response of the monsoon system to global climate changes in the past and the future.
Antonio García-Alix, Jaime L. Toney, Gonzalo Jiménez-Moreno, Carmen Pérez-Martínez, Laura Jiménez, Marta Rodrigo-Gámiz, R. Scott Anderson, Jon Camuera, Francisco J. Jiménez-Espejo, Dhais Peña-Angulo, and María J. Ramos-Román
Clim. Past, 16, 245–263,Short summary
In this paper we identify warming thresholds, rates, and forcing mechanisms from a novel alpine temperature record of the southern Iberian Peninsula during the Common Era in order to contextualize the modern warming and its potential impact on these vulnerable alpine ecosystems. To do so, we have developed and applied the first lacustrine temperature calibration in alpine lakes for algal compounds, called long-chain alkyl diols, which is a significant advance in biomarker paleothermometry.
Stef Vansteenberge, Niels J. de Winter, Matthias Sinnesael, Sophie Verheyden, Steven Goderis, Stijn J. M. Van Malderen, Frank Vanhaecke, and Philippe Claeys
Clim. Past, 16, 141–160,Short summary
We measured the chemical composition (trace-element concentrations and stable-isotope ratios) of a Belgian speleothem that deposited annual layers. Our sub-annual resolution dataset allows us to investigate how the chemistry of this speleothem recorded changes in the environment and climate in northwestern Europe. We then use this information to reconstruct climate change during the 16th and 17th century on the seasonal scale and demonstrate that environmental change drives speleothem chemistry.
Alexander Land, Sabine Remmele, Jutta Hofmann, Daniel Reichle, Margaret Eppli, Christian Zang, Allan Buras, Sebastian Hein, and Reiner Zimmermann
Clim. Past, 15, 1677–1690,Short summary
With the use of precipitation sensitive oak ring-width series from the Main River region (southern Germany) a 2000-year long hydroclimate reconstruction has been developed. The ring series are sensitive to the sum of rainfall from 26 February to 6 July. This region suffered from severe, long-lasting droughts in the past two millennia (e.g., AD 500/510s, 940s, 1170s, 1390s and 1160s). In the AD 550s, 1050s, 1310s and 1480s, multi-year periods with high rainfall hit the region.
Nils Weitzel, Andreas Hense, and Christian Ohlwein
Clim. Past, 15, 1275–1301,Short summary
A new method for probabilistic spatial reconstructions of past climate states is presented, which combines pollen data with a multi-model ensemble of climate simulations in a Bayesian framework. The approach is applied to reconstruct summer and winter temperature in Europe during the mid-Holocene. Our reconstructions account for multiple sources of uncertainty and are well suited for quantitative statistical analyses of the climate under different forcing conditions.
Inken Heidke, Denis Scholz, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Clim. Past, 15, 1025–1037,Short summary
This is the first quantitative study of lignin biomarkers in stalagmites and cave drip water. Lignin is only produced by higher plants; therefore, its analysis can be used to reconstruct the vegetation of the past. We compared our lignin results with stable isotope and trace element records from the same samples and found correlations or similarities with P, Ba, U and Mg concentrations as well as δ13C values. These results can help to better interpret other vegetation proxies.
Johannes Hepp, Lorenz Wüthrich, Tobias Bromm, Marcel Bliedtner, Imke Kathrin Schäfer, Bruno Glaser, Kazimierz Rozanski, Frank Sirocko, Roland Zech, and Michael Zech
Clim. Past, 15, 713–733,
Olga V. Churakova (Sidorova), Marina V. Fonti, Matthias Saurer, Sébastien Guillet, Christophe Corona, Patrick Fonti, Vladimir S. Myglan, Alexander V. Kirdyanov, Oksana V. Naumova, Dmitriy V. Ovchinnikov, Alexander V. Shashkin, Irina P. Panyushkina, Ulf Büntgen, Malcolm K. Hughes, Eugene A. Vaganov, Rolf T. W. Siegwolf, and Markus Stoffel
Clim. Past, 15, 685–700,Short summary
We present a unique dataset of multiple tree-ring and stable isotope parameters, representing temperature-sensitive Siberian ecotones, to assess climatic impacts after six large stratospheric volcanic eruptions at 535, 540, 1257, 1640, 1815, and 1991 CE. Besides the well-documented effects of temperature derived from tree-ring width and latewood density, stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in tree-ring cellulose provide information about moisture and sunshine duration changes after the events.
Monica Bini, Giovanni Zanchetta, Aurel Perşoiu, Rosine Cartier, Albert Català, Isabel Cacho, Jonathan R. Dean, Federico Di Rita, Russell N. Drysdale, Martin Finnè, Ilaria Isola, Bassem Jalali, Fabrizio Lirer, Donatella Magri, Alessia Masi, Leszek Marks, Anna Maria Mercuri, Odile Peyron, Laura Sadori, Marie-Alexandrine Sicre, Fabian Welc, Christoph Zielhofer, and Elodie Brisset
Clim. Past, 15, 555–577,Short summary
The Mediterranean region has returned some of the clearest evidence of a climatically dry period occurring approximately 4200 years ago. We reviewed selected proxies to infer regional climate patterns between 4.3 and 3.8 ka. Temperature data suggest a cooling anomaly, even if this is not uniform, whereas winter was drier, along with dry summers. However, some exceptions to this prevail, where wetter condition seems to have persisted, suggesting regional heterogeneity.
