Articles | Volume 15, issue 3
18 Jun 2019
Research article | 18 Jun 2019
Coupled climate–carbon cycle simulation of the Last Glacial Maximum atmospheric CO2 decrease using a large ensemble of modern plausible parameter sets
Krista M. S. Kemppinen et al.
No articles found.
Matteo Willeit, Andrey Ganopolski, Alexander Robinson, and Neil R. Edwards
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
In this paper we present the climate component of the newly developed fast Earth system model CLIMBER-X. It has a horizontal resolution of 5° × 5° and is designed to simulate the evolution of the Earth system on temporal scales ranging from decades to > 100,000 years. CLIMBER-X is available as open-source code and is expected to be a useful tool for studying past climate changes and for the investigation of the long-term future evolution of the climate.
Negar Vakilifard, Richard G. Williams, Philip B. Holden, Katherine Turner, Neil R. Edwards, and David J. Beerling
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
To remain within the Paris climate agreement, there is an increasing need to develop and implement carbon capture and sequestration techniques. The global climate benefits of implementing negative emission technologies over the next century are assessed using an Earth system model covering a wide range of plausible climate states. In some model realisations, there is continued warming after emissions cease. This continued warming is only avoided if modest negative emissions are incorporated.
Rémy Asselot, Frank Lunkeit, Philip B. Holden, and Inga Hense
Biogeosciences, 19, 223–239,Short summary
Previous studies show that phytoplankton light absorption can warm the atmosphere, but how this warming occurs is still unknown. We compare the importance of air–sea heat versus CO2 flux in the phytoplankton-induced atmospheric warming and determine the main driver. To shed light on this research question, we conduct simulations with a climate model of intermediate complexity. We show that phytoplankton mainly warms the atmosphere by increasing the air–sea CO2 flux.
Rémy Asselot, Frank Lunkeit, Philip Holden, and Inga Hense
Earth Syst. Dynam. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESDShort summary
Phytoplankton absorbing light can influence the climate system but its future effect on the climate is still unclear. We use a climate model to investigate the role of phytoplankton light absorption under global warming. We find out that the effect of phytoplankton light absorption is smaller under a high greenhouse gas emissions compared to reduced and intermediate greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, we show that phytoplankton light absorption is an important mechanism for the carbon cycle.
Katherine A. Crichton, Andy Ridgwell, Daniel J. Lunt, Alex Farnsworth, and Paul N. Pearson
Clim. Past, 17, 2223–2254,Short summary
The middle Miocene (15 Ma) was a period of global warmth up to 8 °C warmer than present. We investigate changes in ocean circulation and heat distribution since the middle Miocene and the cooling to the present using the cGENIE Earth system model. We create seven time slices at ~2.5 Myr intervals, constrained with paleo-proxy data, showing a progressive reduction in atmospheric CO2 and a strengthening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation.
Yoshiki Kanzaki, Dominik Hülse, Sandra Kirtland Turner, and Andy Ridgwell
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5999–6023,Short summary
Sedimentary carbonate plays a central role in regulating Earth’s carbon cycle and climate, and also serves as an archive of paleoenvironments, hosting various trace elements/isotopes. To help obtain
trueenvironmental changes from carbonate records over diagenetic distortion, IMP has been newly developed and has the capability to simulate the diagenesis of multiple carbonate particles and implement different styles of particle mixing by benthos using an adapted transition matrix method.
Jun Shao, Lowell D. Stott, Laurie Menviel, Andy Ridgwell, Malin Ödalen, and Mayhar Mohtadi
Clim. Past, 17, 1507–1521,Short summary
Planktic and shallow benthic foraminiferal stable carbon isotope (δ13C) data show a rapid decline during the last deglaciation. This widespread signal was linked to respired carbon released from the deep ocean and its transport through the upper-ocean circulation. Using numerical simulations in which a stronger flux of respired carbon upwells and outcrops in the Southern Ocean, we find that the depleted δ13C signal is transmitted to the rest of the upper ocean through air–sea gas exchange.
