Articles | Volume 20, issue 1
Research article
24 Jan 2024
Research article |  | 24 Jan 2024

Surface mass balance and climate of the Last Glacial Maximum Northern Hemisphere ice sheets: simulations with CESM2.1

Sarah L. Bradley, Raymond Sellevold, Michele Petrini, Miren Vizcaino, Sotiria Georgiou, Jiang Zhu, Bette L. Otto-Bliesner, and Marcus Lofverstrom

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Cited articles

Bereiter, B., Sarah, E., Jochen, S., Christoph, N.-A., F., S. T., Hubertus, F., Sepp, K., and Jerome, C.: Revision of the EPICA Dome C CO2 record from 800 to 600 kyr before present, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 542–549,, 2015. a
Berger, A.: Long-Term Variations of Daily Insolation and Quaternary Climatic Changes, J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 2362–2367,<2362:LTVODI>2.0.CO;2, 1978. a
Brady, E. C., Otto-Bliesner, B. L., Kay, J. E., and Rosenbloom, N.: Sensitivity to Glacial Forcing in the CCSM4, J. Climate, 26, 1901–1925,, 2013. a
Clark, C. D., Chiverrell, R. C., Fabel, D., Hindmarsh, R. C. A., Ó Cofaigh, C., and Scourse, J. D.: Timing, pace and controls on ice sheet retreat: an introduction to the BRITICE-CHRONO transect reconstructions of the British–Irish Ice Sheet, J. Quaternary Sci., 36, 673–680,, 2021. a
Clark, C. D., Ely, J. C., Hindmarsh, R. C. A., Bradley, S., Ign'eczi, A., Fabel, D., Ó Cofaigh, C., Chiverrell, R. C., Scourse, J., Benetti, S., Bradwell, T., Evans, D. J. A., Roberts, D. H., Burke, M., Callard, S. L., Medialdea, A., Saher, M., Small, D., Smedley, R. K., Gasson, E., Gregoire, L., Gandy, N., Hughes, A. L. C., Ballantyne, C., Bateman, M. D., Bigg, G. R., Doole, J., Dove, D., Duller, G. A. T., Jenkins, G. T. H., Livingstone, S. L., McCarron, S., Moreton, S., Pollard, D., Praeg, D., Sejrup, H. P., Van Landeghem, K. J. J., and Wilson, P.: Growth and retreat of the last British–Irish Ice Sheet, 31 000 to 15 000 years ago: the BRITICE-CHRONO reconstruction, Boreas, 51, 699–758,, 2022. a, b
Short summary
The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was the most recent period with large ice sheets in Europe and North America. We provide a detailed analysis of surface mass and energy components for two time periods that bracket the LGM: 26 and 21 ka BP. We use an earth system model which has been adopted for modern ice sheets. We find that all Northern Hemisphere ice sheets have a positive surface mass balance apart from the British and Irish ice sheets and the North American ice sheet complex.