Articles | Volume 19, issue 2
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Sea ice and productivity changes over the last glacial cycle in the Adélie Land region, East Antarctica, based on diatom assemblage variability
Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, 7000, Australia
Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, 7000, Australia
Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, 7000, Australia
School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, 4072, Australia
National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Wellington, New Zealand
No articles found.
Aaron Ferderer, Kai G. Schulz, Ulf Riebesell, Kirralee G. Baker, Zanna Chase, and Lennart Thomas Bach
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
Ocean alkalinity enhancement (OAE) is a promising method of atmospheric carbon removal, however it's ecological impacts remain largely unknown. We assessed the effects of simulated silicate and calcium based mineral OAE on diatom silicification. We found that increased silicate concentrations from silicate based OAE increased diatom silicification. In contrast, the enhancement of alkalinity had no effect on community silicification and minimal effects on the silicification of different genera.
Aaron Ferderer, Zanna Chase, Fraser Kennedy, Kai G. Schulz, and Lennart T. Bach
Biogeosciences, 19, 5375–5399,Short summary
Ocean alkalinity enhancement has the capacity to remove vast quantities of carbon from the atmosphere, but its effect on marine ecosystems is largely unknown. We assessed the effect of increased alkalinity on a coastal phytoplankton community when seawater was equilibrated and not equilibrated with atmospheric CO2. We found that the phytoplankton community was moderately affected by increased alkalinity and equilibration with atmospheric CO2 had little influence on this effect.
Xavier Crosta, Karen E. Kohfeld, Helen C. Bostock, Matthew Chadwick, Alice Du Vivier, Oliver Esper, Johan Etourneau, Jacob Jones, Amy Leventer, Juliane Müller, Rachael H. Rhodes, Claire S. Allen, Pooja Ghadi, Nele Lamping, Carina B. Lange, Kelly-Anne Lawler, David Lund, Alice Marzocchi, Katrin J. Meissner, Laurie Menviel, Abhilash Nair, Molly Patterson, Jennifer Pike, Joseph G. Prebble, Christina Riesselman, Henrik Sadatzki, Louise C. Sime, Sunil K. Shukla, Lena Thöle, Maria-Elena Vorrath, Wenshen Xiao, and Jiao Yang
Clim. Past, 18, 1729–1756,Short summary
Despite its importance in the global climate, our knowledge of Antarctic sea-ice changes throughout the last glacial–interglacial cycle is extremely limited. As part of the Cycles of Sea Ice Dynamics in the Earth system (C-SIDE) Working Group, we review marine- and ice-core-based sea-ice proxies to provide insights into their applicability and limitations. By compiling published records, we provide information on Antarctic sea-ice dynamics over the past 130 000 years.
Stefan Mulitza, Torsten Bickert, Helen C. Bostock, Cristiano M. Chiessi, Barbara Donner, Aline Govin, Naomi Harada, Enqing Huang, Heather Johnstone, Henning Kuhnert, Michael Langner, Frank Lamy, Lester Lembke-Jene, Lorraine Lisiecki, Jean Lynch-Stieglitz, Lars Max, Mahyar Mohtadi, Gesine Mollenhauer, Juan Muglia, Dirk Nürnberg, André Paul, Carsten Rühlemann, Janne Repschläger, Rajeev Saraswat, Andreas Schmittner, Elisabeth L. Sikes, Robert F. Spielhagen, and Ralf Tiedemann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2553–2611,Short summary
Stable isotope ratios of foraminiferal shells from deep-sea sediments preserve key information on the variability of ocean circulation and ice volume. We present the first global atlas of harmonized raw downcore oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of various planktonic and benthic foraminiferal species. The atlas is a foundation for the analyses of the history of Earth system components, for finding future coring sites, and for teaching marine stratigraphy and paleoceanography.
Jacob Jones, Karen E. Kohfeld, Helen Bostock, Xavier Crosta, Melanie Liston, Gavin Dunbar, Zanna Chase, Amy Leventer, Harris Anderson, and Geraldine Jacobsen
Clim. Past, 18, 465–483,Short summary
We provide new winter sea ice and summer sea surface temperature estimates for marine core TAN1302-96 (59° S, 157° E) in the Southern Ocean. We find that sea ice was not consolidated over the core site until ~65 ka and therefore believe that sea ice may not have been a major contributor to early glacial CO2 drawdown. Sea ice does appear to have coincided with Antarctic Intermediate Water production and subduction, suggesting it may have influenced intermediate ocean circulation changes.