Markus Adloff, Andy Ridgwell, Fanny M. Monteiro, Ian J. Parkinson, Alexander J. Dickson, Philip A. E. Pogge von Strandmann, Matthew S. Fantle, and Sarah E. Greene
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4187–4223,Short summary
We present the first representation of the trace metals Sr, Os, Li and Ca in a 3D Earth system model (cGENIE). The simulation of marine metal sources (weathering, hydrothermal input) and sinks (deposition) reproduces the observed concentrations and isotopic homogeneity of these metals in the modern ocean. With these new tracers, cGENIE can be used to test hypotheses linking these metal cycles and the cycling of other elements like O and C and simulate their dynamic response to external forcing.
Sebastiaan J. van de Velde, Dominik Hülse, Christopher T. Reinhard, and Andy Ridgwell
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2713–2745,Short summary
Biogeochemical interactions between iron and sulfur are central to the long-term biogeochemical evolution of Earth’s oceans. Here, we introduce an iron–sulphur cycle in a model of Earth's oceans. Our analyses show that the results of the model are robust towards parameter choices and that simulated concentrations and reactions are comparable to those observed in ancient ocean analogues (anoxic lakes). Our model represents an important step forward in the study of iron–sulfur cycling.
Katherine A. Crichton, Jamie D. Wilson, Andy Ridgwell, and Paul N. Pearson
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 125–149,Short summary
Temperature is a controller of metabolic processes and therefore also a controller of the ocean's biological carbon pump (BCP). We calibrate a temperature-dependent version of the BCP in the cGENIE Earth system model. Since the pre-industrial period, warming has intensified near-surface nutrient recycling, supporting production and largely offsetting stratification-induced surface nutrient limitation. But at the same time less carbon that sinks out of the surface then reaches the deep ocean.
Christopher T. Reinhard, Stephanie L. Olson, Sandra Kirtland Turner, Cecily Pälike, Yoshiki Kanzaki, and Andy Ridgwell
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5687–5706,Short summary
We provide documentation and testing of new developments for the oceanic and atmospheric methane cycles in the cGENIE Earth system model. The model is designed to explore Earth's methane cycle across a wide range of timescales and scenarios, in particular assessing the mean climate state and climate perturbations in Earth's deep past. We further document the impact of atmospheric oxygen levels and ocean chemistry on fluxes of methane to the atmosphere from the ocean biosphere.
Andrew H. MacDougall, Thomas L. Frölicher, Chris D. Jones, Joeri Rogelj, H. Damon Matthews, Kirsten Zickfeld, Vivek K. Arora, Noah J. Barrett, Victor Brovkin, Friedrich A. Burger, Micheal Eby, Alexey V. Eliseev, Tomohiro Hajima, Philip B. Holden, Aurich Jeltsch-Thömmes, Charles Koven, Nadine Mengis, Laurie Menviel, Martine Michou, Igor I. Mokhov, Akira Oka, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Gary Shaffer, Andrei Sokolov, Kaoru Tachiiri, Jerry Tjiputra, Andrew Wiltshire, and Tilo Ziehn
Biogeosciences, 17, 2987–3016,Short summary
The Zero Emissions Commitment (ZEC) is the change in global temperature expected to occur following the complete cessation of CO2 emissions. Here we use 18 climate models to assess the value of ZEC. For our experiment we find that ZEC 50 years after emissions cease is between −0.36 to +0.29 °C. The most likely value of ZEC is assessed to be close to zero. However, substantial continued warming for decades or centuries following cessation of CO2 emission cannot be ruled out.
Andreas Wernecke, Tamsin L. Edwards, Isabel J. Nias, Philip B. Holden, and Neil R. Edwards
The Cryosphere, 14, 1459–1474,Short summary
We investigate how the two-dimensional characteristics of ice thickness change from satellite measurements can be used to judge and refine a high-resolution ice sheet model of Antarctica. The uncertainty in 50-year model simulations for the currently most drastically changing part of Antarctica can be reduced by nearly 40 % compared to a simpler, non-spatial approach and nearly 90 % compared to the original spread in simulations.
