Articles | Volume 15, issue 4
Research article 05 Jul 2019
Research article | 05 Jul 2019
Last Millennium Reanalysis with an expanded proxy database and seasonal proxy modeling
Robert Tardif et al.
No articles found.
Jenna A. Epifanio, Edward J. Brook, Christo Buizert, Jon S. Edwards, Todd A. Sowers, Emma C. Kahle, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, Eric J. Steig, Dominic A. Winski, Erich C. Osterberg, Tyler J. Fudge, Murat Aydin, Ekaterina Hood, Michael Kalk, Karl J. Kreutz, David G. Ferris, and Joshua A. Kennedy
Clim. Past, 16, 2431–2444,Short summary
A new ice core drilled at the South Pole provides a 54 000-year paleo-environmental record including the composition of the past atmosphere. This paper describes the gas chronology for the South Pole ice core, based on a high-resolution methane record. The new gas chronology, in combination with the existing ice age scale from Winski et al. (2019), allows a model-independent reconstruction of the delta age record.
Chris M. Brierley, Anni Zhao, Sandy P. Harrison, Pascale Braconnot, Charles J. R. Williams, David J. R. Thornalley, Xiaoxu Shi, Jean-Yves Peterschmitt, Rumi Ohgaito, Darrell S. Kaufman, Masa Kageyama, Julia C. Hargreaves, Michael P. Erb, Julien Emile-Geay, Roberta D'Agostino, Deepak Chandan, Matthieu Carré, Partrick J. Bartlein, Weipeng Zheng, Zhongshi Zhang, Qiong Zhang, Hu Yang, Evgeny M. Volodin, Robert A. Tomas, Cody Routson, W. Richard Peltier, Bette Otto-Bliesner, Polina A. Morozova, Nicholas P. McKay, Gerrit Lohmann, Allegra N. Legrande, Chuncheng Guo, Jian Cao, Esther Brady, James D. Annan, and Ayako Abe-Ouchi
Clim. Past, 16, 1847–1872,Short summary
This paper provides an initial exploration and comparison to climate reconstructions of the new climate model simulations of the mid-Holocene (6000 years ago). These use state-of-the-art models developed for CMIP6 and apply the same experimental set-up. The models capture several key aspects of the climate, but some persistent issues remain.
Cody C. Routson, Darrell S. Kaufman, Nicholas P. McKay, Michael P. Erb, Stéphanie H. Arcusa, Kendrick J. Brown, Matthew E. Kirby, Jeremiah P. Marsicek, R. Scott Anderson, Gonzalo Jiménez-Moreno, Jessica R. Rodysill, Matthew S. Lachniet, Sherilyn C. Fritz, Joseph R. Bennet, Michelle F. Goman, Sarah E. Metcalfe, Jennifer M. Galloway, Gerrit Schoups, David B. Wahl, Jesse L. Morris, Francisca Staines-Urias, Andria Dawson, Bryan N. Shuman, and Daniel G. Gavin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
We present a curated database of western North American Holocene paleoclimate records, which have been screened on length, resolution, and geochronology. The database gathers paleoclimate time series that reflect temperature, hydroclimate, or circulation features from terrestrial and marine sites, spanning a region from Mexico to Alaska. This publicly accessible collection will facilitate a broad range of paleoclimate inquiry.
Nicholas P. McKay, Julien Emile-Geay, and Deborah Khider
Revised manuscript accepted for GChronShort summary
This paper describes GeoChronR, an R package that streamlines the process of quantifying age uncertainties, propagating uncertainties through several common analyses, and visualizing the results. In addition to describing the structure and underlying theory of the package, we present five real-world use cases that illustrate common workflows in GeoChronR. GeoChronR is built on the Linked PaleoData framework, is open and extensible, and we welcome feedback and contributions from the community.
Jessica A. Badgeley, Eric J. Steig, Gregory J. Hakim, and Tyler J. Fudge
Clim. Past, 16, 1325–1346,
Tyler J. Fudge, David A. Lilien, Michelle Koutnik, Howard Conway, C. Max Stevens, Edwin D. Waddington, Eric J. Steig, Andrew J. Schauer, and Nicholas Holschuh
Clim. Past, 16, 819–832,Short summary
A 1750 m ice core at the South Pole was recently drilled. The oldest ice is ~55 000 years old. Since ice at the South Pole flows at 10 m per year, the ice in the core originated upstream, where the climate is different. We made measurements of the ice flow, snow accumulation, and temperature upstream. We determined the ice came from ~150 km away near the Titan Dome where the accumulation rate was similar but the temperature was colder. Our measurements improve the interpretation of the ice core.
