Articles | Volume 16, issue 6
Research article 30 Nov 2020
Research article | 30 Nov 2020
Evaluation of oxygen isotopes and trace elements in planktonic foraminifera from the Mediterranean Sea as recorders of seawater oxygen isotopes and salinity
Linda K. Dämmer et al.
No articles found.
Alice E. Webb, Didier M. de Bakker, Karline Soetaert, Tamara da Costa, Steven M. A. C. van Heuven, Fleur C. van Duyl, Gert-Jan Reichart, and Lennart J. de Nooijer
Biogeosciences, 18, 6501–6516,Short summary
The biogeochemical behaviour of shallow reef communities is quantified to better understand the impact of habitat degradation and species composition shifts on reef functioning. The reef communities investigated barely support reef functions that are usually ascribed to conventional coral reefs, and the overall biogeochemical behaviour is found to be similar regardless of substrate type. This suggests a decrease in functional diversity which may therefore limit services provided by this reef.
Victor Onink, Erik van Sebille, and Charlotte Laufkötter
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for GMDShort summary
Turbulent mixing is a vital process in 3D modelling of particle transport in the ocean. However, since turbulence occurs on very short spatial and time scales, large-scale ocean models generally have highly-simplified turbulence representations. We have developed new parametrizations for the vertical turbulent transport of buoyant particles that can be easily applied in large-scale particle tracking model. The predicted vertical concentration profiles match well with microplastic observations.
Reint Fischer, Delphine Lobelle, Merel Kooi, Albert Koelmans, Victor Onink, Charlotte Laufkötter, Linda Amaral-Zettler, Andrew Yool, and Erik van Sebille
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
Since current estimates show that only about 1 % of the all plastic that enters the ocean is floating at the surface, we look at subsurface processes that can cause vertical movement of (micro)plastic. We investigate how modeled algal attachment and the ocean’s vertical movement can cause particles to sink and oscillate in the open ocean. Particles can sink to depths of > 5000 m in regions with high wind intensity and mainly remain close to the surface with low winds and biological activity.
Mikael L. A. Kaandorp, Stefanie L. Ypma, Marijke Boonstra, Henk A. Dijkstra, and Erik van Sebille
Ocean Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for OSShort summary
A lot of the marine litter, such as plastics, is located on or around beaches. The total amount and the transport of this litter is not well understood. We investigate this by training a machine learning model with data of cleanup efforts on Dutch beaches between 2014–2019, obtained by about 14,000 volunteers. We find Dutch beaches to contain up to 30,000 kilograms of litter, largerly driven by tides, oceanic transport, and how exposed beaches are.
Carolien M. H. van der Weijst, Koen J. van der Laan, Francien Peterse, Gert-Jan Reichart, Francesca Sangiorgi, Stefan Schouten, Tjerk J. T. Veenstra, and Appy Sluijs
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Preprint under review for CPShort summary
The TEX86 proxy is often used by paleoceanographers to reconstruct past sea-surface temperatures. However, the origin of the TEX86 signal in marine sediments has been debated since the proxy was first proposed. In our paper, we show that TEX86 carries a mixed sea-surface and subsurface temperature signal, and should be calibrated accordingly. Using our 15 million year record, we subsequently show how a TEX86 subsurface temperature record can be used to inform us on past sea-surface temperatures.
Peter Nooteboom, Peter Bijl, Christian Kehl, Erik van Sebille, Martin Ziegler, Anna von der Heydt, and Henk Dijkstra
Earth Syst. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ESDShort summary
Having descended through the water column, microplankton in ocean sediments represent the ocean surface environment and used as an archive of past surface ocean conditions. Here we define ocean bottom provinces based on the surface origin locations of these microplankton in an eddying ocean model. We find that these provinces can be detected in global datasets of sedimentary microplankton assemblages, which has implications for palaeoclimate reconstructions that use these microplankton.
Indah Ardiningsih, Kyyas Seyitmuhammedov, Sylvia G. Sander, Claudine H. Stirling, Gert-Jan Reichart, Kevin R. Arrigo, Loes J. A. Gerringa, and Rob Middag
Biogeosciences, 18, 4587–4601,Short summary
Organic Fe speciation is investigated along a natural gradient of the western Antarctic Peninsula from an ice-covered shelf to the open ocean. The two major fronts in the region affect the distribution of ligands. The excess ligands not bound to dissolved Fe (DFe) comprised up to 80 % of the total ligand concentrations, implying the potential to solubilize additional Fe input. The ligands on the shelf can increase the DFe residence time and fuel local primary production upon ice melt.
