Articles | Volume 17, issue 1
Clim. Past, 17, 253–267, 2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-17-253-2021
Clim. Past, 17, 253–267, 2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-17-253-2021

Research article 27 Jan 2021

Research article | 27 Jan 2021

Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) climate forcing and ocean dynamical feedback and their implications for estimating climate sensitivity

Jiang Zhu and Christopher J. Poulsen

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The PMIP4 Last Glacial Maximum experiments: preliminary results and comparison with the PMIP3 simulations
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Subject: Feedback and Forcing | Archive: Modelling only | Timescale: Pleistocene
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Cited articles

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Bitz, C. M., Shell, K. M., Gent, P. R., Bailey, D. A., Danabasoglu, G., Armour, K. C., Holland, M. M., and Kiehl, J. T.: Climate Sensitivity of the Community Climate System Model, Version 4, J. Climate, 25, 3053–3070, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00290.1, 2011. 
Braconnot, P. and Kageyama, M.: Shortwave forcing and feedbacks in Last Glacial Maximum and Mid-Holocene PMIP3 simulations, Philos. T. Roy. Soc. A, 373, 20140424, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2014.0424, 2015. 
Braconnot, P., Harrison, S. P., Kageyama, M., Bartlein, P. J., Masson-Delmotte, V., Abe-Ouchi, A., Otto-Bliesner, B., and Zhao, Y.: Evaluation of climate models using palaeoclimatic data, Nat. Clim. Change, 2, 417–424, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1456, 2012. 
Brady, E. C., Otto-Bliesner, B. L., Kay, J. E., and Rosenbloom, N.: Sensitivity to Glacial Forcing in the CCSM4, J. Climate, 26, 1901–1925, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00416.1, 2013. 
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Climate sensitivity has been directly calculated from paleoclimate data. This approach relies on good understandings of climate forcings and interactions within the Earth system. We conduct Last Glacial Maximum simulations using a climate model to quantify the forcing and efficacy of ice sheets and greenhouse gases and to directly estimate climate sensitivity in the model. Results suggest that the direct calculation overestimates the truth by 25 % due to neglecting ocean dynamical feedback.