Kelly-Anne Lawler, Giuseppe Cortese, Matthieu Civel-Mazens, Helen Bostock, Xavier Crosta, Amy Leventer, Vikki Lowe, John Rogers, and Leanne K. Armand
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5441–5453,Short summary
Radiolarians found in marine sediments are used to reconstruct past Southern Ocean environments. This requires a comprehensive modern dataset. The Southern Ocean Radiolarian (SO-RAD) dataset includes radiolarian counts from sites in the Southern Ocean. It can be used for palaeoceanographic reconstructions or to study modern species diversity and abundance. We describe the data collection and include recommendations for users unfamiliar with procedures typically used by the radiolarian community.
Sazlina Salleh and Andrew McMinn
Biogeosciences, 18, 5313–5326,Short summary
The benthic diatom communities in Tanjung Rhu, Malaysia, were regularly exposed to high light and temperature variability during the tidal cycle, resulting in low photosynthetic efficiency. We examined the impact of high temperatures on diatoms' photosynthetic capacities, and temperatures beyond 50 °C caused severe photoinhibition. At the same time, those diatoms exposed to temperatures of 40 °C did not show any sign of photoinhibition.
Bruce L. Greaves, Andrew T. Davidson, Alexander D. Fraser, John P. McKinlay, Andrew Martin, Andrew McMinn, and Simon W. Wright
Biogeosciences, 17, 3815–3835,Short summary
We observed that variation in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) over 11 years showed a relationship with the species composition of hard-shelled phytoplankton in the seasonal ice zone (SIZ) of the Southern Ocean. Phytoplankton in the SIZ are productive during the southern spring and summer when the area is ice-free, with production feeding most Antarctic life. The SAM is known to be increasing with climate change, and changes in phytoplankton in the SIZ may have implications for higher life forms.
Pearse J. Buchanan, Richard J. Matear, Zanna Chase, Steven J. Phipps, and Nathan L. Bindoff
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1491–1523,Short summary
Oceanic sediment cores are commonly used to understand past climates. The composition of the sediments changes with the ocean above it. An understanding of oceanographic conditions that existed many thousands of years ago, in some cases many millions of years ago, can therefore be extracted from sediment cores. We simulate two chemical signatures (13C and 15N) of sediment cores in a model. This study assesses the model before it is applied to reinterpret the sedimentary record.
Alyce M. Hancock, Andrew T. Davidson, John McKinlay, Andrew McMinn, Kai G. Schulz, and Rick L. van den Enden
Biogeosciences, 15, 2393–2410,Short summary
Absorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) realized by humans is decreasing the ocean pH (ocean acidification). Single-celled organisms (microbes) support the Antarctic ecosystem, yet little is known about their sensitivity to ocean acidification. This study shows a shift in a natural Antarctic microbial community, with CO2 levels exceeding 634 μatm changing the community composition and favouring small cells. This would have significant flow effects for Antarctic food webs and elemental cycles.
Biogeosciences, 14, 3927–3935,Short summary
Dissolved carbon dioxide levels in the oceans are rising and this is causing a drop in the pH (ocean acidification). This potentially effects all marine organisms, including those in polar regions. Sea ice algae are naturally exposed to a wide range of pH and CO2 concentrations, particularly during the ice formation and melting cycles. However, all studies so far have shown ice algae to be quite resilient to change. This includes the effects of co-stressors such as light, iron and temperature.
Pearse J. Buchanan, Richard J. Matear, Andrew Lenton, Steven J. Phipps, Zanna Chase, and David M. Etheridge
Clim. Past, 12, 2271–2295,Short summary
We quantify the contributions of physical and biogeochemical changes in the ocean to enhancing ocean carbon storage at the Last Glacial Maximum. We find that simulated circulation and surface conditions cannot explain changes in carbon storage or other major biogeochemical fields that existed during the glacial climate. Key modifications to the functioning of the biological pump are therefore required to explain the glacial climate and improve model–proxy agreement for all fields.