Carolien Maria Hendrina van der Weijst, Josse Winkelhorst, Wesley de Nooijer, Anna von der Heydt, Gert-Jan Reichart, Francesca Sangiorgi, and Appy Sluijs
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Preprint under review for CPShort summary
A hypothesized link between Pliocene (5.3–2.5 million years ago) global climate and tropical thermocline depth is currently only backed up by data from the Pacific Ocean. In our paper, we present temperature, salinity and thermocline records from the tropical Atlantic Ocean. Surprisingly, the Pliocene thermocline evolution was remarkably different in the Atlantic and Pacific. We need to reevaluate the mechanisms that drive thermocline depth, and how these are tied to global climate change.
C. Kehl, R. P. B. Fischer, and E. van Sebille
ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., V-4-2021, 217–224,
Ove H. Meisel, Joshua F. Dean, Jorien E. Vonk, Lukas Wacker, Gert-Jan Reichart, and Han Dolman
Biogeosciences, 18, 2241–2258,Short summary
Arctic permafrost lakes form thaw bulbs of unfrozen soil (taliks) beneath them where carbon degradation and greenhouse gas production are increased. We analyzed the stable carbon isotopes of Alaskan talik sediments and their porewater dissolved organic carbon and found that the top layers of these taliks are likely more actively degraded than the deeper layers. This in turn implies that these top layers are likely also more potent greenhouse gas producers than the underlying deeper layers.
Rebeca de la Fuente, Gábor Drótos, Emilio Hernández-García, Cristóbal López, and Erik van Sebille
Ocean Sci., 17, 431–453,Short summary
Plastic pollution is a major environmental issue affecting the oceans. The number of floating and sedimented pieces has been quantified by several studies. But their abundance in the water column remains mostly unknown. To fill this gap we model the dynamics of a particular type of particle, rigid microplastics sinking rapidly in open sea in the Mediterranean. We find they represent a small but appreciable fraction of the total sea plastic and discuss characteristics of their sinking motion.
Delphine Dissard, Gert Jan Reichart, Christophe Menkes, Morgan Mangeas, Stephan Frickenhaus, and Jelle Bijma
Biogeosciences, 18, 423–439,Short summary
Results from a data set acquired from living foraminifera T. sacculifer collected from surface waters are presented, allowing us to establish a new Mg/Ca–Sr/Ca–temperature equation improving temperature reconstructions. When combining equations, δ18Ow can be reconstructed with a precision of ± 0.5 ‰, while successive reconstructions involving Mg/Ca and δ18Oc preclude salinity reconstruction with a precision better than ± 1.69. A new direct linear fit to reconstruct salinity could be established.
David Wichmann, Christian Kehl, Henk A. Dijkstra, and Erik van Sebille
Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 28, 43–59,Short summary
Fluid parcels transported in complicated flows often contain subsets of particles that stay close over finite time intervals. We propose a new method for detecting finite-time coherent sets based on the density-based clustering technique of ordering points to identify the clustering structure (OPTICS). Unlike previous methods, our method has an intrinsic notion of coherent sets at different spatial scales. OPTICS is readily implemented in the SciPy sklearn package, making it easy to use.
Siham de Goeyse, Alice E. Webb, Gert-Jan Reichart, and Lennart J. de Nooijer
Biogeosciences, 18, 393–401,Short summary
Foraminifera are calcifying organisms that play a role in the marine inorganic-carbon cycle and are widely used to reconstruct paleoclimates. However, the fundamental process by which they calcify remains essentially unknown. Here we use inhibitors to show that an enzyme is speeding up the conversion between bicarbonate and CO2. This helps the foraminifera acquire sufficient carbon for calcification and might aid their tolerance to elevated CO2 level.
Chris S. M. Turney, Richard T. Jones, Nicholas P. McKay, Erik van Sebille, Zoë A. Thomas, Claus-Dieter Hillenbrand, and Christopher J. Fogwill
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3341–3356,Short summary
The Last Interglacial (129–116 ka) experienced global temperatures and sea levels higher than today. The direct contribution of warmer conditions to global sea level (thermosteric) are uncertain. We report a global network of sea surface temperatures. We find mean global annual temperature anomalies of 0.2 ± 0.1˚C and an early maximum peak of 0.9 ± 0.1˚C. Our reconstruction suggests warmer waters contributed on average 0.08 ± 0.1 m and a peak contribution of 0.39 ± 0.1 m to global sea level.
