Articles | Volume 18, issue 7
Research article
13 Jul 2022
Research article |  | 13 Jul 2022

Investigating stable oxygen and carbon isotopic variability in speleothem records over the last millennium using multiple isotope-enabled climate models

Janica C. Bühler, Josefine Axelsson, Franziska A. Lechleitner, Jens Fohlmeister, Allegra N. LeGrande, Madhavan Midhun, Jesper Sjolte, Martin Werner, Kei Yoshimura, and Kira Rehfeld

Data sets

Monthly climate variables of isotope-enabled climate model simulations over the last millennium (850-1849CE) Janica C. Bühler, Josefine Axelsson, Kira Rehfeld, Allegra N. LeGrande, Madhavan Midhun, Jesper Sjolte, Martin Werner, and Kei Yoshimura

SISAL (Speleothem Isotopes Synthesis and AnaLysis Working Group) database version 2.0 Laia Comas-Bru, Kamolphat Atsawawaranunt, Sandy Harrison, and SISAL working group members

Welcome to the tidyverse Hadley Wickham, Mara Averick, Jennifer Bryan, Winston Chang, Lucy D'Agostino McGowan, Romain François, Garrett Grolemund, Alex Hayes, Lionel Henry, Jim Hester, Max Kuhn, Thomas Lin Pedersen, Evan Miller, Stephan Milton Bache, Kirill Müller, Jeroen Ooms, David Robinson, Dana Paige Seidel, Vitalie Spinu, Kohske Takahashi, Davis Vaughan, Claus Wilke, Kara Woo, and Hiroaki Yutani

ncdf4: Interface to Unidata netCDF (Version 4 or Earlier) Format Data Files David Pierce

raster: Geographic Data Analysis and Modeling Robert J. Hijmans

ggplot2: Elegant Graphics for Data Analysis Hadley Wickham

zoo: S3 Infrastructure for Regular and Irregular Time Series Achim Zeileis and Gabor Grothendieck

The Split-Apply-Combine Strategy for Data Analysis Hadley Wickham

dplyr: A Grammar of Data Manipulation Hadley Wickham, Romain François, Lionel Henry, and Kirill Müller

A spectral approach to estimating the timescale-dependent uncertainty of paleoclimate records – Part 1: Theoretical concept ( Torben Kunz, Andrew M. Dolman, and Thomas Laepple

Model code and software

SISAL1k_MultiModel Janica C. Bühler and Josefine Axelsson

Similarity estimators for irregular and age-uncertain time series ( Kira Rehfeld and Jürgen Kurths

Short summary
We collected and standardized the output of five isotope-enabled simulations for the last millennium and assess differences and similarities to records from a global speleothem database. Modeled isotope variations mostly arise from temperature differences. While lower-resolution speleothems do not capture extreme changes to the extent of models, they show higher variability on multi-decadal timescales. As no model excels in all comparisons, we advise a multi-model approach where possible.