Amy J. Dougherty, Jeong-Heon Choi, Chris S. M. Turney, and Anthony Dosseto
Clim. Past, 15, 389–404,
Áslaug Geirsdóttir, Gifford H. Miller, John T. Andrews, David J. Harning, Leif S. Anderson, Christopher Florian, Darren J. Larsen, and Thor Thordarson
Clim. Past, 15, 25–40,Short summary
Compositing climate proxies in sediment from seven Iceland lakes documents abrupt summer cooling between 4.5 and 4.0 ka, statistically indistinguishable from 4.2 ka. Although the decline in summer insolation was an important factor, a combination of superposed changes in ocean circulation and explosive Icelandic volcanism were likely responsible for the abrupt perturbation recorded by our proxies. Lake and catchment proxies recovered to a colder equilibrium state following the perturbation.
Haiwei Zhang, Hai Cheng, Yanjun Cai, Christoph Spötl, Gayatri Kathayat, Ashish Sinha, R. Lawrence Edwards, and Liangcheng Tan
Clim. Past, 14, 1805–1817,Short summary
The collapses of several Neolithic cultures in China are considered to have been associated with abrupt climate change during the 4.2 ka BP event; however, the hydroclimate of this event in China is still poorly known. Based on stalagmite records from monsoonal China, we found that north China was dry but south China was wet during this event. We propose that the rain belt remained longer at its southern position, giving rise to a pronounced humidity gradient between north and south China.
Alice Callegaro, Dario Battistel, Natalie M. Kehrwald, Felipe Matsubara Pereira, Torben Kirchgeorg, Maria del Carmen Villoslada Hidalgo, Broxton W. Bird, and Carlo Barbante
Clim. Past, 14, 1543–1563,Short summary
Holocene fires and vegetation are reconstructed using different molecular markers with a single analytical method, applied for the first time to lake sediments from Tibet. The early Holocene shows oscillations between grasses and conifers, with smouldering fires represented by levoglucosan peaks, and high-temperature fires represented by PAHs. The lack of human FeSts excludes local human influence on fire and vegetation changes. Late Holocene displays an increase in local to regional combustion.
Kees Nooren, Wim Z. Hoek, Brian J. Dermody, Didier Galop, Sarah Metcalfe, Gerald Islebe, and Hans Middelkoop
Clim. Past, 14, 1253–1273,Short summary
We present two new palaeoclimatic records for the central Maya lowlands, adding valuable new insights to the impact of climate change on the development of Maya civilisation. Lake Tuspan's diatom record is indicative of precipitation changes at a local scale, while a beach ridge elevation record from the world's largest late Holocene beach ridge plain provides a regional picture.
Markus Czymzik, Raimund Muscheler, Florian Adolphi, Florian Mekhaldi, Nadine Dräger, Florian Ott, Michał Słowinski, Mirosław Błaszkiewicz, Ala Aldahan, Göran Possnert, and Achim Brauer
Clim. Past, 14, 687–696,Short summary
Our results provide a proof of concept for facilitating 10Be in varved lake sediments as a novel synchronization tool required for investigating leads and lags of proxy responses to climate variability. They also point to some limitations of 10Be in these archives mainly connected to in-lake sediment resuspension processes.
Darrell S. Kaufman and PAGES 2k special-issue editorial team
Clim. Past, 14, 593–600,Short summary
We explain the procedure used to attain a high and consistent level of data stewardship across a special issue of the journal Climate of the Past. We discuss the challenges related to (1) determining which data are essential for public archival, (2) using data generated by others, and (3) understanding data citations. We anticipate that open-data sharing in paleo sciences will accelerate as the advantages become more evident and as practices that reduce data loss become the accepted convention.
Haipeng Wang, Jianhui Chen, Shengda Zhang, David D. Zhang, Zongli Wang, Qinghai Xu, Shengqian Chen, Shijin Wang, Shichang Kang, and Fahu Chen
Clim. Past, 14, 383–396,Short summary
The chironomid-inferred temperature record from Gonghai Lake exhibits a stepwise decreasing trend since 4 ka. A cold event in the Era of Disunity, the Sui-Tang Warm Period, the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age can all be recognized in our record, as well as in many other temperature reconstructions in China. Local wars in Shanxi Province, documented in the historical literature during the past 2700 years, are statistically significantly correlated with changes in temperature.
Hansi K. A. Singh, Gregory J. Hakim, Robert Tardif, Julien Emile-Geay, and David C. Noone
Clim. Past, 14, 157–174,Short summary
The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) is prominent in the climate system. We study the AMO over the last 2000 years using a novel proxy framework, the Last Millennium Reanalysis. We find that the AMO is linked to continental warming, Arctic sea ice retreat, and an Atlantic precipitation shift. Low clouds decrease globally. We find no distinct multidecadal spectral peak in the AMO over the last 2 millennia, suggesting that human activities may have enhanced the AMO in the modern era.
Ny Riavo Gilbertinie Voarintsoa, Loren Bruce Railsback, George Albert Brook, Lixin Wang, Gayatri Kathayat, Hai Cheng, Xianglei Li, Richard Lawrence Edwards, Amos Fety Michel Rakotondrazafy, and Marie Olga Madison Razanatseheno
Clim. Past, 13, 1771–1790,Short summary
This research has been an investigation of two stalagmites from two caves in NW Madagascar to reconstruct the region's paleoenvironmental changes, and to understand the linkage of such changes to the dynamics of the ITCZ. Stable isotopes, mineralogy, and petrography suggest wetter climate conditions than today during the early and late Holocene, when the mean ITCZ was south, and drier during the mid-Holocene when the ITCZ was north.