David Wichmann, Christian Kehl, Henk A. Dijkstra, and Erik van Sebille
Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 27, 501–518,Short summary
The surface transport of heat, nutrients and plastic in the North Atlantic Ocean is organized into large-scale flow structures. We propose a new and simple method to detect such features in ocean drifter data sets by identifying groups of trajectories with similar dynamical behaviour using network theory. We successfully detect well-known regions such as the Subpolar and Subtropical gyres, the Western Boundary Current region and the Caribbean Sea.
Mirjam van der Mheen, Erik van Sebille, and Charitha Pattiaratchi
Ocean Sci., 16, 1317–1336,Short summary
A large percentage of global ocean plastic enters the Indian Ocean through rivers, but the fate of these plastics is generally unknown. In this paper, we use computer simulations to show that floating plastics
beachand end up on coastlines throughout the Indian Ocean. Coastlines where a lot of plastic enters the ocean are heavily affected by beaching plastic, but plastics can also beach far from the source on remote islands and countries that contribute little plastic pollution of their own.
Anne Roepert, Lubos Polerecky, Esmee Geerken, Gert-Jan Reichart, and Jack J. Middelburg
Biogeosciences, 17, 4727–4743,Short summary
We investigated, for the first time, the spatial distribution of chlorine and fluorine in the shell walls of four benthic foraminifera species: Ammonia tepida, Amphistegina lessonii, Archaias angulatus, and Sorites marginalis. Cross sections of specimens were imaged using nanoSIMS. The distribution of Cl and F was co-located with organics in the rotaliids and rather homogeneously distributed in miliolids. We suggest that the incorporation is governed by the biomineralization pathway.
Margot J. Cramwinckel, Lineke Woelders, Emiel P. Huurdeman, Francien Peterse, Stephen J. Gallagher, Jörg Pross, Catherine E. Burgess, Gert-Jan Reichart, Appy Sluijs, and Peter K. Bijl
Clim. Past, 16, 1667–1689,Short summary
Phases of past transient warming can be used as a test bed to study the environmental response to climate change independent of tectonic change. Using fossil plankton and organic molecules, here we reconstruct surface ocean temperature and circulation in and around the Tasman Gateway during a warming phase 40 million years ago termed the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum. We find that plankton assemblages track ocean circulation patterns, with superimposed variability being related to temperature.
Carolien Maria Hendrina van der Weijst, Josse Winkelhorst, Anna von der Heydt, Gert-Jan Reichart, Francesca Sangiorgi, and Appy Sluijs
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further review
Sabine Haalboom, David M. Price, Furu Mienis, Judith D. L. van Bleijswijk, Henko C. de Stigter, Harry J. Witte, Gert-Jan Reichart, and Gerard C. A. Duineveld
Biogeosciences, 17, 2499–2519,Short summary
Mineral mining in deep-sea hydrothermal settings will lead to the formation of plumes of fine-grained, chemically reactive, suspended matter. Understanding how natural hydrothermal plumes evolve as they disperse from their source, and how they affect their surrounding environment, may help in characterising the behaviour of the diluted part of mining plumes. The natural plume provided a heterogeneous, geochemically enriched habitat conducive to the development of a distinct microbial ecology.
Gabriel J. Bowen, Brenden Fischer-Femal, Gert-Jan Reichart, Appy Sluijs, and Caroline H. Lear
Clim. Past, 16, 65–78,Short summary
Past climate conditions are reconstructed using indirect and incomplete geological, biological, and geochemical proxy data. We propose that such reconstructions are best obtained by statistical inversion of hierarchical models that represent how multi–proxy observations and calibration data are produced by variation of environmental conditions in time and/or space. These methods extract new information from traditional proxies and provide robust, comprehensive estimates of uncertainty.
Ulrike Hanz, Claudia Wienberg, Dierk Hebbeln, Gerard Duineveld, Marc Lavaleye, Katriina Juva, Wolf-Christian Dullo, André Freiwald, Leonardo Tamborrino, Gert-Jan Reichart, Sascha Flögel, and Furu Mienis
Biogeosciences, 16, 4337–4356,Short summary
Along the Namibian and Angolan margins, low oxygen conditions do not meet environmental ranges for cold–water corals and hence are expected to be unsuitable habitats. Environmental conditions show that tidal movements deliver water with more oxygen and high–quality organic matter, suggesting that corals compensate unfavorable conditions with availability of food. With the expected expansion of oxygen minimum zones in the future, this study provides an example how ecosystems cope with extremes.
