Articles | Volume 13, issue 10
11 Oct 2017
Research article | 11 Oct 2017
Does δ18O of O2 record meridional shifts in tropical rainfall?
Alan M. Seltzer et al.
No articles found.
Jacob D. Morgan, Christo Buizert, Tyler J. Fudge, Kenji Kawamura, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, and Cathy M. Trudinger
The Cryosphere, 16, 2947–2966,Short summary
The composition of air bubbles in Antarctic ice cores records information about past changes in properties of the snowpack. We find that, near the South Pole, thinner snowpack in the past is often due to steeper surface topography, in which faster winds erode the snow and deposit it in flatter areas. The slope and wind seem to also cause a seasonal bias in the composition of air bubbles in the ice core. These findings will improve interpretation of other ice cores from places with steep slopes.
Giyoon Lee, Jinho Ahn, Hyeontae Ju, Florian Ritterbusch, Ikumi Oyabu, Christo Buizert, Songyi Kim, Jangil Moon, Sambit Ghosh, Kenji Kawamura, Zheng-Tian Lu, Sangbum Hong, Chang Hee Han, Soon Do Hur, Wei Jiang, and Guo-Min Yang
The Cryosphere, 16, 2301–2324,Short summary
Blue-ice areas (BIAs) have several advantages for reconstructing past climate. However, the complicated ice flow in the area hinders constraining the age. We applied state-of-the-art techniques and found that the ages cover the last deglaciation period. Our study demonstrates that the BIA in northern Victoria Land may help reconstruct the past climate during the termination of the last glacial period.
Michael Dyonisius, Vasilii Petrenko, Andrew Smith, Benjamin Hmiel, Peter Neff, Bin Yang, Quan Hua, Jochen Schmitt, Sarah Shackleton, Christo Buizert, Philip Place, James Menking, Ross Beaudette, Christina Harth, Michael Kalk, Heidi Roop, Bernhard Bereiter, Casey Armanetti, Isaac Vimont, Sylvia Englund Michel, Edward Brook, Jeffrey Severinghaus, Ray Weiss, and Joseph McConnell
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for TCShort summary
Cosmic rays that enter the atmosphere produce secondary particles. These particles react with surface minerals to produce radioactive nuclides. Cosmogenic nuclides are often used to constrain Earth's surface processes. However, the production rates from muons are not well constrained. We measured 14C in ice with well-constrained exposure history to quantitatively constrain the production rates from muons. We find that the commonly used 14C production rates are overestimated.
Ikumi Oyabu, Kenji Kawamura, Tsutomu Uchida, Shuji Fujita, Kyotaro Kitamura, Motohiro Hirabayashi, Shuji Aoki, Shinji Morimoto, Takakiyo Nakazawa, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, and Jacob D. Morgan
The Cryosphere, 15, 5529–5555,Short summary
We present O2/N2 and Ar/N2 records from the Dome Fuji ice core through the bubbly ice, bubble–clathrate transition, and clathrate ice zones without gas-loss fractionation. The insolation signal is preserved through the clathrate formation. The relationship between Ar/Ν2 and Ο2/Ν2 suggests that the fractionation for the bubble–clathrate transition is mass independent, while the bubble close-off process involves a combination of mass-independent and mass-dependent fractionation for O2 and Ar.
Sarah Shackleton, James A. Menking, Edward Brook, Christo Buizert, Michael N. Dyonisius, Vasilii V. Petrenko, Daniel Baggenstos, and Jeffrey P. Severinghaus
Clim. Past, 17, 2273–2289,Short summary
In this study, we measure atmospheric noble gases trapped in ice cores to reconstruct ocean temperature during the last glaciation. Comparing the new reconstruction to other climate records, we show that the ocean reached its coldest temperatures before ice sheets reached maximum volumes and atmospheric CO2 reached its lowest concentrations. Ocean cooling played a major role in lowering atmospheric CO2 early in the glaciation, but it only played a minor role later.