Wei Ding, Qinghai Xu, and Pavel E. Tarasov
Clim. Past, 13, 1285–1300,Short summary
Pollen-based past climate reconstruction for regions with long-term human occupation is always controversial. We examined the bias induced by the human impact on vegetation in a climate reconstruction for temperate eastern China by comparing the deviations in the reconstructed results for a fossil record based on two pollen–climate calibration sets. Climatic signals in pollen assemblages are indeed obscured by human impact; however, the extent of the bias could be assessed.
Oliver Rach, Ansgar Kahmen, Achim Brauer, and Dirk Sachse
Clim. Past, 13, 741–757,Short summary
Currently, reconstructions of past changes in the hydrological cycle are usually qualitative, which is a major drawback for testing the accuracy of models in predicting future responses. Here we present a proof of concept of a novel approach to deriving quantitative paleohydrological data, i.e. changes in relative humidity, from lacustrine sediment archives, employing a combination of organic geochemical methods and plant physiological modeling.
Juan José Gómez-Navarro, Eduardo Zorita, Christoph C. Raible, and Raphael Neukom
Clim. Past, 13, 629–648,Short summary
This contribution aims at assessing to what extent the analogue method, a classic technique used in other branches of meteorology and climatology, can be used to perform gridded reconstructions of annual temperature based on the limited information from available but un-calibrated proxies spread across different locations of the world. We conclude that it is indeed possible, albeit with certain limitations that render the method comparable to more classic techniques.
Atsushi Okazaki and Kei Yoshimura
Clim. Past, 13, 379–393,Short summary
Data assimilation has been successfully applied in the field of paleoclimatology to reconstruct past climate. However, data reconstructed from proxies have been assimilated, as opposed to the actual proxy values, which prevented full utilization of the information recorded in the proxies. This study propose a new data assimilation system in which actual proxy data are directly assimilated.
Enlou Zhang, Jie Chang, Yanmin Cao, Hongqu Tang, Pete Langdon, James Shulmeister, Rong Wang, Xiangdong Yang, and Ji Shen
Clim. Past, 13, 185–199,Short summary
This paper reports the first development of sub-fossil chironomid-based mean July temperature transfer functions from China. The transfer functions yield reliable reconstructions that are comparable to the instrumental record. The application of this new tool will provide long-term quantitative palaeoclimate estimates from south-western China which is a critical region for understanding the dynamic and evolution of the Indian Ocean south-west Monsoon system.
Kira Rehfeld, Mathias Trachsel, Richard J. Telford, and Thomas Laepple
Clim. Past, 12, 2255–2270,Short summary
Indirect evidence on past climate comes from the former composition of ecological communities such as plants, preserved as pollen grains in sediments of lakes. Transfer functions convert relative counts of species to a climatologically meaningful scale (e.g. annual mean temperature in degrees C). We show that the fundamental assumptions in the algorithms impact the reconstruction results in he idealized model world, in particular if the reconstructed variables were not ecologically relevant.
Qing Yang, Xiaoqiang Li, Xinying Zhou, Keliang Zhao, and Nan Sun
Clim. Past, 12, 2229–2240,Short summary
The fossilized seeds of common millet are suited to the production of quantitative Holocene precipitation reconstructions. Our reconstructed results showed that summer precipitation from 7.7–3.4 ka BP was ~ 50 mm, or 17 % higher than present levels. Maximal mean summer precipitation peaked at 414 mm during 6.1–5.5 ka BP, ~ 109 mm, or 36 % higher than today, indicating the EASM peaked at this time. This work can provide a new proxy for further research into continuous paleoprecipitation sequences.
Michael Deininger, Martin Werner, and Frank McDermott
Clim. Past, 12, 2127–2143,Short summary
This study investigates the NAO (Northern Atlantic Oscillation)-related mechanisms that control winter precipitation stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope gradients across Europe. The results show that past longitudinal stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope gradients in European rainfall stored in palaeoclimate archives (e.g. speleothems) can be used to infer the past winter NAO modes from its variations.
Liangjun Zhu, Yuandong Zhang, Zongshan Li, Binde Guo, and Xiaochun Wang
Clim. Past, 12, 1485–1498,Short summary
We present a 368-year late summer maximum temperature reconstruction based on spruce tree rings. It touches on the critical topic of climate reconstruction in the eastern edge of Tibetan Plateau and represents an extension and enhancement of climate records for this area. The Little Ice Age was well represented and 20th century warming was not obvious in this reconstruction. This temperature variation may be affected by global land–sea atmospheric circulation as well as solar and volcanic forcing.
Frazer Matthews-Bird, Stephen J. Brooks, Philip B. Holden, Encarni Montoya, and William D. Gosling
Clim. Past, 12, 1263–1280,Short summary
Chironomidae are a family of two-winged aquatic fly of the order Diptera. The family is species rich (> 5000 described species) and extremely sensitive to environmental change, particualy temperature. Across the Northern Hemisphere, chironomids have been widely used as paleotemperature proxies as the chitinous remains of the insect are readily preserved in lake sediments. This is the first study using chironomids as paleotemperature proxies in tropical South America.