Erik van Sebille, Philippe Delandmeter, John Schofield, Britta Denise Hardesty, Jen Jones, and Andy Donnelly
Ocean Sci., 15, 1341–1349,Short summary
The Galápagos Archipelago and Galápagos Marine Reserve are among the world's most iconic wildlife refuges. Yet, plastic litter is now found even in this remote archipelago. It is unclear where this plastic originates from. In this study, we show that remote coastal sources of plastic pollution are fairly localized and limited to South American and Central American coastlines. Identifying how plastic ends up in the Galápagos aids integrated management opportunities to reduce plastic pollution.
Philippe Delandmeter and Erik van Sebille
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3571–3584,Short summary
Parcels is a framework to compute how ocean currents transport
stuffsuch as plankton and plastic around. In the latest version 2.0 of Parcels, we focus on more accurate interpolation schemes and implement methods to seamlessly combine data from different sources (such as winds and currents, possibly in different regions). We show that this framework is very efficient for tracking how microplastic is transported through the North Sea into the Arctic.
Inge van Dijk, Christine Barras, Lennart Jan de Nooijer, Aurélia Mouret, Esmee Geerken, Shai Oron, and Gert-Jan Reichart
Biogeosciences, 16, 2115–2130,Short summary
Systematics in the incorporation of different elements in shells of marine organisms can be used to test calcification models and thus processes involved in precipitation of calcium carbonates. On different scales, we observe a covariation of sulfur and magnesium incorporation in shells of foraminifera, which provides insights into the mechanics behind shell formation. The observed patterns imply that all species of foraminifera actively take up calcium and carbon in a coupled process.
Eveline M. Mezger, Lennart J. de Nooijer, Jacqueline Bertlich, Jelle Bijma, Dirk Nürnberg, and Gert-Jan Reichart
Biogeosciences, 16, 1147–1165,Short summary
Seawater salinity is an important factor when trying to reconstruct past ocean conditions. Foraminifera, small organisms living in the sea, produce shells that incorporate more Na at higher salinities. The accuracy of reconstructions depends on the fundamental understanding involved in the incorporation and preservation of the original Na of the shell. In this study, we unravel the Na composition of different components of the shell and describe the relative contribution of these components.
Shauna Ní Fhlaithearta, Christophe Fontanier, Frans Jorissen, Aurélia Mouret, Adriana Dueñas-Bohórquez, Pierre Anschutz, Mattias B. Fricker, Detlef Günther, Gert J. de Lange, and Gert-Jan Reichart
Biogeosciences, 15, 6315–6328,Short summary
This study looks at how foraminifera interact with their geochemical environment in the seabed. We focus on the incorporation of the trace metal manganese (Mn), with the aim of developing a tool to reconstruct past pore water profiles. Manganese concentrations in foraminifera are investigated relative to their ecological preferences and geochemical environment. This study demonstrates that Mn in foraminiferal tests is a promising tool to reconstruct oxygen conditions in the seabed.
Jacqueline Bertlich, Dirk Nürnberg, Ed C. Hathorne, Lennart J. de Nooijer, Eveline M. Mezger, Markus Kienast, Steffanie Nordhausen, Gert-Jan Reichart, Joachim Schönfeld, and Jelle Bijma
Biogeosciences, 15, 5991–6018,
Fabrice Ardhuin, Yevgueny Aksenov, Alvise Benetazzo, Laurent Bertino, Peter Brandt, Eric Caubet, Bertrand Chapron, Fabrice Collard, Sophie Cravatte, Jean-Marc Delouis, Frederic Dias, Gérald Dibarboure, Lucile Gaultier, Johnny Johannessen, Anton Korosov, Georgy Manucharyan, Dimitris Menemenlis, Melisa Menendez, Goulven Monnier, Alexis Mouche, Frédéric Nouguier, George Nurser, Pierre Rampal, Ad Reniers, Ernesto Rodriguez, Justin Stopa, Céline Tison, Clément Ubelmann, Erik van Sebille, and Jiping Xie
Ocean Sci., 14, 337–354,Short summary
The Sea surface KInematics Multiscale (SKIM) monitoring mission is a proposal for a future satellite that is designed to measure ocean currents and waves. Using a Doppler radar, the accurate measurement of currents requires the removal of the mean velocity due to ocean wave motions. This paper describes the main processing steps needed to produce currents and wave data from the radar measurements. With this technique, SKIM can provide unprecedented coverage and resolution, over the global ocean.
