Articles | Volume 11, issue 12
Clim. Past, 11, 1599–1620, 2015
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Special issue: Climatic and biotic events of the Paleogene
Research article 07 Dec 2015
Research article | 07 Dec 2015
Expansion and diversification of high-latitude radiolarian assemblages in the late Eocene linked to a cooling event in the southwest Pacific
K. M. Pascher et al.
No articles found.
Daniel J. Lunt, Fran Bragg, Wing-Le Chan, David K. Hutchinson, Jean-Baptiste Ladant, Polina Morozova, Igor Niezgodzki, Sebastian Steinig, Zhongshi Zhang, Jiang Zhu, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, Eleni Anagnostou, Agatha M. de Boer, Helen K. Coxall, Yannick Donnadieu, Gavin Foster, Gordon N. Inglis, Gregor Knorr, Petra M. Langebroek, Caroline H. Lear, Gerrit Lohmann, Christopher J. Poulsen, Pierre Sepulchre, Jessica E. Tierney, Paul J. Valdes, Evgeny M. Volodin, Tom Dunkley Jones, Christopher J. Hollis, Matthew Huber, and Bette L. Otto-Bliesner
Clim. Past, 17, 203–227,Short summary
This paper presents the first modelling results from the Deep-Time Model Intercomparison Project (DeepMIP), in which we focus on the early Eocene climatic optimum (EECO, 50 million years ago). We show that, in contrast to previous work, at least three models (CESM, GFDL, and NorESM) produce climate states that are consistent with proxy indicators of global mean temperature and polar amplification, and they achieve this at a CO2 concentration that is consistent with the CO2 proxy record.
Kate E. Ashley, Robert McKay, Johan Etourneau, Francisco J. Jimenez-Espejo, Alan Condron, Anna Albot, Xavier Crosta, Christina Riesselman, Osamu Seki, Guillaume Massé, Nicholas R. Golledge, Edward Gasson, Daniel P. Lowry, Nicholas E. Barrand, Katelyn Johnson, Nancy Bertler, Carlota Escutia, Robert Dunbar, and James A. Bendle
Clim. Past, 17, 1–19,Short summary
We present a multi-proxy record of Holocene glacial meltwater input, sediment transport, and sea-ice variability off East Antarctica. Our record shows that a rapid Antarctic sea-ice increase during the mid-Holocene (~ 4.5 ka) occurred against a backdrop of increasing glacial meltwater input and gradual climate warming. We suggest that mid-Holocene ice shelf cavity expansion led to cooling of surface waters and sea-ice growth, which slowed basal ice shelf melting.
Abhijith U. Venugopal, Nancy A. N. Bertler, Rebecca L. Pyne, Helle A. Kjær, V. Holly L. Winton, Paul A. Mayewski, and Giuseppe Cortese
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
We present a new and highly resolved glacial record of nitrate and calcium from a deep ice core obtained from Roosevelt Island, West Antarctica. Our data show a dependent association among nitrate and non-sea salt calcium (mineral dust) as observed previously in East Antarctica. The spatial pattern indicates that mineral dust is scavenging nitrate from the atmosphere and the westerlies are dispersing the dust-bound nitrate across Antarctica, making nitrate a potential paleo-westerly wind proxy.
Martin Tetard, Ross Marchant, Giuseppe Cortese, Yves Gally, Thibault de Garidel-Thoron, and Luc Beaufort
Clim. Past, 16, 2415–2429,Short summary
Radiolarians are marine micro-organisms that produce a siliceous shell that is preserved in the fossil record and can be used to reconstruct past climate variability. However, their study is only possible after a time-consuming manual selection of their shells from the sediment followed by their individual identification. Thus, we develop a new fully automated workflow consisting of microscopic radiolarian image acquisition, image processing and identification using artificial intelligence.
Frida S. Hoem, Luis Valero, Dimitris Evangelinos, Carlota Escutia, Bella Duncan, Robert M. McKay, Henk Brinkhuis, Francesca Sangiorgi, and Peter K. Bijl
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Preprint under review for CPShort summary
In this research article, we present new paleoceanographic reconstructions for the Oligocene (33.7–25.4 Ma) offshore Cape Adare, Ross Sea, Antarctica. Our study of dinoflagellate cysts assemblages and lipid biomarkers (TEX86) indicate warm-temperate sea surface conditions. We propose that warm offshore conditions delivered heat to Antarctica, causing surface melt and glacial retreat during warm orbitals and promoted precipitation during cold orbitals sustaining marine terminations of ice caps.