Karsten Schittek, Sebastian T. Kock, Andreas Lücke, Jonathan Hense, Christian Ohlendorf, Julio J. Kulemeyer, Liliana C. Lupo, and Frank Schäbitz
Clim. Past, 12, 1165–1180,Short summary
Cushion peatlands are versatile climate archives for the study of past environmental changes. We present the environmental history for the last 2100 years of Cerro Tuzgle peatland, which is located in the NW Argentine Puna. The results reflect prominent late Holocene climate anomalies and provide evidence that Northern Hemisphere climate oscillations were extensive. Volcanic forcing at the beginning of the 19th century seems to have had an impact on climatic settings in the Central Andes
Nicholas P. McKay and Julien Emile-Geay
Clim. Past, 12, 1093–1100,Short summary
The lack of accepted data formats and data standards in paleoclimatology is a growing problem that slows progress in the field. Here, we propose a preliminary data standard for paleoclimate data, general enough to accommodate all the proxy and measurement types encountered in a large international collaboration (PAGES 2k). We also introduce a data format for such structured data (Linked Paleo Data, or LiPD), leveraging recent advances in knowledge representation (Linked Open Data).
Niamh Cahill, Andrew C. Kemp, Benjamin P. Horton, and Andrew C. Parnell
Clim. Past, 12, 525–542,Short summary
We propose a Bayesian model for the reconstruction and analysis of former sea levels. The model provides a single, unifying framework for reconstructing and analyzing sea level through time with fully quantified uncertainty. We illustrate our approach using a case study of Common Era (last 2000 years) sea levels from New Jersey.
J. Emile-Geay and M. Tingley
Clim. Past, 12, 31–50,Short summary
Ignoring nonlinearity in palaeoclimate records (e.g. continental run-off proxies) runs the risk of severely overstating changes in climate variability. Even with the correct model and parameters, some information is irretrievably lost by such proxies. However, we find that a simple empirical transform can do much to improve the situation, and makes them amenable to classical analyses. Doing so on two palaeo-ENSO records markedly changes some of the quantitative inferences made from such records.
F. Spadin, D. Marti, R. Hidalgo-Staub, J. Rička, D. Fleitmann, and M. Frenz
Clim. Past, 11, 905–913,Short summary
Fluid inclusions inside stalagmites retain information on the cave temperature at the time they formed and thus can be used to reconstruct the continental climate of the past. A method for extracting this information based on a thermodynamic model and size measurements of femtosecond-laser-induced vapour bubbles is presented. Applying our method to stalagmites taken from the Milandre cave in the Swiss Jura Mountains demonstrate that palaeotemperatures can be determined with an accuracy of ±1°C.
B. Aichner, S. J. Feakins, J. E. Lee, U. Herzschuh, and X. Liu
Clim. Past, 11, 619–633,
H. S. Sundqvist, D. S. Kaufman, N. P. McKay, N. L. Balascio, J. P. Briner, L. C. Cwynar, H. P. Sejrup, H. Seppä, D. A. Subetto, J. T. Andrews, Y. Axford, J. Bakke, H. J. B. Birks, S. J. Brooks, A. de Vernal, A. E. Jennings, F. C. Ljungqvist, K. M. Rühland, C. Saenger, J. P. Smol, and A. E. Viau
Clim. Past, 10, 1605–1631,
V. V. Matskovsky and S. Helama
Clim. Past, 10, 1473–1487,
V. Drăguşin, M. Staubwasser, D. L. Hoffmann, V. Ersek, B. P. Onac, and D. Veres
Clim. Past, 10, 1363–1380,
E. Dietze, F. Maussion, M. Ahlborn, B. Diekmann, K. Hartmann, K. Henkel, T. Kasper, G. Lockot, S. Opitz, and T. Haberzettl
Clim. Past, 10, 91–106,
K. Rehfeld and J. Kurths
Clim. Past, 10, 107–122,
M. Allan, G. Le Roux, N. Piotrowska, J. Beghin, E. Javaux, M. Court-Picon, N. Mattielli, S. Verheyden, and N. Fagel
Clim. Past, 9, 2285–2298,
L. F. Prado, I. Wainer, C. M. Chiessi, M.-P. Ledru, and B. Turcq
Clim. Past, 9, 2117–2133,
M. Magny, N. Combourieu-Nebout, J. L. de Beaulieu, V. Bout-Roumazeilles, D. Colombaroli, S. Desprat, A. Francke, S. Joannin, E. Ortu, O. Peyron, M. Revel, L. Sadori, G. Siani, M. A. Sicre, S. Samartin, A. Simonneau, W. Tinner, B. Vannière, B. Wagner, G. Zanchetta, F. Anselmetti, E. Brugiapaglia, E. Chapron, M. Debret, M. Desmet, J. Didier, L. Essallami, D. Galop, A. Gilli, J. N. Haas, N. Kallel, L. Millet, A. Stock, J. L. Turon, and S. Wirth
Clim. Past, 9, 2043–2071,
T. Swierczynski, S. Lauterbach, P. Dulski, and A. Brauer
Clim. Past, 9, 1601–1612,
A. Coppola, G. Leonelli, M. C. Salvatore, M. Pelfini, and C. Baroni
Clim. Past, 9, 211–221,
S. Poljanšek, A. Ceglar, and T. Levanič
Clim. Past, 9, 27–40,
N. Vogel, Y. Scheidegger, M. S. Brennwald, D. Fleitmann, S. Figura, R. Wieler, and R. Kipfer
Clim. Past, 9, 1–12,
Alley, R. B.: The Younger Dryas cold interval as viewed from central Greenland, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 19, 213–226, 2000.
Andersen, C., Koç, N., Jennings, A., and Andrews, J. T.: Nonuniform response of the major surface currents in the Nordic Seas to insolation forcing: implications for the Holocene climate variability, Paleoceanography, 19, PA2003, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002PA000873, 2004.
Andersson, C., Risebrobakken, B., Jansen, E., and Dahl, S. O.: Late Holocene surface conditions of Norwegian Sea (Vøring Plateau), Paleoceanography, 18, 1044, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001PA000654, 2003.