Malin Ödalen, Jonas Nycander, Andy Ridgwell, Kevin I. C. Oliver, Carlye D. Peterson, and Johan Nilsson
Biogeosciences, 17, 2219–2244,Short summary
In glacial periods, ocean uptake of carbon is likely a key player for achieving low atmospheric CO2. In climate models, ocean biological uptake of carbon (C) and phosphorus (P) are often assumed to occur in fixed proportions. In this study, we allow the ratio of C : P to vary and simulate, to first approximation, the complex biological changes that occur in the ocean over long timescales. We show here that, for glacial–interglacial cycles, this complexity contributes to low atmospheric CO2.
Philip B. Holden, Neil R. Edwards, Thiago F. Rangel, Elisa B. Pereira, Giang T. Tran, and Richard D. Wilkinson
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 5137–5155,Short summary
We describe the development of the Paleoclimate PLASIM-GENIE emulator and its application to derive a high-resolution spatio-temporal description of the climate of the last 5 x 106 years. Spatial fields of bioclimatic variables are emulated at 1000-year intervals, driven by time series of scalar boundary-condition forcing (CO2, orbit, and ice volume). Emulated anomalies are interpolated into modern climatology to produce a high-resolution climate reconstruction of the Pliocene–Pleistocene.
Yoshiki Kanzaki, Bernard P. Boudreau, Sandra Kirtland Turner, and Andy Ridgwell
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 4469–4496,Short summary
This paper provides eLABS, an extension of the lattice-automaton bioturbation simulator LABS. In our new model, the benthic animal behavior interacts and changes dynamically with oxygen and organic matter concentrations and the water flows caused by benthic animals themselves, in a 2-D marine-sediment grid. The model can address the mechanisms behind empirical observations of bioturbation based on the interactions between physical, chemical and biological aspects of marine sediment.
Jamie D. Wilson, Stephen Barker, Neil R. Edwards, Philip B. Holden, and Andy Ridgwell
Biogeosciences, 16, 2923–2936,Short summary
The remains of plankton rain down from the surface ocean to the deep ocean, acting to store CO2 in the deep ocean. We used a model of biology and ocean circulation to explore the importance of this process in different regions of the ocean. The amount of CO2 stored in the deep ocean is most sensitive to changes in the Southern Ocean. As plankton in the Southern Ocean are likely those most impacted by future climate change, the amount of CO2 they store in the deep ocean could also be affected.
Maria Grigoratou, Fanny M. Monteiro, Daniela N. Schmidt, Jamie D. Wilson, Ben A. Ward, and Andy Ridgwell
Biogeosciences, 16, 1469–1492,Short summary
The paper presents a novel study based on the traits of shell size, calcification and feeding behaviour of two planktonic foraminifera life stages using modelling simulations. With the model, we tested the cost and benefit of calcification and explored how the interactions of planktonic foraminifera among other plankton groups influence their biomass under different environmental conditions. Our results provide new insights into environmental controls in planktonic foraminifera ecology.
Ben A. Ward, Jamie D. Wilson, Ros M. Death, Fanny M. Monteiro, Andrew Yool, and Andy Ridgwell
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4241–4267,Short summary
A novel configuration of an Earth system model includes a diverse plankton community. The model – EcoGEnIE – is sufficiently complex to reproduce a realistic, size-structured plankton community, while at the same time retaining the efficiency to run to a global steady state (~ 10k years). The increased capabilities of EcoGEnIE will allow future exploration of ecological communities on much longer timescales than have so far been examined in global ocean models and particularly for past climate.
Tom Dunkley Jones, Hayley R. Manners, Murray Hoggett, Sandra Kirtland Turner, Thomas Westerhold, Melanie J. Leng, Richard D. Pancost, Andy Ridgwell, Laia Alegret, Rob Duller, and Stephen T. Grimes
Clim. Past, 14, 1035–1049,Short summary
The Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is a transient global warming event associated with a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Here we document a major increase in sediment accumulation rates on a subtropical continental margin during the PETM, likely due to marked changes in hydro-climates and sediment transport. These high sedimentation rates persist through the event and may play a key role in the removal of carbon from the atmosphere by the burial of organic carbon.