Gordon N. Inglis, Fran Bragg, Natalie J. Burls, Margot J. Cramwinckel, David Evans, Gavin L. Foster, Matthew Huber, Daniel J. Lunt, Nicholas Siler, Sebastian Steinig, Jessica E. Tierney, Richard Wilkinson, Eleni Anagnostou, Agatha M. de Boer, Tom Dunkley Jones, Kirsty M. Edgar, Christopher J. Hollis, David K. Hutchinson, and Richard D. Pancost
Clim. Past, 16, 1953–1968,Short summary
This paper presents estimates of global mean surface temperatures and climate sensitivity during the early Paleogene (∼57–48 Ma). We employ a multi-method experimental approach and show that i) global mean surface temperatures range between 27 and 32°C and that ii) estimates of
bulkequilibrium climate sensitivity (∼3 to 4.5°C) fall within the range predicted by the IPCC AR5 Report. This work improves our understanding of two key climate metrics during the early Paleogene.
Jamey Stutz, Andrew Mackintosh, Kevin Norton, Ross Whitmore, Carlo Baroni, Stewart S. R. Jamieson, R. Selwyn Jones, Greg Balco, Maria Cristina Salvatore, Stefano Casale, Jae Il Lee, Yeong Bae Seong, Hyun Hee Rhee, Robert McKay, Lauren J. Vargo, Daniel Lowry, Perry Spector, Marcus Cristl, Susan Ivy Ochs, Luigia Di Nicola, Maria Iarossi, Finlay Stuart, and Tom Woodruff
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint under review for TCShort summary
Understanding the long term behavior of ice sheets is essential to projecting future changes due to climate change. In this study, we use rocks deposited along the margin of the David Glacier, one of the largest glacier systems in the world, to reveal a rapid thinning event initiated over 7,000 years ago and endured for ~ 2,000 years. Using physical models, we show that sub-glacial topography and ocean heat are important drivers for change along this sector of the Antarctic Ice Sheet.
Kirsty M. Edgar, Steven M. Bohaty, Helen K. Coxall, Paul R. Bown, Sietske J. Batenburg, Caroline H. Lear, and Paul N. Pearson
J. Micropalaeontol., 39, 117–138,Short summary
We identify the first continuous carbonate-bearing sediment record from the tropical ocean that spans the entirety of the global warming event, the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum, ca. 40 Ma. We determine significant mismatches between middle Eocene calcareous microfossil datums from the tropical Pacific Ocean and established low-latitude zonation schemes. We highlight the potential of ODP Site 865 for future investigations into environmental and biotic changes throughout the early Paleogene.
Christopher J. Hollis, Tom Dunkley Jones, Eleni Anagnostou, Peter K. Bijl, Margot J. Cramwinckel, Ying Cui, Gerald R. Dickens, Kirsty M. Edgar, Yvette Eley, David Evans, Gavin L. Foster, Joost Frieling, Gordon N. Inglis, Elizabeth M. Kennedy, Reinhard Kozdon, Vittoria Lauretano, Caroline H. Lear, Kate Littler, Lucas Lourens, A. Nele Meckler, B. David A. Naafs, Heiko Pälike, Richard D. Pancost, Paul N. Pearson, Ursula Röhl, Dana L. Royer, Ulrich Salzmann, Brian A. Schubert, Hannu Seebeck, Appy Sluijs, Robert P. Speijer, Peter Stassen, Jessica Tierney, Aradhna Tripati, Bridget Wade, Thomas Westerhold, Caitlyn Witkowski, James C. Zachos, Yi Ge Zhang, Matthew Huber, and Daniel J. Lunt
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3149–3206,Short summary
The Deep-Time Model Intercomparison Project (DeepMIP) is a model–data intercomparison of the early Eocene (around 55 million years ago), the last time that Earth's atmospheric CO2 concentrations exceeded 1000 ppm. Previously, we outlined the experimental design for climate model simulations. Here, we outline the methods used for compilation and analysis of climate proxy data. The resulting climate
atlaswill provide insights into the mechanisms that control past warm climate states.