Andreev, A. A. and Klimanov, V. A.: Quantitative Holocene climatic reconstruction from Arctic Russia, J. Paleolimn., 24, 81–91, 2000.
Andreev, A. A., Klimanov, V. A., and Sulerzhitsky, L. D.: Vegetation and climate history of the Yana River lowland, Russia, during the last 6400 yr, Quaternary Sci. Rev, 20, 259–266, 2001.
Andreev, A. A., Tarasov, P. E., Klimanov, V. A., Melles, M., Lisitsyna, O. M., and Hubberten, H.-W.: Vegetation, climate changes around Lama Lake, Taymyr Peninsula, Russia, during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, Quaternatery Int., 122, 69–84, 2004.
Andreev, A. A., Tarasov, P. E., Siegert, C., Ebel, T., Klimanov, V. A., Melles, M., Bobrov, A., Dereviagin, A. Y., Lubinski, D., and Hubberten, H.-W.: Late Pleistocene vegetation and climate on the northern Taymyr Peninsula, Arctic Russia, Boreas, 32, 484–505, 2003.
Andreev, A. A., Tarasov, P. E., Ilyashuk, B. P., Ilyashuk, E. A, Cremer, H., Hermichen, W.-D., Wisher, F., and Hubberten, H.-W.: Holocene environmental history recorded in Lake Lyadhej-To sediments, Polar Urals, Russia, Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl., 223, 181–203, 2005.
Antonsson, K. and Seppä, H.: Holocene temperatures in Bohuslän, Southwestern Sweden: a quantitative reconstruction from fossil pollen data, Boreas, 36, 400–410, 2007.
Antonsson, K., Brooks, S. J., Seppä, H., Telford, R. J., and Birks, H. J. B.: Quantitative palaeotemperature records inferred from fossil chironomid and pollen assemblages from Lake Gilltjärnen, northern central Sweden, J. Quaternary Sci., 21, 831–841, 2006.
Axford, Y., Miller, G. H., Geirsdóttir, Á., and Langdon, P. G.: Holocene temperature history of northern Iceland inferred from subfossil midges, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 26, 3344–3358, 2007.
Axford, Y., Briner, J. P., Miller, D. F., and Francis, D. J.: Paleoecological evidence for abrupt cold reversals during peak Holocene warmth on Baffin Island, Arctic Canada, Quaternary Res., 71, 142–149, 2009.
Bakke, J., Lie, Ø., Nesje, A., Dahl, S. O., and Paasche, Ø.: Utilizing physical sediment variability in glacier-fed lakes for continous glacier reconstructions during the Holocene, northern Folgefonna, western Norway, Holocene, 15, 161–176, 2005.
Bendle, J. A. P. and Rosell-Melé, A.: High-resolution alkenone sea surface temperature variability on the North Icelandic Shelf: implications for Nordic Seas palaeoclimatic development during the Holocene, Holocene, 17, 9–24, 2007.
Berger, A. L.: Insolation Signatures of Quaternary Climate Changes, Il Nuovo Cimento, 2, 63–87, 1979.
Berger, A. L. and Loutre, M. F.: Insolation values for the climate of the last 10000000 years, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 10, 297–317, 1991.
Bigler, C., Larocque, I., Peglar, S. M., Birks, H. J. B., and Hall, R. I.: Quantitative multiproxy assessment of long-term patterns of Holocene environmental change from a small lake near Abisko, northern Sweden, Holocene, 12, 481–96, 2002.
Bigler, C., Larocque, I., Peglar, S. M., Birks, H. J. B., and Hall, R. I.: Quantitative multiproxy assessment of long-term patterns of Holocene environmental change from a small lake near Abisko, northern Sweden, Holocene, 12, 481–96, 2002.
Bigler, C., Grahn, E., Larocque, I., Jeziorski, A., and Hall, R.,: Holocene environmental change at Lake Njulla (999 m a.s.l.), northern Sweden: a comparison with four small nearby lakes along an altitudinal gradient, J. Paleolimn., 29, 13–29, 2003.
Bigler, C., Barnekow, L., Heinrichs, M. L., and Hall, R. I.: Holocene environmental history of Lake Vuolep Njakajaure (Abisko National Park, northern Sweden) reconstructed using biological proxy indicators, Veg. Hist. Archaeobot., 15, 309–320, 2006.
Birks, C. J. A. and Koç, N.: A high resolution diatom record of late-Quaternary sea-surface temperatures and oceanographic conditions from the eastern Norwegian Sea, Boreas, 31, 323–344, 2002.
Birks, H. J. B. and Seppä, H.: Pollenbased reconstructions of late Quaternary climate in Europe – progress, problems, and pitfalls, Acta Palaeobotanica, 44, 317–334, 2004
Bjune, A. E., Bakke, J. Nesje, A., and Birks, H. J. B.: Holocene mean July temperature and winter precipitation in western Norway inferred from palynological and glaciological lake-sediment proxies, Holocene, 15, 177–189, 2005.
Bjune, A. E. and Birks, H. J. B.: Holocene vegetation dynamics and inferred climate changes at Svanåvatnet, Mo i Rana, northern Norway, Boreas, 37, 146–156, 2008.
Bjune, A. E., Birks, H. J. B., and Seppä, H.: Holocene vegetation and climate history on a continental oceanic transect in northern Fennoscandia based on pollen and plant macrofossils, Boreas, 33, 211–223, 2004.
