Articles | Volume 16, issue 2
Research article 22 Apr 2020
Research article | 22 Apr 2020
Teleconnections and relationship between the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) in reconstructions and models over the past millennium
Christoph Dätwyler et al.
No articles found.
Paul D. Zander, Maurycy Żarczyński, Wojciech Tylmann, Shauna-kay Rainford, and Martin Grosjean
Clim. Past, 17, 2055–2071,Short summary
High-resolution geochemical imaging techniques provide new opportunities to investigate the biogeochemical composition of sediments at micrometer scale. Here, we compare biogeochemical data from biochemical varves with meteorological data to understand how seasonal meteorological variations are recorded in varve composition. We find that these scanning techniques help to clarify climate–proxy relationships in biochemical varves and show great potential for high-resolution climate reconstruction.
Alan Huston, Nicholas Siler, Gerard H. Roe, Erin Pettit, and Nathan J. Steiger
The Cryosphere, 15, 1645–1662,Short summary
We simulate the past 1000 years of glacier length variability using a simple glacier model and an ensemble of global climate model simulations. Glaciers with long response times are more likely to record global climate changes caused by events like volcanic eruptions and greenhouse gas emissions, while glaciers with short response times are more likely to record natural variability. This difference stems from differences in the frequency spectra of natural and forced temperature variability.
Stamatina Makri, Andrea Lami, Luyao Tu, Wojciech Tylmann, Hendrik Vogel, and Martin Grosjean
Biogeosciences, 18, 1839–1856,Short summary
Anoxia in lakes is a major growing concern. In this study we applied a multiproxy approach combining high-resolution hyperspectral imaging (HSI) pigment data with specific HPLC data to examine the Holocene evolution and main drivers of lake anoxia and trophic state changes. We find that when human impact was low, these changes were driven by climate and natural lake-catchment evolution. In the last 500 years, increasing human impact has promoted lake eutrophication and permanent anoxia.
Luyao Tu, Paul Zander, Sönke Szidat, Ronald Lloren, and Martin Grosjean
Biogeosciences, 17, 2715–2729,Short summary
In a small, deep lake on the Swiss Plateau, net fluxes of labile P fractions in sediments that can be released to surface waters have been predominately controlled by past hypolimnetic anoxic conditions since the early 1900s. More than 40 years of hypolimnetic withdrawal can effectively reduce net P fluxes in sediments and internal P loads but not effectively decrease eutrophication. These findings should likely serve the management of deep eutrophic lakes in temperate zones.
Paul D. Zander, Sönke Szidat, Darrell S. Kaufman, Maurycy Żarczyński, Anna I. Poraj-Górska, Petra Boltshauser-Kaltenrieder, and Martin Grosjean
Geochronology, 2, 63–79,Short summary
Recent technological advances allow researchers to obtain radiocarbon ages from smaller samples than previously possible. We investigate the reliability and precision of radiocarbon ages obtained from miniature (11–150 μg C) samples of terrestrial plant fragments taken from sediment cores from Lake Żabińskie, Poland. We further investigate how sampling density (the number of ages per 1000 years) and sample mass (which is related to age precision) influence the performance of age–depth models.
François Klein, Nerilie J. Abram, Mark A. J. Curran, Hugues Goosse, Sentia Goursaud, Valérie Masson-Delmotte, Andrew Moy, Raphael Neukom, Anaïs Orsi, Jesper Sjolte, Nathan Steiger, Barbara Stenni, and Martin Werner
Clim. Past, 15, 661–684,Short summary
Antarctic temperature changes over the past millennia have been reconstructed from isotope records in ice cores in several studies. However, the link between both variables is complex. Here, we investigate the extent to which this affects the robustness of temperature reconstructions using pseudoproxy and data assimilation experiments. We show that the reconstruction skill is limited, especially at the regional scale, due to a weak and nonstationary covariance between δ18O and temperature.