Robert McKay, Neville Exon, Dietmar Müller, Karsten Gohl, Michael Gurnis, Amelia Shevenell, Stuart Henrys, Fumio Inagaki, Dhananjai Pandey, Jessica Whiteside, Tina van de Flierdt, Tim Naish, Verena Heuer, Yuki Morono, Millard Coffin, Marguerite Godard, Laura Wallace, Shuichi Kodaira, Peter Bijl, Julien Collot, Gerald Dickens, Brandon Dugan, Ann G. Dunlea, Ron Hackney, Minoru Ikehara, Martin Jutzeler, Lisa McNeill, Sushant Naik, Taryn Noble, Bradley Opdyke, Ingo Pecher, Lowell Stott, Gabriele Uenzelmann-Neben, Yatheesh Vadakkeykath, and Ulrich G. Wortmann
Sci. Dril., 24, 61–70,
Ariadna Salabarnada, Carlota Escutia, Ursula Röhl, C. Hans Nelson, Robert McKay, Francisco J. Jiménez-Espejo, Peter K. Bijl, Julian D. Hartman, Stephanie L. Strother, Ulrich Salzmann, Dimitris Evangelinos, Adrián López-Quirós, José Abel Flores, Francesca Sangiorgi, Minoru Ikehara, and Henk Brinkhuis
Clim. Past, 14, 991–1014,Short summary
Here we reconstruct ice sheet and paleoceanographic configurations in the East Antarctic Wilkes Land margin based on a multi-proxy study conducted in late Oligocene (26–25 Ma) sediments from IODP Site U1356. The new obliquity-forced glacial–interglacial sedimentary model shows that, under the high CO2 values of the late Oligocene, ice sheets had mostly retreated to their terrestrial margins and the ocean was very dynamic with shifting positions of the polar fronts and associated water masses.
Nancy A. N. Bertler, Howard Conway, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, Daniel B. Emanuelsson, Mai Winstrup, Paul T. Vallelonga, James E. Lee, Ed J. Brook, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, Taylor J. Fudge, Elizabeth D. Keller, W. Troy Baisden, Richard C. A. Hindmarsh, Peter D. Neff, Thomas Blunier, Ross Edwards, Paul A. Mayewski, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Christo Buizert, Silvia Canessa, Ruzica Dadic, Helle A. Kjær, Andrei Kurbatov, Dongqi Zhang, Edwin D. Waddington, Giovanni Baccolo, Thomas Beers, Hannah J. Brightley, Lionel Carter, David Clemens-Sewall, Viorela G. Ciobanu, Barbara Delmonte, Lukas Eling, Aja Ellis, Shruthi Ganesh, Nicholas R. Golledge, Skylar Haines, Michael Handley, Robert L. Hawley, Chad M. Hogan, Katelyn M. Johnson, Elena Korotkikh, Daniel P. Lowry, Darcy Mandeno, Robert M. McKay, James A. Menking, Timothy R. Naish, Caroline Noerling, Agathe Ollive, Anaïs Orsi, Bernadette C. Proemse, Alexander R. Pyne, Rebecca L. Pyne, James Renwick, Reed P. Scherer, Stefanie Semper, Marius Simonsen, Sharon B. Sneed, Eric J. Steig, Andrea Tuohy, Abhijith Ulayottil Venugopal, Fernando Valero-Delgado, Janani Venkatesh, Feitang Wang, Shimeng Wang, Dominic A. Winski, V. Holly L. Winton, Arran Whiteford, Cunde Xiao, Jiao Yang, and Xin Zhang
Clim. Past, 14, 193–214,Short summary
Temperature and snow accumulation records from the annually dated Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) ice core show that for the past 2 700 years, the eastern Ross Sea warmed, while the western Ross Sea showed no trend and West Antarctica cooled. From the 17th century onwards, this dipole relationship changed. Now all three regions show concurrent warming, with snow accumulation declining in West Antarctica and the eastern Ross Sea.
Joost Frieling, Emiel P. Huurdeman, Charlotte C. M. Rem, Timme H. Donders, Jörg Pross, Steven M. Bohaty, Guy R. Holdgate, Stephen J. Gallagher, Brian McGowran, and Peter K. Bijl
J. Micropalaeontol., 37, 317–339,Short summary
The hothouse climate of the early Paleogene and the associated violent carbon cycle perturbations are of particular interest to understanding current and future global climate change. Using dinoflagellate cysts and stable carbon isotope analyses, we identify several significant events, e.g., the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum in sedimentary deposits from the Otway Basin, SE Australia. We anticipate that this study will facilitate detailed climate reconstructions west of the Tasmanian Gateway.