Bjune, A. E., Seppä, H., and Birks, H. J. B.: Quantitative summertemperature reconstructions for the last 2000 years based on pollenstratigraphical data from northern Fennoscandia, J. Paleolimnol., 41, 43–56, 2009.
Brewer, S., Guiot, J., and Torre, F.: Mid-Holocene climate change in Europe: a data-model comparison, Clim. Past, 3, 499–512, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-3-499-2007, 2007.
Briner, J. P, Michelutti, N., Francis, D. F., Miller, G. H., Yarrow Axford, Y., Wooller, M. J., and Wolfe, A. P.: A multi-proxy lacustrine record of Holocene climate change on northeastern Baffin Island, Arctic Canada, Quaternary Res., 65, 431–442, 2006.
Brohan, P., Kennedy, J. J., Harris, I., Tett, S. F. B., and Jones, P. D.: Uncertainty estimates in regional and global observed temperature changes: a new dataset from 1850, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D12106, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006548, 2006.
Bronk Ramsey, C.: Development of the Radiocarbon calibration program OxCal, Radiocarbon, 43, 355–363, 2001.
Brooks, S. J.: Fossil midges(Diptera: Chironomidae) as palaeoclimatic indicators for the Eurasian region, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 25, 1894–1910, 2006.
Bunbury, J. and Gajewski, K.: Postglacial climates inferred from a lake at treeline, southwest Yukon Territory, Canada, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 28, 354–369, 2009.
Cook, E. R., Briffa, K. R., Meko, D. M., Graybill, D. A., and Funkhouser, G.: The "segment-length curse" in long tree-ring chronology development for palaeoclimatic studies, Holocene, 5, 229–237.
Dahl-Jensen, D., Monsegaard, K., Gundestrup, N., Clow, G. D., Johnsen, S. J., Hansen, A. W., and Balling, N.: Past Temperatures Directly from the Greenland Ice Sheet, Science, 282, 268–271, 1998.
Davies, B. A. S., Bewer, S., Stevenson, A. C., and Guitot, J.: Data Contributors, the temperature of Europe during the Holocene reconstructed from pollen data, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 22, 1701–1716, 2003.
Deser, C., Walsh, J. E., and Timlin, M. S.: Arctic Sea Ice Variability in the Context of Recent Atmospheric Circulation Trends, J. Climate, 13, 617–633, 2000.
Giesecke, T., Bjune, A. E., Chiverrell, R. C., Seppä, H., Ojala, A. E. K., and Birks, H. J. B.: Exploring Holocene continentality changes in Fennoscandia using present and past tree distributions, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 27, 1296–1308, 2008.
Grudd, H., Briffa, K. R., Karlén, W., Bartholin, T. S., Jones, P. D., and Kromer, B.: A 7400-year tree-ring chronology in northern Swedish Lapland: natural climatic variability expressed on annual to millennial timescales, Holocene, 12, 657–665, 2002.
Hald, M., Andersson, C., Ebbesen, H., Jansen, E., Klitgaard-Kristensen, D., Risebrobakken, B., Salomonsen, G. R., Sarnthein, M., Sejrup, H. P., and Telford, R. J.: Variations in temperature and extent of Atlantic Water in the northern North Atlantic during the Holocene, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 26, 3423–3440, 2007.
Hammarlund, D., Barnekow, L., Birks, H. J. B., Buchardt, B., and Edwards, T. W. D.: Holocene changes in atmospheric circulation recorded in the oxygen-isotope stratigraphy of lacustrine carbonates from northern Sweden, Holocene, 12, 355–367, 2002.
Hammarlund, D., Velle, G., Wolfe, B. B., Edwards, T. W. D., Barnekow, L., Bergman, J., Holmgren, S., Lamme, S., Snowball, I., Wohlfart, B., and Possnert, G.: Palaeolimnological and sedimentary responses to Holocene forest retreat in the Scandes Mountains, west-central Sweden, Holocene, 14, 862–876, 2004.
Heiri, O., Birks, H. J. B., Brooks, S. J., Velle, G., and Willassen, E.: Effects of within-lake variability of fossil assemblages on quantitative chironomid-inferred temperature reconstruction, Pal. Pal. Pal., 199, 95–106, 2003.
Heikkilä, M. and Seppä, H.: A 11 000 yr palaeotemperature reconstruction from the southern boreal zone in Finland, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 22, 541–554, 2003.
Holland, M. M. and Bitz, C. M.: Polar amplification of climate change in coupled models, Clim. Dynam., 21, 221–232, 2003.
Gladstone, R. M., Ross, I., Valdes, P. J., Abe-Ouchi, A., Braconnot, P., Brewer, S., Kageyama, M., Kitoh, A., Legrande, A., Marti, O., Ohgaito, R., Otto-Bliesner, B., Peltier, W. R., and Vettoretti, G.: Mid-Holocene NAO: a PMIP2 model intercomparison, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L16707, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL023596, 2005.
Ilyashuk, E. A., Ilyashuk, B. P., Hammarlund, D., and Larouque, I.: Holocene climatic and environmental changes inferred from midge records (Diptera: Chironomidae, Chaoboridae, Ceratopigonidae) at Lake Berkut, southern Kola Peninsula, Russia, Holocene, 15, 897–914, 2005.
IPCC: Climate Change 2007 – The Physical Science Basis: Working Group I Contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC (Climate Change 2007), Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Jansen, E., Andersson, C., Moros, M., Nisancioglu, K. H., Nyland, B. F., and Telford, R. J.: The early to mid Holocene thermal optimum in the northern North Atlantic and Nordic Seas: the role of seasonal orbital forcing and Holocene century to millennial scale climate events, in: Natural Climate Variability and Global Warming: a Holocene Perspective, Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 123–137, 2008.