Esmee Geerken, Lennart Jan de Nooijer, Inge van Dijk, and Gert-Jan Reichart
Biogeosciences, 15, 2205–2218,
Timme H. Donders, Niels A. G. M. van Helmond, Roel Verreussel, Dirk Munsterman, Johan ten Veen, Robert P. Speijer, Johan W. H. Weijers, Francesca Sangiorgi, Francien Peterse, Gert-Jan Reichart, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, Lucas Lourens, Gesa Kuhlmann, and Henk Brinkhuis
Clim. Past, 14, 397–411,Short summary
The buildup and melting of ice during the early glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere, around 2.5 million years ago, were far shorter in duration than during the last million years. Based on molecular compounds and microfossils from sediments dating back to the early glaciations we show that the temperature on land and in the sea changed simultaneously and was a major factor in the ice buildup in the Northern Hemisphere. These data provide key insights into the dynamics of early glaciations.
Jassin Petersen, Christine Barras, Antoine Bézos, Carole La, Lennart J. de Nooijer, Filip J. R. Meysman, Aurélia Mouret, Caroline P. Slomp, and Frans J. Jorissen
Biogeosciences, 15, 331–348,Short summary
In Lake Grevelingen, a coastal ecosystem, foraminifera experience important temporal variations in oxygen concentration and in pore water manganese. The high resolution of LA-ICP-MS allows us to analyse the chambers of foraminiferal shells separately and to obtain signals from a series of calcification events. We estimate the variability in Mn/Ca observed within single shells due to biomineralization and show that a substantial part of the signal is related to environmental variability.
Joost Frieling, Gert-Jan Reichart, Jack J. Middelburg, Ursula Röhl, Thomas Westerhold, Steven M. Bohaty, and Appy Sluijs
Clim. Past, 14, 39–55,Short summary
Past periods of rapid global warming such as the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum are used to study biotic response to climate change. We show that very high peak PETM temperatures in the tropical Atlantic (~ 37 ºC) caused heat stress in several marine plankton groups. However, only slightly cooler temperatures afterwards allowed highly diverse plankton communities to bloom. This shows that tropical plankton communities may be susceptible to extreme warming, but may also recover rapidly.
Michael Lange and Erik van Sebille
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4175–4186,Short summary
Here, we present version 0.9 of Parcels (Probably A Really Computationally Efficient Lagrangian Simulator). Parcels is an experimental prototype code aimed at exploring novel approaches for Lagrangian tracking of virtual ocean particles in the petascale age. The modularity, flexibility and scalability will allow the code to be used to track water, nutrients, microbes, plankton, plastic and even fish.
Lennart J. de Nooijer, Anieke Brombacher, Antje Mewes, Gerald Langer, Gernot Nehrke, Jelle Bijma, and Gert-Jan Reichart
Biogeosciences, 14, 3387–3400,
Karoliina A. Koho, Lennart J. de Nooijer, Christophe Fontanier, Takashi Toyofuku, Kazumasa Oguri, Hiroshi Kitazato, and Gert-Jan Reichart
Biogeosciences, 14, 3067–3082,Short summary
Here we report Mn / Ca ratios in living benthic foraminifera from the NE Japan margin. The results show that the Mn incorporation directly reflects the environment where the foraminifera calcify. Foraminifera that live deeper in sediment, under greater redox stress, generally incorporate more Mn into their carbonate skeletons. As such, foraminifera living close to the Mn reduction zone in sediment appear promising tools for paleoceanographic reconstructions of sedimentary redox conditions.
Chris S. M. Turney, Christopher J. Fogwill, Jonathan G. Palmer, Erik van Sebille, Zoë Thomas, Matt McGlone, Sarah Richardson, Janet M. Wilmshurst, Pavla Fenwick, Violette Zunz, Hugues Goosse, Kerry-Jayne Wilson, Lionel Carter, Mathew Lipson, Richard T. Jones, Melanie Harsch, Graeme Clark, Ezequiel Marzinelli, Tracey Rogers, Eleanor Rainsley, Laura Ciasto, Stephanie Waterman, Elizabeth R. Thomas, and Martin Visbeck
Clim. Past, 13, 231–248,Short summary
The Southern Ocean plays a fundamental role in global climate but suffers from a dearth of observational data. As the Australasian Antarctic Expedition 2013–2014 we have developed the first annually resolved temperature record using trees from subantarctic southwest Pacific (52–54˚S) to extend the climate record back to 1870. With modelling we show today's high climate variability became established in the ~1940s and likely driven by a Rossby wave response originating from the tropical Pacific.