Jinhwa Shin, Jinho Ahn, Jai Chowdhry Beeman, Hun-Gyu Lee, and Edward J. Brook
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for CPShort summary
We present a new and highly resolved atmospheric CO2 record from Siple Dome ice core, Antarctica over the early Holocene (11.7 ka–7.4 ka). Atmospheric CO2 decreased by ~10 ppm from 10.9 to 7.3 ka but the decrease was punctuated by local minima at 11.1, 10.1, 9.1 and 8.3 ka. We found millennial CO2 variability of 2–6 ppm and the millennial CO2 variations correlate with proxies for solar forcing and local climate in the Southern Ocean, North Atlantic and the eastern equatorial Pacific.
Benjamin Birner, William Paplawsky, Jeffrey Severinghaus, and Ralph F. Keeling
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2515–2527,Short summary
The atmospheric helium-to-nitrogen ratio is a promising indicator for circulation changes in the upper atmosphere and fossil fuel burning by humans. We present a very precise analysis method to determine changes in the helium-to-nitrogen ratio of air samples. The method relies on stabilizing the gas flow to a mass spectrometer and continuous removal of reactive gases. These advances enable new insights and monitoring possibilities for anthropogenic and natural processes.
Ikumi Oyabu, Kenji Kawamura, Kyotaro Kitamura, Remi Dallmayr, Akihiro Kitamura, Chikako Sawada, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, Ross Beaudette, Anaïs Orsi, Satoshi Sugawara, Shigeyuki Ishidoya, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, Kumiko Goto-Azuma, Shuji Aoki, and Takakiyo Nakazawa
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6703–6731,Short summary
Air in polar ice cores provides information on past atmosphere and climate. We present a new method for simultaneously measuring eight gases (CH4, N2O and CO2 concentrations; isotopic ratios of N2 and O2; elemental ratios between N2, O2 and Ar; and total air content) from single ice-core samples with high precision.
Jenna A. Epifanio, Edward J. Brook, Christo Buizert, Jon S. Edwards, Todd A. Sowers, Emma C. Kahle, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, Eric J. Steig, Dominic A. Winski, Erich C. Osterberg, Tyler J. Fudge, Murat Aydin, Ekaterina Hood, Michael Kalk, Karl J. Kreutz, David G. Ferris, and Joshua A. Kennedy
Clim. Past, 16, 2431–2444,Short summary
A new ice core drilled at the South Pole provides a 54 000-year paleo-environmental record including the composition of the past atmosphere. This paper describes the gas chronology for the South Pole ice core, based on a high-resolution methane record. The new gas chronology, in combination with the existing ice age scale from Winski et al. (2019), allows a model-independent reconstruction of the delta age record.
Benjamin Birner, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Eric J. Morgan, Britton B. Stephens, Marianna Linz, Wuhu Feng, Chris Wilson, Jonathan D. Bent, Steven C. Wofsy, Jeffrey Severinghaus, and Ralph F. Keeling
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12391–12408,Short summary
With new high-precision observations from nine aircraft campaigns and 3-D chemical transport modeling, we show that the argon-to-nitrogen ratio (Ar / N2) in the lowermost stratosphere provides a useful constraint on the “age of air” (the time elapsed since entry of an air parcel into the stratosphere). Therefore, Ar / N2 in combination with traditional age-of-air indicators, such as CO2 and N2O, could provide new insights into atmospheric mixing and transport.
James E. Lee, Edward J. Brook, Nancy A. N. Bertler, Christo Buizert, Troy Baisden, Thomas Blunier, V. Gabriela Ciobanu, Howard Conway, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, Tyler J. Fudge, Richard Hindmarsh, Elizabeth D. Keller, Frédéric Parrenin, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, Paul Vallelonga, Edwin D. Waddington, and Mai Winstrup
Clim. Past, 16, 1691–1713,Short summary
The Roosevelt Island ice core was drilled to investigate climate from the eastern Ross Sea, West Antarctica. We describe the ice age-scale and gas age-scale of the ice core for 0–763 m (83 000 years BP). Old ice near the bottom of the core implies the ice dome existed throughout the last glacial period and that ice streaming was active in the region. Variations in methane, similar to those used as evidence of early human influence on climate, were observed prior to significant human populations.