Joost Frieling, Gert-Jan Reichart, Jack J. Middelburg, Ursula Röhl, Thomas Westerhold, Steven M. Bohaty, and Appy Sluijs
Clim. Past, 14, 39–55,Short summary
Past periods of rapid global warming such as the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum are used to study biotic response to climate change. We show that very high peak PETM temperatures in the tropical Atlantic (~ 37 ºC) caused heat stress in several marine plankton groups. However, only slightly cooler temperatures afterwards allowed highly diverse plankton communities to bloom. This shows that tropical plankton communities may be susceptible to extreme warming, but may also recover rapidly.
Kenji M. Matsuzaki and Noritoshi Suzuki
J. Micropalaeontol., 37, 1–10,Short summary
The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 341 retrieved deep-sea sediment (e.g., U1417) for determining the linkage between climate and tectonism change in the Neogene at several sites. It is crucial to constrain the age of the collected sediments. In this context we define the biostratigraphy of radiolarians, which are a good proxy for constraining the age of deep-sea sediments. We defined the upper 200 m of the core sediments collected at Site U1417 as covering the past 1.7 Mky.
Nicholas R. Golledge, Zoë A. Thomas, Richard H. Levy, Edward G. W. Gasson, Timothy R. Naish, Robert M. McKay, Douglas E. Kowalewski, and Christopher J. Fogwill
Clim. Past, 13, 959–975,Short summary
We investigated how the Antarctic climate and ice sheets evolved during a period of warmer-than-present temperatures 4 million years ago, during a time when the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere was very similar to today's level. Using computer models to first simulate the climate, and then how the ice sheets responded, we found that Antarctica most likely lost around 8.5 m sea-level equivalent ice volume as both East and West Antarctic ice sheets retreated.
Daniel J. Lunt, Matthew Huber, Eleni Anagnostou, Michiel L. J. Baatsen, Rodrigo Caballero, Rob DeConto, Henk A. Dijkstra, Yannick Donnadieu, David Evans, Ran Feng, Gavin L. Foster, Ed Gasson, Anna S. von der Heydt, Chris J. Hollis, Gordon N. Inglis, Stephen M. Jones, Jeff Kiehl, Sandy Kirtland Turner, Robert L. Korty, Reinhardt Kozdon, Srinath Krishnan, Jean-Baptiste Ladant, Petra Langebroek, Caroline H. Lear, Allegra N. LeGrande, Kate Littler, Paul Markwick, Bette Otto-Bliesner, Paul Pearson, Christopher J. Poulsen, Ulrich Salzmann, Christine Shields, Kathryn Snell, Michael Stärz, James Super, Clay Tabor, Jessica E. Tierney, Gregory J. L. Tourte, Aradhna Tripati, Garland R. Upchurch, Bridget S. Wade, Scott L. Wing, Arne M. E. Winguth, Nicky M. Wright, James C. Zachos, and Richard E. Zeebe
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 889–901,Short summary
In this paper we describe the experimental design for a set of simulations which will be carried out by a range of climate models, all investigating the climate of the Eocene, about 50 million years ago. The intercomparison of model results is called 'DeepMIP', and we anticipate that we will contribute to the next IPCC report through an analysis of these simulations and the geological data to which we will compare them.
T. Westerhold, U. Röhl, T. Frederichs, S. M. Bohaty, and J. C. Zachos
Clim. Past, 11, 1181–1195,Short summary
Testing hypotheses for mechanisms and dynamics of past climate change relies on the accuracy of geological dating. Development of a highly accurate geological timescale for the Cenozoic Era has previously been hampered by discrepancies between radioisotopic and astronomical dating methods, as well as a stratigraphic gap in the middle Eocene. We close this gap and provide a fundamental advance in establishing a reliable and highly accurate geological timescale for the last 66 million years.
C. J. Hollis, B. R. Hines, K. Littler, V. Villasante-Marcos, D. K. Kulhanek, C. P. Strong, J. C. Zachos, S. M. Eggins, L. Northcote, and A. Phillips
Clim. Past, 11, 1009–1025,Short summary
Re-examination of a Deep Sea Drilling Project sediment core (DSDP Site 277) from the western Campbell Plateau has identified the initial phase of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) within nannofossil chalk, the first record of the PETM in an oceanic setting in the southern Pacific Ocean (paleolatitude of ~65°S). Geochemical proxies indicate that intermediate and surface waters warmed by ~6° at the onset of the PETM prior to the full development of the negative δ13C excursion.