Chris S. M. Turney, Helen V. McGregor, Pierre Francus, Nerilie Abram, Michael N. Evans, Hugues Goosse, Lucien von Gunten, Darrell Kaufman, Hans Linderholm, Marie-France Loutre, and Raphael Neukom
Clim. Past, 15, 611–615,Short summary
This PAGES (Past Global Changes) 2k (climate of the past 2000 years working group) special issue of Climate of the Past brings together the latest understanding of regional change and impacts from PAGES 2k groups across a range of proxies and regions. The special issue has emerged from a need to determine the magnitude and rate of change of regional and global climate beyond the timescales accessible within the observational record.
PAGES Hydro2k Consortium
Clim. Past, 13, 1851–1900,Short summary
Water availability is fundamental to societies and ecosystems, but our understanding of variations in hydroclimate (including extreme events, flooding, and decadal periods of drought) is limited due to a paucity of modern instrumental observations. We review how proxy records of past climate and climate model simulations can be used in tandem to understand hydroclimate variability over the last 2000 years and how these tools can also inform risk assessments of future hydroclimatic extremes.
Barbara Stenni, Mark A. J. Curran, Nerilie J. Abram, Anais Orsi, Sentia Goursaud, Valerie Masson-Delmotte, Raphael Neukom, Hugues Goosse, Dmitry Divine, Tas van Ommen, Eric J. Steig, Daniel A. Dixon, Elizabeth R. Thomas, Nancy A. N. Bertler, Elisabeth Isaksson, Alexey Ekaykin, Martin Werner, and Massimo Frezzotti
Clim. Past, 13, 1609–1634,Short summary
Within PAGES Antarctica2k, we build an enlarged database of ice core water stable isotope records. We produce isotopic composites and temperature reconstructions since 0 CE for seven distinct Antarctic regions. We find a significant cooling trend from 0 to 1900 CE across all regions. Since 1900 CE, significant warming trends are identified for three regions. Only for the Antarctic Peninsula is this most recent century-scale trend unusual in the context of last-2000-year natural variability.
Nathan J. Steiger and Jason E. Smerdon
Clim. Past, 13, 1435–1449,
Juan José Gómez-Navarro, Eduardo Zorita, Christoph C. Raible, and Raphael Neukom
Clim. Past, 13, 629–648,Short summary
This contribution aims at assessing to what extent the analogue method, a classic technique used in other branches of meteorology and climatology, can be used to perform gridded reconstructions of annual temperature based on the limited information from available but un-calibrated proxies spread across different locations of the world. We conclude that it is indeed possible, albeit with certain limitations that render the method comparable to more classic techniques.
Nathan Steiger and Gregory Hakim
Clim. Past, 12, 1375–1388,Short summary
We present a data assimilation algorithm that incorporates proxy data at arbitrary timescales. Within a synthetic-test framework, we find that atmosphere–ocean states are most skillfully reconstructed by incorporating proxies across multiple timescales compared to using them at short or long timescales alone. Additionally, reconstructions that incorporate long-timescale proxies improve the low-frequency components of the reconstructions relative to using only high-resolution proxies.
B. Ausín, I. Hernández-Almeida, J.-A. Flores, F.-J. Sierro, M. Grosjean, G. Francés, and B. Alonso
Clim. Past, 11, 1635–1651,Short summary
Coccolithophore distribution in 88 surface sediment samples in the Atlantic Ocean and western Mediterranean was mainly influenced by salinity at 10m depth. A quantitative coccolithophore-based transfer function was developed and applied to a fossil sediment core to estimate sea surface salinity (SSS). The quality of this function and the reliability of the SSS reconstruction were assessed by statistical analyses and discussed. Several centennial SSS changes are identified for the last 15.5 ka.