Anders Svensson, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, Jørgen Peder Steffensen, Thomas Blunier, Sune O. Rasmussen, Bo M. Vinther, Paul Vallelonga, Emilie Capron, Vasileios Gkinis, Eliza Cook, Helle Astrid Kjær, Raimund Muscheler, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Frank Wilhelms, Thomas F. Stocker, Hubertus Fischer, Florian Adolphi, Tobias Erhardt, Michael Sigl, Amaelle Landais, Frédéric Parrenin, Christo Buizert, Joseph R. McConnell, Mirko Severi, Robert Mulvaney, and Matthias Bigler
Clim. Past, 16, 1565–1580,Short summary
We identify signatures of large bipolar volcanic eruptions in Greenland and Antarctic ice cores during the last glacial period, which allows for a precise temporal alignment of the ice cores. Thereby the exact timing of unexplained, abrupt climatic changes occurring during the last glacial period can be determined in a global context. The study thus provides a step towards a full understanding of elements of the climate system that may also play an important role in the future.
Ji-Woong Yang, Jinho Ahn, Go Iwahana, Sangyoung Han, Kyungmin Kim, and Alexander Fedorov
The Cryosphere, 14, 1311–1324,Short summary
Thawing permafrost may lead to decomposition of soil carbon and nitrogen and emission of greenhouse gases. Thus, methane and nitrous oxide compositions in ground ice may provide information on their production mechanisms in permafrost. We test conventional wet and dry extraction methods. We find that both methods extract gas from the easily extractable parts of the ice and yield similar results for mixing ratios. However, both techniques are unable to fully extract gas from the ice.
Dominic A. Winski, Tyler J. Fudge, David G. Ferris, Erich C. Osterberg, John M. Fegyveresi, Jihong Cole-Dai, Zayta Thundercloud, Thomas S. Cox, Karl J. Kreutz, Nikolas Ortman, Christo Buizert, Jenna Epifanio, Edward J. Brook, Ross Beaudette, Jeffrey Severinghaus, Todd Sowers, Eric J. Steig, Emma C. Kahle, Tyler R. Jones, Valerie Morris, Murat Aydin, Melinda R. Nicewonger, Kimberly A. Casey, Richard B. Alley, Edwin D. Waddington, Nels A. Iverson, Nelia W. Dunbar, Ryan C. Bay, Joseph M. Souney, Michael Sigl, and Joseph R. McConnell
Clim. Past, 15, 1793–1808,Short summary
A deep ice core was recently drilled at the South Pole to understand past variations in the Earth's climate. To understand the information contained within the ice, we present the relationship between the depth and age of the ice in the South Pole Ice Core. We found that the oldest ice in our record is from 54 302 ± 519 years ago. Our results show that, on average, 7.4 cm of snow falls at the South Pole each year.
Youngjoon Jang, Sang Bum Hong, Christo Buizert, Hun-Gyu Lee, Sang-Young Han, Ji-Woong Yang, Yoshinori Iizuka, Akira Hori, Yeongcheol Han, Seong Joon Jun, Pieter Tans, Taejin Choi, Seong-Joong Kim, Soon Do Hur, and Jinho Ahn
The Cryosphere, 13, 2407–2419,Short summary
We can learn how human activity altered atmospheric air from the interstitial air in the porous snow layer (firn) on top of glaciers. However, old firn air (> 55 years) was observed only at sites where surface temperatures and snow accumulation rates are very low, such as the South Pole. In this study, we report an unusually old firn air with CO2 age of 93 years from Styx Glacier, near the Ross Sea coast in Antarctica. We hypothesize that the large snow density variations increase firn air ages.
Jens Mühle, Cathy M. Trudinger, Luke M. Western, Matthew Rigby, Martin K. Vollmer, Sunyoung Park, Alistair J. Manning, Daniel Say, Anita Ganesan, L. Paul Steele, Diane J. Ivy, Tim Arnold, Shanlan Li, Andreas Stohl, Christina M. Harth, Peter K. Salameh, Archie McCulloch, Simon O'Doherty, Mi-Kyung Park, Chun Ok Jo, Dickon Young, Kieran M. Stanley, Paul B. Krummel, Blagoj Mitrevski, Ove Hermansen, Chris Lunder, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Bo Yao, Jooil Kim, Benjamin Hmiel, Christo Buizert, Vasilii V. Petrenko, Jgor Arduini, Michela Maione, David M. Etheridge, Eleni Michalopoulou, Mike Czerniak, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, Stefan Reimann, Peter G. Simmonds, Paul J. Fraser, Ronald G. Prinn, and Ray F. Weiss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10335–10359,Short summary
We discuss atmospheric concentrations and emissions of the strong greenhouse gas perfluorocyclobutane. A large fraction of recent emissions stem from China, India, and Russia, probably as a by-product from the production of fluoropolymers and fluorochemicals. Most historic emissions likely stem from developed countries. Total emissions are higher than what is being reported. Clearly, more measurements and better reporting are needed to understand emissions of this and other greenhouse gases.