K. Schmidt, C. L. De La Rocha, M. Gallinari, and G. Cortese
Biogeosciences, 11, 135–145,
Related subject area
Subject: Ocean Dynamics | Archive: Marine Archives | Timescale: CenozoicLessons from a high-CO2 world: an ocean view from ∼ 3 million years agoLate Pliocene Cordilleran Ice Sheet development with warm northeast Pacific sea surface temperaturesUnderstanding the mechanisms behind high glacial productivity in the southern Brazilian marginPaleoceanography and ice sheet variability offshore Wilkes Land, Antarctica – Part 3: Insights from Oligocene–Miocene TEX86-based sea surface temperature reconstructionsPaleoceanography and ice sheet variability offshore Wilkes Land, Antarctica – Part 2: Insights from Oligocene–Miocene dinoflagellate cyst assemblagesVariations in Mediterranean–Atlantic exchange across the late Pliocene climate transitionRevisiting the Ceara Rise, equatorial Atlantic Ocean: isotope stratigraphy of ODP Leg 154 from 0 to 5 MaConstraints on ocean circulation at the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum from neodymium isotopesMicrofossil evidence for trophic changes during the Eocene–Oligocene transition in the South Atlantic (ODP Site 1263, Walvis Ridge)A major change in North Atlantic deep water circulation 1.6 million years agoContribution of changes in opal productivity and nutrient distribution in the coastal upwelling systems to Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene climate coolingProductivity response of calcareous nannoplankton to Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2)Technical note: Late Pliocene age control and composite depths at ODP Site 982, revisitedPliocene three-dimensional global ocean temperature reconstruction
Erin L. McClymont, Heather L. Ford, Sze Ling Ho, Julia C. Tindall, Alan M. Haywood, Montserrat Alonso-Garcia, Ian Bailey, Melissa A. Berke, Kate Littler, Molly O. Patterson, Benjamin Petrick, Francien Peterse, A. Christina Ravelo, Bjørg Risebrobakken, Stijn De Schepper, George E. A. Swann, Kaustubh Thirumalai, Jessica E. Tierney, Carolien van der Weijst, Sarah White, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, Michiel L. J. Baatsen, Esther C. Brady, Wing-Le Chan, Deepak Chandan, Ran Feng, Chuncheng Guo, Anna S. von der Heydt, Stephen Hunter, Xiangyi Li, Gerrit Lohmann, Kerim H. Nisancioglu, Bette L. Otto-Bliesner, W. Richard Peltier, Christian Stepanek, and Zhongshi Zhang
Clim. Past, 16, 1599–1615,Short summary
We examine the sea-surface temperature response to an interval of climate ~ 3.2 million years ago, when CO2 concentrations were similar to today and the near future. Our geological data and climate models show that global mean sea-surface temperatures were 2.3 to 3.2 ºC warmer than pre-industrial climate, that the mid-latitudes and high latitudes warmed more than the tropics, and that the warming was particularly enhanced in the North Atlantic Ocean.
Maria Luisa Sánchez-Montes, Erin L. McClymont, Jeremy M. Lloyd, Juliane Müller, Ellen A. Cowan, and Coralie Zorzi
Clim. Past, 16, 299–313,Short summary
In this paper, we present new climate reconstructions in SW Alaska from recovered marine sediments in the Gulf of Alaska. We find that glaciers reached the Gulf of Alaska during a cooling climate 2.9 million years ago, and after that the Cordilleran Ice Sheet continued growing during a global drop in atmospheric CO2 levels. Cordilleran Ice Sheet growth could have been supported by an increase in heat supply to the SW Alaska and warm ocean evaporation–mountain precipitation mechanisms.
Rodrigo da Costa Portilho-Ramos, Tainã Marcos Lima Pinho, Cristiano Mazur Chiessi, and Cátia Fernandes Barbosa
Clim. Past, 15, 943–955,Short summary
Fossil microorganisms from the last glacial found in marine sediments collected off southern Brazil suggest that more productive austral summer upwelling and more frequent austral winter incursions of nutrient-rich waters from the Plata River boosted regional productivity year-round. While upwelling was more productive due to the higher silicon content from the Southern Ocean, more frequent riverine incursions were modulated by stronger alongshore southwesterly winds.