Ellie Broadman, Lorna L. Thurston, Erik Schiefer, Nicholas P. McKay, David Fortin, Jason Geck, Michael G. Loso, Matt Nolan, Stéphanie H. Arcusa, Christopher W. Benson, Rebecca A. Ellerbroek, Michael P. Erb, Cody C. Routson, Charlotte Wiman, A. Jade Wong, and Darrell S. Kaufman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1957–1970,Short summary
Rapid climate warming is impacting physical processes in Arctic environments. Glacier–fed lakes are influenced by many of these processes, and they are impacted by the changing behavior of weather, glaciers, and rivers. We present data from weather stations, river gauging stations, lake moorings, and more, following 4 years of environmental monitoring in the watershed of Lake Peters, a glacier–fed lake in Arctic Alaska. These data can help us study the changing dynamics of this remote setting.
Dominic A. Winski, Tyler J. Fudge, David G. Ferris, Erich C. Osterberg, John M. Fegyveresi, Jihong Cole-Dai, Zayta Thundercloud, Thomas S. Cox, Karl J. Kreutz, Nikolas Ortman, Christo Buizert, Jenna Epifanio, Edward J. Brook, Ross Beaudette, Jeffrey Severinghaus, Todd Sowers, Eric J. Steig, Emma C. Kahle, Tyler R. Jones, Valerie Morris, Murat Aydin, Melinda R. Nicewonger, Kimberly A. Casey, Richard B. Alley, Edwin D. Waddington, Nels A. Iverson, Nelia W. Dunbar, Ryan C. Bay, Joseph M. Souney, Michael Sigl, and Joseph R. McConnell
Clim. Past, 15, 1793–1808,Short summary
A deep ice core was recently drilled at the South Pole to understand past variations in the Earth's climate. To understand the information contained within the ice, we present the relationship between the depth and age of the ice in the South Pole Ice Core. We found that the oldest ice in our record is from 54 302 ± 519 years ago. Our results show that, on average, 7.4 cm of snow falls at the South Pole each year.
Bharat Rastogi, Max Berkelhammer, Sonia Wharton, Mary E. Whelan, Frederick C. Meinzer, David Noone, and Christopher J. Still
Biogeosciences, 15, 7127–7139,Short summary
Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) has gained prominence as an independent tracer for gross primary productivity, which is usually modelled by partitioning net CO2 fluxes. Here, we present a simple empirical model for estimating ecosystem-scale OCS fluxes for a temperate old-growth forest and find that OCS sink strength scales with independently estimated CO2 uptake and is sensitive to the the fraction of downwelling diffuse light. We also examine the response of OCS and CO2 fluxes to sequential heat waves.
Frazer D. W. Christie, Robert G. Bingham, Noel Gourmelen, Eric J. Steig, Rosie R. Bisset, Hamish D. Pritchard, Kate Snow, and Simon F. B. Tett
The Cryosphere, 12, 2461–2479,Short summary
With a focus on the hitherto little-studied Marie Byrd Land coastline linking Antarctica's more comprehensively studied Amundsen and Ross Sea Embayments, this paper uses both satellite remote sensing (Landsat, ASTER, ICESat, and CryoSat2) and climate and ocean records (i.e. ERA-Interim, Met Office EN4 data) to examine links between ice recession, inter-decadal atmosphere-ocean forcing and other influences acting upon the Pacific-facing coastline of West Antarctica.