James A. Menking, Edward J. Brook, Sarah A. Shackleton, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, Michael N. Dyonisius, Vasilii Petrenko, Joseph R. McConnell, Rachael H. Rhodes, Thomas K. Bauska, Daniel Baggenstos, Shaun Marcott, and Stephen Barker
Clim. Past, 15, 1537–1556,Short summary
An ice core from Taylor Glacier, Antarctica, spans a period ~ 70 000 years ago when Earth entered the last ice age. Chemical analyses of the ice and air bubbles allow for an independent determination of the ages of the ice and gas bubbles. The difference between the age of the ice and the bubbles at any given depth, called ∆age, is unusually high in the Taylor Glacier core compared to the Taylor Dome ice core situated to the south. This implies a dramatic accumulation gradient between the sites.
Jai Chowdhry Beeman, Léa Gest, Frédéric Parrenin, Dominique Raynaud, Tyler J. Fudge, Christo Buizert, and Edward J. Brook
Clim. Past, 15, 913–926,Short summary
Atmospheric CO2 was likely an important amplifier of global-scale orbitally-driven warming during the last deglaciation. However, the mechanisms responsible for the rise in CO2, and the coherent rise in Antarctic isotopic temperature records, are under debate. Using a stochastic method, we detect variable lags between coherent changes in Antarctic temperature and CO2. This implies that the climate mechanisms linking the two records changed or experienced modulations during the deglaciation.
Mai Winstrup, Paul Vallelonga, Helle A. Kjær, Tyler J. Fudge, James E. Lee, Marie H. Riis, Ross Edwards, Nancy A. N. Bertler, Thomas Blunier, Ed J. Brook, Christo Buizert, Gabriela Ciobanu, Howard Conway, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, Aja Ellis, B. Daniel Emanuelsson, Richard C. A. Hindmarsh, Elizabeth D. Keller, Andrei V. Kurbatov, Paul A. Mayewski, Peter D. Neff, Rebecca L. Pyne, Marius F. Simonsen, Anders Svensson, Andrea Tuohy, Edwin D. Waddington, and Sarah Wheatley
Clim. Past, 15, 751–779,Short summary
We present a 2700-year timescale and snow accumulation history for an ice core from Roosevelt Island, Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. We observe a long-term slightly decreasing trend in accumulation during most of the period but a rapid decline since the mid-1960s. The latter is linked to a recent strengthening of the Amundsen Sea Low and the expansion of regional sea ice. The year 1965 CE may thus mark the onset of significant increases in sea-ice extent in the eastern Ross Sea.
Benjamin Birner, Christo Buizert, Till J. W. Wagner, and Jeffrey P. Severinghaus
The Cryosphere, 12, 2021–2037,Short summary
Ancient air enclosed in bubbles of the Antarctic ice sheet is a key source of information about the Earth's past climate. However, a range of physical processes in the snow layer atop an ice sheet may change the trapped air's chemical composition before it is occluded in the ice. We developed the first detailed 2-D computer simulation of these processes and found a new method to improve the reconstruction of past climate from air in ice cores bubbles.