Jones, P. D., Briffa, K. R., Osborn, T. J., Lough, J. M., van Ommen, T. D., Vinther, B. M., et al.: High-resolution paleoclimatology of the last millennium: a review of current status and future prospects, Holocene, 19, 3–49, 2009.
Justwan, A., Koç, N., and Jennings, A. E.: Evolution of the Irminger and East Icelandic Current systems through the Holocene, revealed by diatom-based sea surface temperature reconstructions, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 27, 1571–1582, 2008.
Kaufman, D. S., Ager, T. A., Anderson, N. J., Anderson, P. M., Andrews, J. T., Bartlein, P. T., Brubaker, L. B., Coats, L. L., Cwynar, L. C., Duvall, M. L., Dyke, A. S., Edwards, M. E., Eisner, W. R., Gajewski, K., Geirsdottir, A., Hu, F. S., Jennings, A. E., Kaplan, M. R., Kerwin, M. W., Lozhkin, A. V., MacDonald, G. M., Miller, G. H., Mock, C. J., Oswald, W. W., OttoBliesner, B. L., Porinchuw, D. F., Rühland, K., Smol, J. P., Steig, E. J., and Wolfe, B. B.: Holocene thermal maximum in the western Arctic (0–180° W), Quaternary Sci. Rev., 23, 529–560, 2004.
Kaufman, D. S., Schneider, D. P., McKay, N. P., Ammann, C. M., Bradley, R. S., Briffa, K. R., Miller, G. H., Otto-Bliesner, B. L., Overpeck, J. T., and Vinther, B. M.: Arctic Lakes 2k Project Members: recent Warming Reverses Long-Term Arctic Cooling, Science, 325, 1236–1239, 2009.
Kerwin, M. W., Overpeck, J. T., Webb, R. S., and Anderson, K. H.: Pollen-based summer temperature reconstructions for the eastern Canadian boreal forest, subarctic, and Arctic, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 23, 1901–1924, 2004.
Kumke, T., Kienel, U., Weckström, J., Korhola, A., and Hubberten, H.-W.: Inferred Holocene Paleotemperatures from Diatoms at Lake Lama, Central Siberia, Arctic, Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res., 36, 624–634, 2004.
Kurek, J., Cwynar, L. C., Ager, T. A., Abbott, M. B., and Edwards, M. E.: Late Quaternary paleoclimate of western Alaska inferred from fossil chironomids and its relation to vegetation histories, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 28, 799–811, 2009.
Kurek, J., Cwynar, L.C., and Vermaire, J. C.: A late Quaternary paleotemperature record from Hanging Lake, northern Yukon Territory, eastern Beringia, Quaternary Res., 72, 246–257, 2009.
Korhola, A., Weckström, J., Holmström, L., and Erästö, P.: A quantitative Holocene climatic record from diatoms in northern Fennoscandia, Quaternary. Res., 54, 284–294, 2000.
Korhola, A., Vasko, K., Toivonen, H. T. T., and Olander, H.: Holocene temperature changes in northern Fennoscandia reconstructed from chironomids using Bayesian modeling, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 21, 1841–1860, 2002.
Levac, E., de Vernal, A., and Blake Jr., W.: Sea-surface conditions in northernmost Baffin Bay during the Holocene: palynological evidence, J. Quaternary Sci., 16, 353–363, 2201.
Larocque, I. and Bigler, C.: Similarities and discrepancies between chironomid- and diatom-inferred temperature reconstructions through the Holocene at Lake 850, northern Sweden, Quaternary Int., 122, 109–121, 2004.
Lauritzen, S.-E. and Lundberg, J.: Calibration of the speleothem delta function: an absolute temperature record for the Holocene in northern Norway, Holocene, 9, 659–669, 1999.
Linderholm, H. W., Björklund, J. A., Seftigen, K., Gunnarson, B. E., Grudd, H., Jeong, J.-H., Drobyshev, I., and Liu, Y.: Dendroclimatology in Fennoscandia – from past accomplishments to future potential, Clim. Past, 6, 93–114, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-6-93-2010, 2010.
Mitchell, Jr., J. M., Dzerdzeevskii, B., Flohn, H., Hofmeyr, W. L., Lamb, H. H., Rao, K. N., and Wallén, C. C.: Climatic Change. Technical Note No. 79, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, p. 71, 1966.
Moritz, R. E., Bitz, C. M., and Steig, E. J.: Dynamics of Recent Climate Change in theArctic, Science, 30, 1497–1502, 2002.
Otto, J., Raddatz, T., Claussen, M., Brovkin, V., and Gayler, V.: Separation of atmosphere-ocean vegetation feedbacks and synergies for mid-Holocene climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L09701, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL037482, 2009.
Otterman, J., Chou, M.-D., and Arking, A.: Effects of nontropical forest cover on climate, J. Climate and Appl. Meteorol., 23, 762–767, 1984.
Peros, M. C. and Gajewski, K.: Holocene climate and vegetation change on Victoria Island, western Canadian Arctic, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 27, 235–249, 2008.
Porinchu, D. F., Ruhland, K., Smol, J. P., Steig, E. J., and Wolfe, B. B.: Holocene thermal maximum in the western Arctic (0180° W), Quaternary Sci. Rev., 23, 529–560, 2004.
Prentice, C., Harrison, S. P., Jolly, D., and Guiot, J.: The climate and biomes of Europe at 6000 yr BP: comparison of model simulations and pollen-based reconstructions, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 17, 659–668, 1998.