Nancy A. N. Bertler, Howard Conway, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, Daniel B. Emanuelsson, Mai Winstrup, Paul T. Vallelonga, James E. Lee, Ed J. Brook, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, Taylor J. Fudge, Elizabeth D. Keller, W. Troy Baisden, Richard C. A. Hindmarsh, Peter D. Neff, Thomas Blunier, Ross Edwards, Paul A. Mayewski, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Christo Buizert, Silvia Canessa, Ruzica Dadic, Helle A. Kjær, Andrei Kurbatov, Dongqi Zhang, Edwin D. Waddington, Giovanni Baccolo, Thomas Beers, Hannah J. Brightley, Lionel Carter, David Clemens-Sewall, Viorela G. Ciobanu, Barbara Delmonte, Lukas Eling, Aja Ellis, Shruthi Ganesh, Nicholas R. Golledge, Skylar Haines, Michael Handley, Robert L. Hawley, Chad M. Hogan, Katelyn M. Johnson, Elena Korotkikh, Daniel P. Lowry, Darcy Mandeno, Robert M. McKay, James A. Menking, Timothy R. Naish, Caroline Noerling, Agathe Ollive, Anaïs Orsi, Bernadette C. Proemse, Alexander R. Pyne, Rebecca L. Pyne, James Renwick, Reed P. Scherer, Stefanie Semper, Marius Simonsen, Sharon B. Sneed, Eric J. Steig, Andrea Tuohy, Abhijith Ulayottil Venugopal, Fernando Valero-Delgado, Janani Venkatesh, Feitang Wang, Shimeng Wang, Dominic A. Winski, V. Holly L. Winton, Arran Whiteford, Cunde Xiao, Jiao Yang, and Xin Zhang
Clim. Past, 14, 193–214,Short summary
Temperature and snow accumulation records from the annually dated Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) ice core show that for the past 2 700 years, the eastern Ross Sea warmed, while the western Ross Sea showed no trend and West Antarctica cooled. From the 17th century onwards, this dipole relationship changed. Now all three regions show concurrent warming, with snow accumulation declining in West Antarctica and the eastern Ross Sea.
Hansi K. A. Singh, Gregory J. Hakim, Robert Tardif, Julien Emile-Geay, and David C. Noone
Clim. Past, 14, 157–174,Short summary
The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) is prominent in the climate system. We study the AMO over the last 2000 years using a novel proxy framework, the Last Millennium Reanalysis. We find that the AMO is linked to continental warming, Arctic sea ice retreat, and an Atlantic precipitation shift. Low clouds decrease globally. We find no distinct multidecadal spectral peak in the AMO over the last 2 millennia, suggesting that human activities may have enhanced the AMO in the modern era.
Barbara Stenni, Mark A. J. Curran, Nerilie J. Abram, Anais Orsi, Sentia Goursaud, Valerie Masson-Delmotte, Raphael Neukom, Hugues Goosse, Dmitry Divine, Tas van Ommen, Eric J. Steig, Daniel A. Dixon, Elizabeth R. Thomas, Nancy A. N. Bertler, Elisabeth Isaksson, Alexey Ekaykin, Martin Werner, and Massimo Frezzotti
Clim. Past, 13, 1609–1634,Short summary
Within PAGES Antarctica2k, we build an enlarged database of ice core water stable isotope records. We produce isotopic composites and temperature reconstructions since 0 CE for seven distinct Antarctic regions. We find a significant cooling trend from 0 to 1900 CE across all regions. Since 1900 CE, significant warming trends are identified for three regions. Only for the Antarctic Peninsula is this most recent century-scale trend unusual in the context of last-2000-year natural variability.
Walter A. Perkins and Gregory J. Hakim
Clim. Past, 13, 421–436,Short summary
We examine the skill of a novel data assimilation approach to paleoclimate reconstruction that uses linear climate model forecasts. Many reconstruction studies forego the use of forecasts from climate models due to their high computational expense and relatively low skill. We show that the use of simpler linear models can improve reconstruction skill for both global mean temperature and spatial fields. Improvements displayed seem to be related to dynamical constraints from the forecasts.
Tyler R. Jones, James W. C. White, Eric J. Steig, Bruce H. Vaughn, Valerie Morris, Vasileios Gkinis, Bradley R. Markle, and Spruce W. Schoenemann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 617–632,Short summary
New measurement systems have been developed that continuously melt ice core samples, in contrast to other methods that analyze a single sample at a time. These newer systems are capable of reducing analysis time by many years and improving data set resolution. In this study, we introduce improved methodologies that optimize the speed, accuracy, and precision of a water isotope continuous-flow system. The presented system will be used for Antarctic and Greenland ice core projects.
Nathan Steiger and Gregory Hakim
Clim. Past, 12, 1375–1388,Short summary
We present a data assimilation algorithm that incorporates proxy data at arbitrary timescales. Within a synthetic-test framework, we find that atmosphere–ocean states are most skillfully reconstructed by incorporating proxies across multiple timescales compared to using them at short or long timescales alone. Additionally, reconstructions that incorporate long-timescale proxies improve the low-frequency components of the reconstructions relative to using only high-resolution proxies.