Nancy A. N. Bertler, Howard Conway, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, Daniel B. Emanuelsson, Mai Winstrup, Paul T. Vallelonga, James E. Lee, Ed J. Brook, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, Taylor J. Fudge, Elizabeth D. Keller, W. Troy Baisden, Richard C. A. Hindmarsh, Peter D. Neff, Thomas Blunier, Ross Edwards, Paul A. Mayewski, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Christo Buizert, Silvia Canessa, Ruzica Dadic, Helle A. Kjær, Andrei Kurbatov, Dongqi Zhang, Edwin D. Waddington, Giovanni Baccolo, Thomas Beers, Hannah J. Brightley, Lionel Carter, David Clemens-Sewall, Viorela G. Ciobanu, Barbara Delmonte, Lukas Eling, Aja Ellis, Shruthi Ganesh, Nicholas R. Golledge, Skylar Haines, Michael Handley, Robert L. Hawley, Chad M. Hogan, Katelyn M. Johnson, Elena Korotkikh, Daniel P. Lowry, Darcy Mandeno, Robert M. McKay, James A. Menking, Timothy R. Naish, Caroline Noerling, Agathe Ollive, Anaïs Orsi, Bernadette C. Proemse, Alexander R. Pyne, Rebecca L. Pyne, James Renwick, Reed P. Scherer, Stefanie Semper, Marius Simonsen, Sharon B. Sneed, Eric J. Steig, Andrea Tuohy, Abhijith Ulayottil Venugopal, Fernando Valero-Delgado, Janani Venkatesh, Feitang Wang, Shimeng Wang, Dominic A. Winski, V. Holly L. Winton, Arran Whiteford, Cunde Xiao, Jiao Yang, and Xin Zhang
Clim. Past, 14, 193–214,Short summary
Temperature and snow accumulation records from the annually dated Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) ice core show that for the past 2 700 years, the eastern Ross Sea warmed, while the western Ross Sea showed no trend and West Antarctica cooled. From the 17th century onwards, this dipole relationship changed. Now all three regions show concurrent warming, with snow accumulation declining in West Antarctica and the eastern Ross Sea.
Ji-Woong Yang, Jinho Ahn, Edward J. Brook, and Yeongjun Ryu
Clim. Past, 13, 1227–1242,Short summary
The early Holocene climate is characterized as an interglacial boundary condition without substantial human influence. Here we present a high-resolution CH4 record covering the early Holocene. The results show that abrupt cooling in Greenland and southward migration of ITCZ were able to induce an ~20 ppb CH4 decrease on a millennial timescale. The inter-polar difference exhibits a gradual increase during the early Holocene, implying the strengthening of northern extratropical emission.
Daniel Baggenstos, Thomas K. Bauska, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, James E. Lee, Hinrich Schaefer, Christo Buizert, Edward J. Brook, Sarah Shackleton, and Vasilii V. Petrenko
Clim. Past, 13, 943–958,Short summary
We present measurements of the gas composition in trapped air bubbles in ice samples taken from Taylor Glacier, Antarctica. We can show that ice from the entire last glacial cycle (125 000 years ago to the present) is exposed at the surface of this glacier and that the atmospheric record contained in the air bubbles is well preserved. Taylor Glacier therefore provides an easily accessible archive of ancient ice that allows for studies of trace components that require large ice volumes.
Dennis L. Nielson, Chris Delahunty, John W. Goodge, and Jeffery P. Severinghaus
Sci. Dril., 22, 29–33,Short summary
The North American Testing (NAT) was designed to test critical functions of a Rapid Access Ice Drill (RAID) at a site in northern Utah. The RAID was designed to rapidly drill in Antarctica through over 2500 m of ice and then take a core sample of the bedrock. The system has many innovative features that required field testing before the system was shipped to Antarcitca. The NAT facility consisted of a borehole where we froze a column of ice to test drilling and fluid circulation functions.
Léa Gest, Frédéric Parrenin, Jai Chowdhry Beeman, Dominique Raynaud, Tyler J. Fudge, Christo Buizert, and Edward J. Brook
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
In this manuscript, we place the atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature records onto a common age scale during the last deglaciation. Moreover, we evaluate the phase relationship between those two records in order to discuss possible climatic and carbon cycle scenarios. Indeed, this phase relationship is central to determine the role of the former in past (and therefore future) climatic variations. This scientific problem was even discussed by some policy makers (e.g., in the USA senate).