Dominik Hülse, Sandra Arndt, Stuart Daines, Pierre Regnier, and Andy Ridgwell
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 2649–2689,Short summary
We present a 1-D analytical diagenetic model resolving organic matter (OM) cycling and the associated biogeochemical dynamics in marine sediments designed to be coupled to Earth system models (ESMs). The reaction network accounts for the most important reactions associated with OM dynamics. The coupling is described and the OM degradation rate constant is tuned. Various observations, such as pore water profiles, sediment water interface fluxes and OM content, are reproduced with good accuracy.
Malin Ödalen, Jonas Nycander, Kevin I. C. Oliver, Laurent Brodeau, and Andy Ridgwell
Biogeosciences, 15, 1367–1393,Short summary
We conclude that different initial states for an ocean model result in different capacities for ocean carbon storage due to differences in the ocean circulation state and the origin of the carbon in the initial ocean carbon reservoir. This could explain why it is difficult to achieve comparable responses of the ocean carbon system in model inter-comparison studies in which the initial states vary between models. We show that this effect of the initial state is quantifiable.
John S. Keery, Philip B. Holden, and Neil R. Edwards
Clim. Past, 14, 215–238,Short summary
In the Eocene (~ 55 million years ago), the Earth had high levels of atmospheric CO2, so studies of the Eocene can provide insights into the likely effects of present-day fossil fuel burning. We ran a low-resolution but very fast climate model with 50 combinations of CO2 and orbital parameters, and an Eocene layout of the oceans and continents. Climatic effects of CO2 are dominant but precession and obliquity strongly influence monsoon rainfall and ocean–land temperature contrasts, respectively.
Natalie S. Lord, Michel Crucifix, Dan J. Lunt, Mike C. Thorne, Nabila Bounceur, Harry Dowsett, Charlotte L. O'Brien, and Andy Ridgwell
Clim. Past, 13, 1539–1571,Short summary
We present projections of long-term changes in climate, produced using a statistical emulator based on climate data from a state-of-the-art climate model. We use the emulator to model changes in temperature and precipitation over the late Pliocene (3.3–2.8 million years before present) and the next 200 thousand years. The impact of the Earth's orbit and the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration on climate is assessed, and the data for the late Pliocene are compared to proxy temperature data.
Taraka Davies-Barnard, Andy Ridgwell, Joy Singarayer, and Paul Valdes
Clim. Past, 13, 1381–1401,Short summary
We present the first model analysis using a fully coupled dynamic atmosphere–ocean–vegetation GCM over the last 120 kyr that quantifies the net effect of vegetation on climate. This analysis shows that over the whole period the biogeophysical effect (albedo, evapotranspiration) is dominant, and that the biogeochemical impacts may have a lower possible range than typically estimated. This emphasises the temporal reliance of the balance between biogeophysical and biogeochemical effects.
Philip B. Holden, H. John B. Birks, Stephen J. Brooks, Mark B. Bush, Grace M. Hwang, Frazer Matthews-Bird, Bryan G. Valencia, and Robert van Woesik
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 483–498,Short summary
We describe BUMPER, a Bayesian transfer function for inferring past climate from micro-fossil assemblages. BUMPER is fully self-calibrating, straightforward to apply, and computationally fast. We apply BUMPER to a range of proxies, including both real and artificial data, demonstrating ease of use and applicability to multi-proxy reconstructions.
Philip B. Holden, Neil R. Edwards, Klaus Fraedrich, Edilbert Kirk, Frank Lunkeit, and Xiuhua Zhu
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3347–3361,Short summary
We describe the development, tuning and climate of PLASIM–GENIE, a new intermediate complexity Atmosphere–Ocean General Circulation Model (AOGCM), built by coupling the Planet Simulator to the GENIE Earth system model.
Frazer Matthews-Bird, Stephen J. Brooks, Philip B. Holden, Encarni Montoya, and William D. Gosling
Clim. Past, 12, 1263–1280,Short summary
Chironomidae are a family of two-winged aquatic fly of the order Diptera. The family is species rich (> 5000 described species) and extremely sensitive to environmental change, particualy temperature. Across the Northern Hemisphere, chironomids have been widely used as paleotemperature proxies as the chitinous remains of the insect are readily preserved in lake sediments. This is the first study using chironomids as paleotemperature proxies in tropical South America.