Nicholas P. McKay and Julien Emile-Geay
Clim. Past, 12, 1093–1100,Short summary
The lack of accepted data formats and data standards in paleoclimatology is a growing problem that slows progress in the field. Here, we propose a preliminary data standard for paleoclimate data, general enough to accommodate all the proxy and measurement types encountered in a large international collaboration (PAGES 2k). We also introduce a data format for such structured data (Linked Paleo Data, or LiPD), leveraging recent advances in knowledge representation (Linked Open Data).
J. Emile-Geay and M. Tingley
Clim. Past, 12, 31–50,Short summary
Ignoring nonlinearity in palaeoclimate records (e.g. continental run-off proxies) runs the risk of severely overstating changes in climate variability. Even with the correct model and parameters, some information is irretrievably lost by such proxies. However, we find that a simple empirical transform can do much to improve the situation, and makes them amenable to classical analyses. Doing so on two palaeo-ENSO records markedly changes some of the quantitative inferences made from such records.
C. Buizert, K. M. Cuffey, J. P. Severinghaus, D. Baggenstos, T. J. Fudge, E. J. Steig, B. R. Markle, M. Winstrup, R. H. Rhodes, E. J. Brook, T. A. Sowers, G. D. Clow, H. Cheng, R. L. Edwards, M. Sigl, J. R. McConnell, and K. C. Taylor
Clim. Past, 11, 153–173,
L. Geng, J. Cole-Dai, B. Alexander, J. Erbland, J. Savarino, A. J. Schauer, E. J. Steig, P. Lin, Q. Fu, and M. C. Zatko
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13361–13376,Short summary
Examinations on snowpit and firn core results from Summit, Greenland suggest that there are two mechanisms leading to the observed double nitrate peaks in some years in the industrial era: 1) long-rang transport of nitrate and 2) enhanced local photochemical production of nitrate. Both of these mechanisms are related to pollution transport, as the additional nitrate from either direct transport or enhanced local photochemistry requires enhanced nitrogen sources from anthropogenic emissions.
E. J. Steig, V. Gkinis, A. J. Schauer, S. W. Schoenemann, K. Samek, J. Hoffnagle, K. J. Dennis, and S. M. Tan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2421–2435,
B. Medley, I. Joughin, B. E. Smith, S. B. Das, E. J. Steig, H. Conway, S. Gogineni, C. Lewis, A. S. Criscitiello, J. R. McConnell, M. R. van den Broeke, J. T. M. Lenaerts, D. H. Bromwich, J. P. Nicolas, and C. Leuschen
The Cryosphere, 8, 1375–1392,
E. D. Sofen, B. Alexander, E. J. Steig, M. H. Thiemens, S. A. Kunasek, H. M. Amos, A. J. Schauer, M. G. Hastings, J. Bautista, T. L. Jackson, L. E. Vogel, J. R. McConnell, D. R. Pasteris, and E. S. Saltzman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5749–5769,
M. Comboul, J. Emile-Geay, M. N. Evans, N. Mirnateghi, K. M. Cobb, and D. M. Thompson
Clim. Past, 10, 825–841,
J. Wang, J. Emile-Geay, D. Guillot, J. E. Smerdon, and B. Rajaratnam
Clim. Past, 10, 1–19,
Related subject area
Subject: Proxy Use-Development-Validation | Archive: Terrestrial Archives | Timescale: Decadal-SeasonalThe response of annual minimum temperature on the eastern central Tibetan Plateau to large volcanic eruptions over the period 1380–2014 CEIntroduction to the special issue “Climate of the past 2000 years: regional and trans-regional syntheses”Arctic hydroclimate variability during the last 2000 years: current understanding and research challengesFrench summer droughts since 1326 CE: a reconstruction based on tree ring cellulose δ18OA 500-year seasonally resolved δ18O and δ13C, layer thickness and calcite aspect record from a speleothem deposited in the Han-sur-Lesse cave, BelgiumMonitoring of a fast-growing speleothem site from the Han-sur-Lesse cave, Belgium, indicates equilibrium deposition of the seasonal δ18O and δ13C signals in the calciteVariation in the Asian monsoon intensity and dry–wet conditions since the Little Ice Age in central China revealed by an aragonite stalagmiteMillennial minimum temperature variations in the Qilian Mountains, China: evidence from tree ringsTree-ring-inferred glacier mass balance variation in southeastern Tibetan Plateau and its linkage with climate variabilityBayesian parameter estimation and interpretation for an intermediate model of tree-ring widthModern isotope hydrology and controls on δD of plant leaf waxes at Lake El'gygytgyn, NE RussiaClustering climate reconstructionsExtracting a common high frequency signal from Northern Quebec black spruce tree-rings with a Bayesian hierarchical model
Yajun Wang, Xuemei Shao, Yong Zhang, and Mingqi Li
Clim. Past, 17, 241–252,Short summary
It is not clear to what extent or in what manner a strong volcanic eruption will influence temperature in different regions over the long term. Therefore, new 635-year annual mean minimum temperatures (Tmin) across the eastern central Tibetan Plateau were used to explored the response of Tmin to strong volcanic eruptions. Our results show that there is a high probability that the Tmin decreases within 2 years of a large volcanic eruption, especially when such eruptions occur in low latitudes.