Christo Buizert and Jeffrey P. Severinghaus
The Cryosphere, 10, 2099–2111,Short summary
The upper 50–100 m of the world's ice sheets consists of the firn layer, a porous layer of snow that is slowly compacted by overlying snow. Understanding air movement inside the firn is critical for ice core climate reconstructions. Buizert and Severinghaus identify and describe a new mechanism of firn air movement. High- and low-pressure systems force air movement in the firn that drives strong mixing, called dispersion. Dispersion is the main mechanism for air mixing in the deep firn.
Rachael H. Rhodes, Xavier Faïn, Edward J. Brook, Joseph R. McConnell, Olivia J. Maselli, Michael Sigl, Jon Edwards, Christo Buizert, Thomas Blunier, Jérôme Chappellaz, and Johannes Freitag
Clim. Past, 12, 1061–1077,Short summary
Local artifacts in ice core methane data are superimposed on consistent records of past atmospheric variability. These artifacts are not related to past atmospheric history and care should be taken to avoid interpreting them as such. By investigating five polar ice cores from sites with different conditions, we relate isolated methane spikes to melt layers and decimetre-scale variations as "trapping signal" associated with a difference in timing of air bubble closure in adjacent firn layers.
Michael Sigl, Tyler J. Fudge, Mai Winstrup, Jihong Cole-Dai, David Ferris, Joseph R. McConnell, Ken C. Taylor, Kees C. Welten, Thomas E. Woodruff, Florian Adolphi, Marion Bisiaux, Edward J. Brook, Christo Buizert, Marc W. Caffee, Nelia W. Dunbar, Ross Edwards, Lei Geng, Nels Iverson, Bess Koffman, Lawrence Layman, Olivia J. Maselli, Kenneth McGwire, Raimund Muscheler, Kunihiko Nishiizumi, Daniel R. Pasteris, Rachael H. Rhodes, and Todd A. Sowers
Clim. Past, 12, 769–786,Short summary
Here we present a chronology (WD2014) for the upper part (0–2850 m; 31.2 ka BP) of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide ice core, which is based on layer counting of distinctive annual cycles preserved in the elemental, chemical and electrical conductivity records. We validated the chronology by comparing it to independent high-accuracy, absolutely dated chronologies. Given its demonstrated high accuracy, WD2014 can become a reference chronology for the Southern Hemisphere.
C. Buizert, K. M. Cuffey, J. P. Severinghaus, D. Baggenstos, T. J. Fudge, E. J. Steig, B. R. Markle, M. Winstrup, R. H. Rhodes, E. J. Brook, T. A. Sowers, G. D. Clow, H. Cheng, R. L. Edwards, M. Sigl, J. R. McConnell, and K. C. Taylor
Clim. Past, 11, 153–173,
S. O. Rasmussen, P. M. Abbott, T. Blunier, A. J. Bourne, E. Brook, S. L. Buchardt, C. Buizert, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, E. Cook, D. Dahl-Jensen, S. M. Davies, M. Guillevic, S. Kipfstuhl, T. Laepple, I. K. Seierstad, J. P. Severinghaus, J. P. Steffensen, C. Stowasser, A. Svensson, P. Vallelonga, B. M. Vinther, F. Wilhelms, and M. Winstrup
Clim. Past, 9, 2713–2730,
K. Kawamura, J. P. Severinghaus, M. R. Albert, Z. R. Courville, M. A. Fahnestock, T. Scambos, E. Shields, and C. A. Shuman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11141–11155,
H. Fischer, J. Severinghaus, E. Brook, E. Wolff, M. Albert, O. Alemany, R. Arthern, C. Bentley, D. Blankenship, J. Chappellaz, T. Creyts, D. Dahl-Jensen, M. Dinn, M. Frezzotti, S. Fujita, H. Gallee, R. Hindmarsh, D. Hudspeth, G. Jugie, K. Kawamura, V. Lipenkov, H. Miller, R. Mulvaney, F. Parrenin, F. Pattyn, C. Ritz, J. Schwander, D. Steinhage, T. van Ommen, and F. Wilhelms
Clim. Past, 9, 2489–2505,
V. V. Petrenko, P. Martinerie, P. Novelli, D. M. Etheridge, I. Levin, Z. Wang, T. Blunier, J. Chappellaz, J. Kaiser, P. Lang, L. P. Steele, S. Hammer, J. Mak, R. L. Langenfelds, J. Schwander, J. P. Severinghaus, E. Witrant, G. Petron, M. O. Battle, G. Forster, W. T. Sturges, J.-F. Lamarque, K. Steffen, and J. W. C. White
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7567–7585,
Ahn, J. and Brook, E. J.: Siple Dome ice reveals two modes of millennial CO2 change during the last ice age, Nat. Commun., 5, 3723, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms4723, 2014.