R. de Jong, L. von Gunten, A. Maldonado, and M. Grosjean
Clim. Past, 9, 1921–1932,
J. Elbert, M. Jacques-Coper, M. Van Daele, R. Urrutia, and M. Grosjean
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
Related subject area
Subject: Teleconnections | Archive: Terrestrial Archives | Timescale: HoloceneThe 4.2 ka BP Event in northeastern China: a geospatial perspectiveEvaluating the timing and structure of the 4.2 ka event in the Indian summer monsoon domain from an annually resolved speleothem record from Northeast IndiaWas the Little Ice Age more or less El Niño-like than the Medieval Climate Anomaly? Evidence from hydrological and temperature proxy dataQuantification of southwest China rainfall during the 8.2 ka BP event with response to North Atlantic coolingHolocene environmental changes in the highlands of the southern Peruvian Andes (14° S) and their impact on pre-Columbian culturesHydroclimate variability of the northwestern Amazon Basin near the Andean foothills of Peru related to the South American Monsoon System during the last 1600 yearsHolocene climate variability in north-eastern Italy: potential influence of the NAO and solar activity recorded by speleothem data
Louis A. Scuderi, Xiaoping Yang, Samantha E. Ascoli, and Hongwei Li
Clim. Past, 15, 367–375,Short summary
The lack of integration of data into a scientifically credible, globally assembled, information platform with consistent terminology and definitions hinders our understanding of the 4.2 ka BP Event. Using such an information platform, we show the presence of a strong and coherent signal for the 4.2 ka BP Event in northeastern China. Our prototype database approach, guided by semantic analysis and georeferencing, can serve as a guide to the assembly of a larger-scale global 4.2 ka database.
Gayatri Kathayat, Hai Cheng, Ashish Sinha, Max Berkelhammer, Haiwei Zhang, Pengzhen Duan, Hanying Li, Xianglei Li, Youfeng Ning, and R. Lawrence Edwards
Clim. Past, 14, 1869–1879,Short summary
The 4.2 ka event is generally characterized as an approximately 300-year period of major global climate anomaly. However, the climatic manifestation of this event remains unclear in the Indian monsoon domain. Our high-resolution and precisely dated speleothem record from Meghalaya, India, characterizes the event as consisting of a series of multi-decadal droughts between 3.9 and 4.0 ka rather than a singular pulse of multi-centennial drought as previously thought.
Lilo M. K. Henke, F. Hugo Lambert, and Dan J. Charman
Clim. Past, 13, 267–301,Short summary
To understand future ENSO behaviour we must look at the past, but temperature and rainfall proxies (e.g. tree rings, sediment cores) appear to show different responses. We tested this by making separate multi-proxy ENSO reconstructions for precipitation and temperature and found no evidence of a disagreement between ENSO-driven changes in precipitation and temperature. While this supports our physical understanding of ENSO, the lack of good proxy data must be addressed to further explore this.
Yuhui Liu and Chaoyong Hu
Clim. Past, 12, 1583–1590,Short summary
The 8.2 ka BP event, a global climate anomaly that occurred 8200 years ago, could provide climate teleconnection information for the simulation of abrupt climate changes, but there are few quantitative reconstructions of this event. This paper provides a 10-year resolution rainfall record from the East Asian monsoon area during the event, showing the reduced rainfall in southwest China during the 8.2 ka BP period was coupled with Greenland cooling with a possible response rate of 110 ± 30 mm/℃.
K. Schittek, M. Forbriger, B. Mächtle, F. Schäbitz, V. Wennrich, M. Reindel, and B. Eitel
Clim. Past, 11, 27–44,
J. Apaéstegui, F. W. Cruz, A. Sifeddine, M. Vuille, J. C. Espinoza, J. L. Guyot, M. Khodri, N. Strikis, R. V. Santos, H. Cheng, L. Edwards, E. Carvalho, and W. Santini
Clim. Past, 10, 1967–1981,Short summary
In this paper we explore a speleothem δ18O record from Palestina cave, northwestern Peru, on the eastern side of the Andes cordillera, in the upper Amazon Basin. The δ18O record is interpreted as a proxy for South American Summer Monsoon (SASM) intensity and allows the reconstruction of its variability during the last 1600 years. Replicating regional climate signals from different sites and using different proxies is essential for a comprehensive understanding of past changes in SASM activity.
D. Scholz, S. Frisia, A. Borsato, C. Spötl, J. Fohlmeister, M. Mudelsee, R. Miorandi, and A. Mangini
Clim. Past, 8, 1367–1383,
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The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Southern Annular Mode (SAM) are two important modes of climate variability, strongly influencing climate across the tropics and Southern Hemisphere mid- to high latitudes. This study sheds light on their relationship over the past millennium, combining evidence from palaeoclimate proxy archives and climate models. We show that their indices were mostly negatively correlated with fluctuations likely driven by internal variability in the climate system.
The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Southern Annular Mode (SAM) are two important modes...