Julian D. Hartman, Francesca Sangiorgi, Ariadna Salabarnada, Francien Peterse, Alexander J. P. Houben, Stefan Schouten, Henk Brinkhuis, Carlota Escutia, and Peter K. Bijl
Clim. Past, 14, 1275–1297,Short summary
We reconstructed sea surface temperatures for the Oligocene and Miocene periods (34–11 Ma) based on archaeal lipids from a site close to the Wilkes Land coast, Antarctica. Our record suggests generally warm to temperate surface waters: on average 17 °C. Based on the lithology, glacial and interglacial temperatures could be distinguished, showing an average 3 °C offset. The long-term temperature trend resembles the benthic δ18O stack, which may have implications for ice volume reconstructions.
Peter K. Bijl, Alexander J. P. Houben, Julian D. Hartman, Jörg Pross, Ariadna Salabarnada, Carlota Escutia, and Francesca Sangiorgi
Clim. Past, 14, 1015–1033,Short summary
We document Southern Ocean surface ocean conditions and changes therein during the Oligocene and Miocene (34–10 Myr ago). We infer profound long-term and short-term changes in ice-proximal oceanographic conditions: sea surface temperature, nutrient conditions and sea ice. Our results point to warm-temperate, oligotrophic, ice-proximal oceanographic conditions. These distinct oceanographic conditions may explain the high amplitude in inferred Oligocene–Miocene Antarctic ice volume changes.
Ángela García-Gallardo, Patrick Grunert, and Werner E. Piller
Clim. Past, 14, 339–350,Short summary
We study the variability in Mediterranean–Atlantic exchange, focusing on the surface Atlantic inflow across the mid-Pliocene warm period and the onset of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation, still unresolved by previous works. Oxygen isotope gradients between both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar reveal weak inflow during warm periods that turns stronger during severe glacials and the start of a negative feedback between exchange at the Strait and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation.
Roy H. Wilkens, Thomas Westerhold, Anna J. Drury, Mitchell Lyle, Thomas Gorgas, and Jun Tian
Clim. Past, 13, 779–793,Short summary
Here we introduce the Code for Ocean Drilling Data (CODD), a unified and consistent system for integrating disparate data streams such as micropaleontology, physical properties, core images, geochemistry, and borehole logging. As a test case, data from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 154 (Ceara Rise – western equatorial Atlantic) were assembled into a new regional composite benthic stable isotope record covering the last 5 million years.
April N. Abbott, Brian A. Haley, Aradhna K. Tripati, and Martin Frank
Clim. Past, 12, 837–847,Short summary
The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was a brief period when the Earth was in an extreme greenhouse state. We use neodymium isotopes to suggest that during this time deep-ocean circulation was distinct in each basin (North and South Atlanic, Southern, Pacific) with little exchange between. Moreover, the Pacific data show the most variability, suggesting this was a critical region possibly involved in both PETM triggering and remediation.
M. Bordiga, J. Henderiks, F. Tori, S. Monechi, R. Fenero, A. Legarda-Lisarri, and E. Thomas
Clim. Past, 11, 1249–1270,Short summary
Deep-sea sediments at ODP Site 1263 (Walvis Ridge, South Atlantic) show that marine calcifying algae decreased in abundance and size at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, when the Earth transitioned from a greenhouse to a more glaciated and cooler climate. This decreased the food supply for benthic foraminifer communities. The plankton rapidly responded to fast-changing conditions, such as seasonal nutrient availability, or to threshold-levels in pCO2, cooling and ocean circulation.
N. Khélifi and M. Frank
Clim. Past, 10, 1441–1451,
J. Etourneau, C. Ehlert, M. Frank, P. Martinez, and R. Schneider
Clim. Past, 8, 1435–1445,
M. Dedert, H. M. Stoll, D. Kroon, N. Shimizu, K. Kanamaru, and P. Ziveri
Clim. Past, 8, 977–993,
N. Khélifi, M. Sarnthein, and B. D. A. Naafs
Clim. Past, 8, 79–87,
H. J. Dowsett, M. M. Robinson, and K. M. Foley
Clim. Past, 5, 769–783,
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Radiolarian taxa with high-latitude affinities are present from at least the middle Eocene in the SW Pacific and become very abundant in the late Eocene at all investigated sites. A short incursion of low-latitude taxa is observed during the MECO and late Eocene warming event at Site 277. Radiolarian abundance, diversity and taxa with high-latitude affinities increase at Site 277 in two steps in the latest Eocene due to climatic cooling and expansion of cold water masses.
Radiolarian taxa with high-latitude affinities are present from at least the middle Eocene in...