Ahn, J., Brook, E. J., Schmittner, A., and Kreutz, K.: Abrupt change in atmospheric CO2 during the last ice age, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, 1–5, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL053018, 2012.
Ahn, J., Brook, E. J., and Buizert, C.: Response of atmospheric CO2 to the abrupt cooling event 8200 years ago, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 604–609, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013GL058177, 2014.
Andersen, K. K., Azuma, N., Barnola, J.-M., Bigler, M., Biscaye, P., Caillon, N., Chappellaz, J., Clausen, H. B., Dahl-Jensen, D., Fischer, H., Flückiger, J., Fritzsche, D., Fujii, Y., Goto-Azuma, K., Grønvold, K., Gundestrup, N. S., Hansson, M., Huber, C., Hvidberg, C. S., Johnsen, S. J., Jonsell, U., Jouzel, J., Kipfstuhl, S., Landais, A., Leuenberger, M., Lorrain, R., Masson-Delmotte, V., Miller, H., Motoyama, H., Narita, H., Popp, T., Rasmussen, S. O., Raynaud, D., Rothlisberger, R., Ruth, U., Samyn, D., Schwander, J., Shoji, H., Siggard-Andersen, M.-L., Steffensen, J. P., Stocker, T., Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. E., Svensson, A., Takata, M., Tison, J.-L., Thorsteinsson, T., Watanabe, O., Wilhelms, F., and White, J. W. C.: High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period, Nature, 431, 147–151, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02805, 2004.
Angert, A., Luz, B., and Yakir, D.: Fractionation of oxygen isotopes by respiration and diffusion in soils and its implications for the isotopic composition of atmospheric O2, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 15, 871–880, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000GB001371, 2001.
Angert, A., Rodeghiero, M., and Griffin, K.: High alternative oxidase activity in cold soils and its implication to the Dole Effect, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL052719, 2012.
Argus, D. F., Peltier, W. R., Drummond, R., and Moore, A. W.: The Antarctica component of postglacial rebound model ICE-6G_C (VM5a) based on GPS positioning, exposure age dating of ice thicknesses, and relative sea level histories, Geophys. J. Int., 198, 537–563, https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggu140, 2014.
Aster, R. C., Borchers, B., and Thurber, C. H.: Tikhonov regularization, in: Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems, Elsevier Academic Press, Waltham, MA, 93–127, 2013.
Banta, J. R., McConnell, J. R., Frey, M. M., Bales, R. C., and Taylor, K.: Spatial and temporal variability in snow accumulation at the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide over recent centuries, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D23102, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD010235, 2008.
Barkan, E. and Luz, B.: High precision measurements of 17O∕16O and 18O∕16O ratios in H2O, Rapid Commun. Mass Sp., 19, 3737–3742, https://doi.org/10.1002/rcm.2250, 2005.
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Bender, M., Sowers, T., and Labeyrie, L.: The Dole Effect and its variations during the last 130 000 years as measured in the Vostok Ice Core, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 8, 363–376, https://doi.org/10.1029/94GB00724, 1994.
Bender, M., Sowers, T., and Lipenkov, V.: On the concentrations of O2, N2, and Ar in trapped gases from ice cores, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 18651, https://doi.org/10.1029/94JD02212, 1995.
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To explore whether the oxygen-18 to oxygen-16 ratio of atmospheric O2 is sensitive to the position of the tropical rain belts, we (1) present a record of ice core bubble oxygen isotope measurements from two Antarctic ice cores, and (2) examine the sensitivity of oxygen isotopes in precipitation, weighted by photosynthesis, to the location of oxygen production over the modern-day seasonal cycle. We find a strong modern relationship and discuss implications for past shifts in tropical rainfall.
To explore whether the oxygen-18 to oxygen-16 ratio of atmospheric O2 is sensitive to the...