Renssen, H., Goosse, H., and Muscheler, R.: Coupled climate model simulation of Holocene cooling events: oceanic feedback amplifies solar forcing, Clim. Past, 2, 79–90, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-2-79-2006, 2006.
Renssen, H., Seppä, H., Heiri, O. Roche, D. M, Goosse, H., and Fichefet, T.: The spatial and temporal complexity of the Holocene thermal maximum, Nat. Geosci., 411–414, 2009.
Rosén, P., Segerström, U., Eriksson, L., Renberg, I., and Birks, H. J. B.: Holocene climatic changes reconstructed from diatoms, chironomids, pollen and nearinfrared spectroscopyat an alpine lake (Sjuodjijaure) in northern Sweden, Holocene, 11, 551–567, 2001.
Rosén, P., Segerström, U., Eriksson, L., and Renberg, I.: Do diatom, chironomid, and pollen records consistently infer Holocene July air temperatures?, A comparison using sediment cores from four alpine lakes in Northern Sweden Arctic, Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res., 35, 279–290, 2003.
Sarmaja-Korjonen, K. and Seppä, H.: Abrupt and consistent responses of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems to the 8200 cal. yr BP cold event: a lacustrine record from Lake Arapisto, Finland, Holocene, 17, 455–464, 2007.
Sawada, M., Gajewski, K., de Vernal, A., and Richard, P.: Comparison of marine and terrestrial Holocene climatic reconstructions from northeastern North America, Holocene, 9, 267–77, 1999.
Seppä, H., Bjune, A. E., Telford, R. J., Birks, H. J. B., and Veski, S.: Last nine-thousand years of temperature variability in Northern Europe, Clim. Past, 5, 523–535, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-5-523-2009, 2009.
Seppä, H. and Birks, H. J. B.: July mean temperature and annual precipitation trends during the Holocene in the Fennoscandian treeline area: pollen based reconstructions, Holocene, 11, 527–539, 2001.
Seppä, H. and Birks, H. J. B.: Holocene climate reconstructions from the Fennoscandian Treeline area based on pollen data from Toskaljavri, Quaternary Res., 57, 191–199, 2002.
Seppä, H., Nyman, M., Korhola, A., and Weckström, J.: Changes of treelines and alpine vegetation in relation to postglacial Clim Dynam in northern Fennoscandia based on pollen and chironomid records, J. Quaternary Sci., 17, 287–301, 2002.
Seppä, H. and Poska, A.: Holocene annual mean temperature changes in Estonia and their relationship to solar insolation and atmospheric circulation patterns, Quaternary Res., 61, 22–31, 2004.
Seppä, H., Birks, H. J. B., Odland, A., Poska, A., and Veski, S.: A modern pollenclimate calibration set from northern Europe: testing and developing a tool for palaeoclimatological reconstructions, J. Biogeogr., 31, 251–267, 2004.
Seppä, H., Hammarlund, D., and Antonsson, K.: Lowfrequency and highfrequency changes in temperature and effective humidity during the Holocene in southcentral Sweden: implications for atmospheric and oceanic forcings of climate, Clim Dynam., 25, 285–297, 2005.
Seppä, H., MacDonald, G. M., Birks, H. J. B, Gervais, B. R., and Snyder, J. A.: LateQuaternary summer temperature changes in the NorthEuropean treeline region, Quaternary Res., 69, 404–412, 2008.
Smith, L. M., Andrews, J. T., Castañeda, I. S., Kristjánsdóttir, G. B., Jennings, A. E., and Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Á. E.: Temperature reconstructions for SW and N Iceland waters over the last 10 cal ka based on δ18O records from planktic and benthic Foraminifera, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 24, 1723–1740, 2005.
Solovieva, N., Tarasov, P. E., and McDonald, G.: Quantitative reconstruction of Holocene climate from the Chuna Lake pollen record, Kola Peninsula, northwest Russia, Holocene, 15, 141–148, 2005.
Trouet, V., Esper, J. Graham, N. E. Baker, A. Scourse, J. D., and Frank, D. C.: Persistent Positive North Atlantic Oscillation Mode Dominated the Medieval Climate Anomaly, Science, 324, 78–80, 2009.
Velle, G., Brooks, S. J., Birks, H. J. B., and Willassen, E.: Chironomids as a tool for inferring Holocene climate: an assessment based on six sites in southern Scandinavia, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 24, 1429–1462, 2005.
Viau, A. E. and Gajewski, K.: Reconstructing Millenial-Scale, Regional Paleoclimates of Boreal Canada during the Holocene, J. Climate, 22, 316–330, 2009.
Wanner, H., Beer, J., Butikofer, J., Crowley, T. J., Cubasch, U., Fluckiger, J., Goosse, H., Grosjean, M., Joos, F., Kaplan, J. O., Kuttel, M., Muller, S. A., Prentice, I. C., Solomina, Weckström, J., Korhola, A., Erästo, P., and Holmström, L.: Temperature patterns over the eight past centuries in Northern Fennoscandia inferred from sedimentary diatoms, Quaternary Res., 66, 78–86, 2006.
Zabenskie, S. and Gajewski, K.: Post-Glacial climatic change on Boothia Peninsula, Nunavut, Canada, Quaternary Res., 68, 261–270, 2007.
Zhang, Q., Sundqvist, H. S., Moberg, A., Körnich, H., Nilsson, J., and Holmgren, K.: Climate change between the mid and late Holocene in northern high latitudes – Part 2: Model-data comparisons, Clim. Past., 2010, in review.