Articles | Volume 16, issue 2
Clim. Past, 16, 743–756, 2020
Clim. Past, 16, 743–756, 2020

Research article 22 Apr 2020

Research article | 22 Apr 2020

Teleconnections and relationship between the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) in reconstructions and models over the past millennium

Christoph Dätwyler et al.

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Cited articles

Abram, N. J., Mulvaney, R., Vimeux, F., Phipps, S. J., Turner, J., and England, M. H.: Evolution of the Southern Annular Mode during the past millennium, Nat. Clim. Change, 4, 564–569,, 2014. 
Barnston, A. G., Chelliah, M., and Goldenberg, S. B.: Documentation of a highly ENSO-related sst region in the equatorial pacific: Research note, Atmos.-Ocean, 35, 367–383,, 1997. 
Bradley, R. S., Diaz, H. F., Kiladis, G. N., and Eischeid, J. K.: ENSO signal in continental temperature and precipitation records, Nature, 327, 497–501,, 1987. 
Brönnimann, S., Xoplaki, E., Casty, C., Pauling, A., and Luterbacher, J.: ENSO influence on Europe during the last centuries, Clim. Dynam., 28, 181–197,, 2007. 
Cai, W., Sullivan, A., and Cowan, T.: Interactions of ENSO, the IOD, and the SAM in CMIP3 Models, J. Climate, 24, 1688–1704,, 2010. 
Short summary
The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Southern Annular Mode (SAM) are two important modes of climate variability, strongly influencing climate across the tropics and Southern Hemisphere mid- to high latitudes. This study sheds light on their relationship over the past millennium, combining evidence from palaeoclimate proxy archives and climate models. We show that their indices were mostly negatively correlated with fluctuations likely driven by internal variability in the climate system.