Related subject area
Subject: Ice Dynamics | Archive: Marine Archives | Timescale: PleistoceneCompilation of Southern Ocean sea-ice records covering the last glacial-interglacial cycle (12–130 ka)Reconstructing Antarctic winter sea-ice extent during Marine Isotope Stage 5eReconstructing the evolution of ice sheets, sea level, and atmospheric CO2 during the past 3.6 million yearsThe De Long Trough: a newly discovered glacial trough on the East Siberian continental marginSedimentary record from the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean: implications for late to middle Pleistocene glacial historyA Late Pleistocene sea level stackSea level ~400 000 years ago (MIS 11): analogue for present and future sea-level?
Matthew Chadwick, Xavier Crosta, Oliver Esper, Lena Thöle, and Karen E. Kohfeld
Clim. Past, 18, 1815–1829,Short summary
Algae preserved in seafloor sediments have allowed us to reconstruct how Antarctic sea ice has varied between cold and warm time periods in the last 130 000 years. The patterns and timings of sea-ice increase and decrease vary between different parts of the Southern Ocean. Sea ice is most sensitive to changing climate at the external edges of Southern Ocean gyres (large areas of rotating ocean currents).
Matthew Chadwick, Claire S. Allen, Louise C. Sime, Xavier Crosta, and Claus-Dieter Hillenbrand
Clim. Past, 18, 129–146,Short summary
Algae preserved in marine sediments have allowed us to reconstruct how much winter sea ice was present around Antarctica during a past time period (130 000 years ago) when the climate was warmer than today. The patterns of sea-ice increase and decrease vary between different parts of the Southern Ocean. The Pacific sector has a largely stable sea-ice extent, whereas the amount of sea ice in the Atlantic sector is much more variable with bigger decreases and increases than other regions.
Constantijn J. Berends, Bas de Boer, and Roderik S. W. van de Wal
Clim. Past, 17, 361–377,Short summary
For the past 2.6 million years, the Earth has experienced glacial cycles, where vast ice sheets periodically grew to cover large parts of North America and Eurasia. In the earlier part of this period, this happened every 40 000 years. This value changed 1.2 million years ago to 100 000 years: the Mid-Pleistocene Transition. We investigate this interesting period using an ice-sheet model, studying the interactions between ice sheets and the global climate.
Matt O'Regan, Jan Backman, Natalia Barrientos, Thomas M. Cronin, Laura Gemery, Nina Kirchner, Larry A. Mayer, Johan Nilsson, Riko Noormets, Christof Pearce, Igor Semiletov, Christian Stranne, and Martin Jakobsson
Clim. Past, 13, 1269–1284,Short summary
Past glacial activity on the East Siberian continental margin is poorly known, partly due to the lack of geomorphological evidence. Here we present geophysical mapping and sediment coring data from the East Siberian shelf and slope revealing the presence of a glacially excavated cross-shelf trough reaching to the continental shelf edge north of the De Long Islands. The data provide direct evidence for extensive glacial activity on the Siberian shelf that predates the Last Glacial Maximum.
Linsen Dong, Yanguang Liu, Xuefa Shi, Leonid Polyak, Yuanhui Huang, Xisheng Fang, Jianxing Liu, Jianjun Zou, Kunshan Wang, Fuqiang Sun, and Xuchen Wang
Clim. Past, 13, 511–531,Short summary
In this manuscript, we present the results of our study conducted for a sediment core (ARC4-BN05) collected in the Arctic Ocean. Detailed examination of clay and bulk mineralogy along with grain size, content of Ca and Mn, and planktonic foraminiferal numbers in core ARC4–BN05 provides important new information about sedimentary environments and provenance. Based on these proxies, we try to reveal late to middle Pleistocene glacial history.
Rachel M. Spratt and Lorraine E. Lisiecki
Clim. Past, 12, 1079–1092,Short summary
This study presents an average of seven Late Pleistocene sea level records, which improves the signal-to-noise ratio for estimates of sea level change during glacial cycles of the past 800 000 years.
D. Q. Bowen
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This study uses diatom assemblages, biogenic silica and Si/Al data over the last 140 kyr from core TAN1302-44 (64°54' S, 144°32' E) to define glacial-to-interglacial paleoenvironments near Antarctica with respect to sea ice duration and ocean circulation. It has found that the sea ice season increased gradually during the last glacial, reaching a maximum before decreasing at the end of MIS 2. Following this, Circumpolar Deep Water increased relative to other times prior to ice sheet retreat.
This study uses diatom assemblages, biogenic silica and Si/Al data over the last 140 kyr from...