Inge van Dijk, Lennart J. de Nooijer, and Gert-Jan Reichart
Biogeosciences, 14, 497–510,Short summary
Culturing foraminifera under controlled pCO2 conditions shows that incorporation of certain elements (Zn, Ba) into foraminiferal shells is impacted by the inorganic carbonate system. Modeling the chemical speciation of these elements suggests that incorporation is determined by the availability of free ions. Furthermore, analyzing and comparing trends in element incorporation in hyaline and porcelaneous species may provide constrains on the differences between their calcification strategies.
Christopher J. Fogwill, Erik van Sebille, Eva A. Cougnon, Chris S. M. Turney, Steve R. Rintoul, Benjamin K. Galton-Fenzi, Graeme F. Clark, E. M. Marzinelli, Eleanor B. Rainsley, and Lionel Carter
The Cryosphere, 10, 2603–2609,Short summary
Here we report new data from in situ oceanographic surveys and high-resolution ocean modelling experiments in the Commonwealth Bay region of East Antarctica, where in 2010 there was a major reconfiguration of the regional icescape due to the collision of the 97 km long iceberg B09B with the Mertz Glacier tongue. Here we compare post-calving observations with high-resolution ocean modelling which suggest that this reconfiguration has led to the development of a new polynya off Commonwealth Bay.
Paulina Cetina-Heredia, Erik van Sebille, Richard Matear, and Moninya Roughan
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Characterizing phytoplankton growth influences fisheries and climate. We use a lagrangian approach to identify phytoplankton blooms in the Great Australian Bight (GAB), and associate them with nitrate sources. We find that 88 % of the nitrate utilized in blooms is originated between the GAB and the SubAntarctic Front. Large nitrate concentrations are supplied at depth but do not reach the euphotic zone often. As a result, 55 % of blooms utilize nitrate supplied in the top 100 m.
J. Steinhardt, C. Cléroux, L. J. de Nooijer, G.-J. Brummer, R. Zahn, G. Ganssen, and G.-J. Reichart
Biogeosciences, 12, 2411–2429,Short summary
In this paper we present, for the first time, results from single-chamber Mg/Ca analyses combined with single-shell δ18O and δ13C for four planktonic foraminiferal species from a sediment trap in the Mozambique Channel. Eddy-induced hydrographic variability is reflected in test carbonate chemistry of these different species. A species-specific depth-resolved mass balance model confirms distinctive migration and calcification patterns for each species as a function of hydrography.
A. Mewes, G. Langer, S. Thoms, G. Nehrke, G.-J. Reichart, L. J. de Nooijer, and J. Bijma
Biogeosciences, 12, 2153–2162,Short summary
A culture study with the benthic foraminifer Amphistegina lessonii was conducted at varying seawater [Ca2+] and constant [Mg2+]. Results showed optimum growth rates and test thickness at ambient seawater Mg/Ca and a calcite Mg/Ca which is controlled by the relative seawater ratio. Results support the conceptual biomineralization model by Nehrke et al. (2013); however, our refined flux-based model suggests transmembrane transport fractionation that is slightly weaker than expected.
W. Feldmeijer, L. J. de Nooijer, G.-J. Reichart, and G.M. Ganssen
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
G. Nehrke, N. Keul, G. Langer, L. J. de Nooijer, J. Bijma, and A. Meibom
Biogeosciences, 10, 6759–6767,
J. C. Wit, L. J. de Nooijer, M. Wolthers, and G. J. Reichart
Biogeosciences, 10, 6375–6387,
K. A. Koho, K. G. J. Nierop, L. Moodley, J. J. Middelburg, L. Pozzato, K. Soetaert, J. van der Plicht, and G-J. Reichart
Biogeosciences, 10, 1131–1141,
I. G. M. Wientjes, R. S. W. Van de Wal, G. J. Reichart, A. Sluijs, and J. Oerlemans
The Cryosphere, 5, 589–601,
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Teodora Pados-Dibattista, Christof Pearce, Henrieka Detlef, Jørgen Brendtsen, and Marit-Solveig Seidenkrantz
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for CPShort summary
We carried out foraminiferal, stable isotope- and sedimentological analyses of a marine sediment core retrieved from the Northeast Greenland shelf. This region is highly sensitive to climate variability because it is swept by the East Greenland Current, which is the main pathway for sea ice and cold waters that exit the Arctic Ocean. The paleoceanographic reconstruction reveals significant variations in the water masses and in the strength of the East Greenland Current over the last 9400 years.
