Articles | Volume 19, issue 1
Research article
 | Highlight paper
27 Jan 2023
Research article | Highlight paper |  | 27 Jan 2023

Investigating hydroclimatic impacts of the 168–158 BCE volcanic quartet and their relevance to the Nile River basin and Egyptian history

Ram Singh, Kostas Tsigaridis, Allegra N. LeGrande, Francis Ludlow, and Joseph G. Manning


Interactive discussion

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on cp-2022-25', Anonymous Referee #1, 31 Mar 2022
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Ram Singh, 08 Aug 2022
  • RC2: 'Review of the manuscript by by Ram Singh et al.', Anonymous Referee #2, 25 Apr 2022
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Ram Singh, 08 Aug 2022

Peer review completion

AR: Author's response | RR: Referee report | ED: Editor decision | EF: Editorial file upload
ED: Reconsider after major revisions (08 Aug 2022) by Matthew Toohey
AR by Ram Singh on behalf of the Authors (23 Aug 2022)  Author's response   Manuscript 
EF by Anna Mirena Feist-Polner (25 Aug 2022)  Author's tracked changes 
ED: Referee Nomination & Report Request started (06 Sep 2022) by Matthew Toohey
RR by Anonymous Referee #2 (30 Sep 2022)
RR by Anonymous Referee #3 (05 Oct 2022)
ED: Publish subject to minor revisions (review by editor) (19 Oct 2022) by Matthew Toohey
AR by Ram Singh on behalf of the Authors (22 Nov 2022)  Author's response   Author's tracked changes   Manuscript 
ED: Publish subject to technical corrections (29 Dec 2022) by Matthew Toohey
AR by Ram Singh on behalf of the Authors (08 Jan 2023)  Author's response   Manuscript 
The paper present results of cutting edge climate model simulations and reconstructions of volcanic eruption magnitude and timing to better understand the environmental context of the Ptolemaic era (305-30BCE). This important period of Ancient Egyptian history is known for its material and scientific advances, as well as for episodes of political and social unrest.
Short summary
This work is a modeling effort to investigate the hydroclimatic impacts of a volcanic quartet during 168–158 BCE over the Nile River basin in the context of Ancient Egypt's Ptolemaic era (305–30 BCE). The model simulated a robust surface cooling (~ 1.0–1.5 °C), suppressing the African monsoon (deficit of > 1 mm d−1 over East Africa) and agriculturally vital Nile summer flooding. Our result supports the hypothesized relation between volcanic eruptions, hydroclimatic shocks, and societal impacts.