Chris S. M. Turney, Helen V. McGregor, Pierre Francus, Nerilie Abram, Michael N. Evans, Hugues Goosse, Lucien von Gunten, Darrell Kaufman, Hans Linderholm, Marie-France Loutre, and Raphael Neukom
Clim. Past, 15, 611–615,Short summary
This PAGES (Past Global Changes) 2k (climate of the past 2000 years working group) special issue of Climate of the Past brings together the latest understanding of regional change and impacts from PAGES 2k groups across a range of proxies and regions. The special issue has emerged from a need to determine the magnitude and rate of change of regional and global climate beyond the timescales accessible within the observational record.
Hans W. Linderholm, Marie Nicolle, Pierre Francus, Konrad Gajewski, Samuli Helama, Atte Korhola, Olga Solomina, Zicheng Yu, Peng Zhang, William J. D'Andrea, Maxime Debret, Dmitry V. Divine, Björn E. Gunnarson, Neil J. Loader, Nicolas Massei, Kristina Seftigen, Elizabeth K. Thomas, Johannes Werner, Sofia Andersson, Annika Berntsson, Tomi P. Luoto, Liisa Nevalainen, Saija Saarni, and Minna Väliranta
Clim. Past, 14, 473–514,Short summary
This paper reviews the current knowledge of Arctic hydroclimate variability during the past 2000 years. We discuss the current state, look into the future, and describe various archives and proxies used to infer past hydroclimate variability. We also provide regional overviews and discuss the potential of furthering our understanding of Arctic hydroclimate in the past. This paper summarises the hydroclimate-related activities of the Arctic 2k group.
Inga Labuhn, Valérie Daux, Olivier Girardclos, Michel Stievenard, Monique Pierre, and Valérie Masson-Delmotte
Clim. Past, 12, 1101–1117,Short summary
This article presents a reconstruction of summer droughts in France for the last 680 years, based on oxygen isotope ratios in tree ring cellulose from living trees and building timbers at two sites, Fontainebleau and Angoulême. Both sites show coherent drought patterns during the 19th and 20th century, and are characterized by increasing drought in recent decades. A decoupling between sites points to a more heterogeneous climate in France during earlier centuries.
M. Van Rampelbergh, S. Verheyden, M. Allan, Y. Quinif, H. Cheng, L. R. Edwards, E. Keppens, and P. Claeys
Clim. Past, 11, 789–802,
M. Van Rampelbergh, S. Verheyden, M Allan, Y. Quinif, E. Keppens, and P. Claeys
Clim. Past, 10, 1871–1885,
J.-J. Yin, D.-X. Yuan, H.-C. Li, H. Cheng, T.-Y. Li, R. L. Edwards, Y.-S. Lin, J.-M. Qin, W. Tang, Z.-Y. Zhao, and H.-S. Mii
Clim. Past, 10, 1803–1816,
Y. Zhang, X. M. Shao, Z.-Y. Yin, and Y. Wang
Clim. Past, 10, 1763–1778,
J. Duan, L. Wang, L. Li, and Y. Sun
Clim. Past, 9, 2451–2458,
S. E. Tolwinski-Ward, K. J. Anchukaitis, and M. N. Evans
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An updated Last Millennium Reanalysis is presented, using an expanded multi-proxy database, and proxy models representing the seasonal characteristics of proxy records, in addition to the dual sensitivity to temperature and moisture of tree-ring-width chronologies. We show enhanced skill in spatial reconstructions of key climate variables in the updated reanalysis, compared to an earlier version, resulting from the combined influences of the enhanced proxy network and improved proxy modeling.
An updated Last Millennium Reanalysis is presented, using an expanded multi-proxy database, and...