Andrew M. Dolman, Torben Kunz, Jeroen Groeneveld, and Thomas Laepple
Clim. Past, 17, 825–841,Short summary
Uncertainties in climate proxy records are temporally autocorrelated. By deriving expressions for the power spectra of errors in proxy records, we can estimate appropriate uncertainties for any timescale, for example, for temporally smoothed records or for time slices. Here we outline and demonstrate this approach for climate proxies recovered from marine sediment cores.
Gabriella M. Weiss, Julie Lattaud, Marcel T. J. van der Meer, and Timothy I. Eglinton
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for CPShort summary
Here we study the elemental signatures of plant wax compounds as well as molecules from algae and bacteria to understand how water sources changed over the last 11,000 years in the northeastern part of Europe surrounding the Baltic Sea. Our results show diversity in plant and aquatic microorganisms following the melting of the large ice sheet that covered Northern Europe which caused the regional climate to warm.
Torben Kunz, Andrew M. Dolman, and Thomas Laepple
Clim. Past, 16, 1469–1492,Short summary
This paper introduces a method to estimate the uncertainty of climate reconstructions from single sediment proxy records. The method can compute uncertainties as a function of averaging timescale, thereby accounting for the fact that some components of the uncertainty are autocorrelated in time. This is achieved by treating the problem in the spectral domain. Fully analytic expressions are derived. A companion paper (Part 2) complements this with application-oriented examples of the method.
Giulia Faucher, Ulf Riebesell, and Lennart Thomas Bach
Clim. Past, 16, 1007–1025,Short summary
We designed five experiments choosing different coccolithophore species that have been evolutionarily distinct for millions of years. If all species showed the same morphological response to an environmental driver, this could be indicative of a response pattern that is conserved over geological timescales. We found an increase in the percentage of malformed coccoliths under altered CO2, providing evidence that this response could be used as paleo-proxy for episodes of acute CO2 perturbations.
Yue Hu, Xiaoming Sun, Hai Cheng, and Hong Yan
Clim. Past, 16, 597–610,Short summary
Tridacna, as the largest marine bivalves, can be used for high-resolution paleoclimate reconstruction in its carbonate skeleton. In this contribution, the modern δ18O shell is suggested to be a proxy for sea surface temperature in the Xisha Islands, South China Sea. Data from a fossil Tridacna (3673 ± 28 BP) indicate a warmer climate and intense ENSO-related variability but reduced ENSO frequency and more extreme El Niño winters compared to modern Tridacna.
Maria Reschke, Kira Rehfeld, and Thomas Laepple
Clim. Past, 15, 521–537,Short summary
We empirically estimate signal-to-noise ratios of temperature proxy records used in global compilations of the middle to late Holocene by comparing the spatial correlation structure of proxy records and climate model simulations accounting for noise and time uncertainty. We find that low signal contents of the proxy records or, alternatively, more localised climate variations recorded by proxies than suggested by current model simulations suggest caution when interpreting multi-proxy datasets.
Andrew M. Dolman and Thomas Laepple
Clim. Past, 14, 1851–1868,Short summary
Climate proxies from marine sediments provide an important record of past temperatures, but contain noise from many sources. These include mixing by burrowing organisms, seasonal and habitat biases, measurement error, and small sample size effects. We have created a forward model that simulates the creation of proxy records and provides it as a user-friendly R package. It allows multiple sources of uncertainty to be considered together when interpreting proxy climate records.
Irina Polovodova Asteman, Helena L. Filipsson, and Kjell Nordberg
Clim. Past, 14, 1097–1118,Short summary
We present 2500 years of winter temperatures, using a sediment record from Gullmar Fjord analyzed for stable oxygen isotopes in benthic foraminifera. Reconstructed temperatures are within the annual temperature variability recorded in the fjord since the 1890s. Results show the warm Roman and Medieval periods and the cold Little Ice Age. The record also shows the recent warming, which does not stand out in the 2500-year perspective and is comparable to the Roman and Medieval climate anomalies.
Christof Pearce, Aron Varhelyi, Stefan Wastegård, Francesco Muschitiello, Natalia Barrientos, Matt O'Regan, Thomas M. Cronin, Laura Gemery, Igor Semiletov, Jan Backman, and Martin Jakobsson
Clim. Past, 13, 303–316,Short summary
The eruption of the Alaskan Aniakchak volcano of 3.6 thousand years ago was one of the largest Holocene eruptions worldwide. The resulting ash is found in several Alaskan sites and as far as Newfoundland and Greenland. In this study, we found ash from the Aniakchak eruption in a marine sediment core from the western Chukchi Sea in the Arctic Ocean. Combined with radiocarbon dates on mollusks, the volcanic age marker is used to calculate the marine radiocarbon reservoir age at that time.
Anne-Sophie Fanget, Maria-Angela Bassetti, Christophe Fontanier, Alina Tudryn, and Serge Berné
Clim. Past, 12, 2161–2179,
Maria-Angela Bassetti, Serge Berné, Marie-Alexandrine Sicre, Bernard Dennielou, Yoann Alonso, Roselyne Buscail, Bassem Jalali, Bertil Hebert, and Christophe Menniti
Clim. Past, 12, 1539–1553,Short summary
This work represents the first attempt to decipher the linkages between rapid climate changes and continental Holocene paleohydrology in the NW Mediterranean shallow marine setting. Between 11 and 4 ka cal BP, terrigenous input increased and reached a maximum at 7 ka cal BP, probably as a result of a humid phase. From ca. 4 ka cal BP to the present, enhanced variability in the land-derived material is possibly due to large-scale atmospheric circulation and rainfall patterns in western Europe.
Mathias Trachsel and Richard J. Telford
Clim. Past, 12, 1215–1223,Short summary
In spatially structured environments, conventional cross validation results in over-optimistic transfer function performance estimates. H-block cross validation, where all samples within h kilometres of the test samples are omitted is a method for obtaining unbiased transfer function performance estimates. We assess three methods for determining the optimal h using simulated data and published transfer functions. Some transfer functions perform notably worse when h-block cross validation is used.
B. Jalali, M.-A. Sicre, M.-A. Bassetti, and N. Kallel
Clim. Past, 12, 91–101,
K. Tachikawa, L. Vidal, M. Cornuault, M. Garcia, A. Pothin, C. Sonzogni, E. Bard, G. Menot, and M. Revel
Clim. Past, 11, 855–867,
M. Moreau, T. Corrège, E. P. Dassié, and F. Le Cornec
Clim. Past, 11, 523–532,Short summary
The influence of salinity on the Porites Sr/Ca palaeothermometer is still poorly documented. We test the salinity effect on Porites Sr/Ca-based SST reconstructions using a large spatial compilation of published Porites data from the Pacific, Indian Ocean, and the Red Sea. We find no evidence of a salinity bias in the Sr/Ca SST proxy at monthly and interannual timescales using two different salinity products. This result is in agreement with laboratory experiments on coral species.
S. M. P. Berben, K. Husum, P. Cabedo-Sanz, and S. T. Belt
Clim. Past, 10, 181–198,
D. J. R. Thornalley, M. Blaschek, F. J. Davies, S. Praetorius, D. W. Oppo, J. F. McManus, I. R. Hall, H. Kleiven, H. Renssen, and I. N. McCave
Clim. Past, 9, 2073–2084,
M.-A. Sicre, G. Siani, D. Genty, N. Kallel, and L. Essallami
Clim. Past, 9, 1375–1383,
S. Alessio, G. Vivaldo, C. Taricco, and M. Ghil
Clim. Past, 8, 831–839,
B. Christiansen and F. C. Ljungqvist
Clim. Past, 8, 765–786,
V. Nieto-Moreno, F. Martínez-Ruiz, S. Giralt, F. Jiménez-Espejo, D. Gallego-Torres, M. Rodrigo-Gámiz, J. García-Orellana, M. Ortega-Huertas, and G. J. de Lange
Clim. Past, 7, 1395–1414,
C. Martín-Puertas, F. Jiménez-Espejo, F. Martínez-Ruiz, V. Nieto-Moreno, M. Rodrigo, M. P. Mata, and B. L. Valero-Garcés
Clim. Past, 6, 807–816,
C. Andersson, F. S. R. Pausata, E. Jansen, B. Risebrobakken, and R. J. Telford
Clim. Past, 6, 179–193,
I. Dormoy, O. Peyron, N. Combourieu Nebout, S. Goring, U. Kotthoff, M. Magny, and J. Pross
Clim. Past, 5, 615–632,
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The compositions of foraminifera shells often vary with environmental parameters such as temperature or salinity; thus, they can be used as proxies for these environmental variables. Often a single proxy is influenced by more than one parameter. Here, we show that while salinity impacts shell Na / Ca, temperature has no effect. We also show that the combination of different proxies (Mg / Ca and δ18O) to reconstruct salinity does not seem to work as previously thought.
The compositions of foraminifera shells often vary with environmental parameters such as...