Giang T. Tran, Kevin I. C. Oliver, András Sóbester, David J. J. Toal, Philip B. Holden, Robert Marsh, Peter Challenor, and Neil R. Edwards
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 2, 17–37,Short summary
In this work, we combine the information from a complex and a simple atmospheric model to efficiently build a statistical representation (an emulator) of the complex model and to study the relationship between them. Thanks to the improved efficiency, this process is now feasible for complex models, which are slow and costly to run. The constructed emulator provide approximations of the model output, allowing various analyses to be made without the need to run the complex model again.
A. M. Foley, P. B. Holden, N. R. Edwards, J.-F. Mercure, P. Salas, H. Pollitt, and U. Chewpreecha
Earth Syst. Dynam., 7, 119–132,Short summary
We introduce GENIEem-PLASIM-ENTSem (GPem), a climate-carbon cycle emulator, showing how model emulation can be used in integrated assessment modelling to resolve regional climate impacts and systematically capture uncertainty. In a case study, we couple GPem to FTT:Power-E3MG, a non-equilibrium economic model with technology diffusion. We find that when the electricity sector is decarbonised by 90 %, further emissions reductions must be achieved in other sectors to avoid dangerous climate change.
J. D. Wilson, A. Ridgwell, and S. Barker
Biogeosciences, 12, 5547–5562,Short summary
We explore whether ocean model transport rates, in the form of a transport matrix, can be used to estimate remineralisation rates from dissolved nutrient concentrations and infer vertical fluxes of particulate organic carbon. Estimated remineralisation rates are significantly sensitive to uncertainty in the observations and the modelled circulation. The remineralisation of dissolved organic matter is an additional source of uncertainty when inferring vertical fluxes from remineralisation rates.
A. Ekici, S. Chadburn, N. Chaudhary, L. H. Hajdu, A. Marmy, S. Peng, J. Boike, E. Burke, A. D. Friend, C. Hauck, G. Krinner, M. Langer, P. A. Miller, and C. Beer
The Cryosphere, 9, 1343–1361,Short summary
This paper compares the performance of different land models in estimating soil thermal regimes at distinct cold region landscape types. Comparing models with different processes reveal the importance of surface insulation (snow/moss layer) and soil internal processes (heat/water transfer). The importance of model processes also depend on site conditions such as high/low snow cover, dry/wet soil types.
N. S. Jones, A. Ridgwell, and E. J. Hendy
Biogeosciences, 12, 1339–1356,Short summary
Production of calcium carbonate by coral reefs is important in the global carbon cycle. Using a global framework we evaluate four models of reef calcification against observed values. The temperature-only model showed significant skill in reproducing coral calcification rates. The absence of any predictive power for whole reef systems highlights the importance of coral cover and the need for an ecosystem modelling approach accounting for population dynamics in terms of mortality and recruitment.
V. Huber, H. J. Schellnhuber, N. W. Arnell, K. Frieler, A. D. Friend, D. Gerten, I. Haddeland, P. Kabat, H. Lotze-Campen, W. Lucht, M. Parry, F. Piontek, C. Rosenzweig, J. Schewe, and L. Warszawski
Earth Syst. Dynam., 5, 399–408,
R. Death, J. L. Wadham, F. Monteiro, A. M. Le Brocq, M. Tranter, A. Ridgwell, S. Dutkiewicz, and R. Raiswell
Biogeosciences, 11, 2635–2643,
A. M. Foley, D. Dalmonech, A. D. Friend, F. Aires, A. T. Archibald, P. Bartlein, L. Bopp, J. Chappellaz, P. Cox, N. R. Edwards, G. Feulner, P. Friedlingstein, S. P. Harrison, P. O. Hopcroft, C. D. Jones, J. Kolassa, J. G. Levine, I. C. Prentice, J. Pyle, N. Vázquez Riveiros, E. W. Wolff, and S. Zaehle
Biogeosciences, 10, 8305–8328,
G. Colbourn, A. Ridgwell, and T. M. Lenton
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 1543–1573,
M. Eby, A. J. Weaver, K. Alexander, K. Zickfeld, A. Abe-Ouchi, A. A. Cimatoribus, E. Crespin, S. S. Drijfhout, N. R. Edwards, A. V. Eliseev, G. Feulner, T. Fichefet, C. E. Forest, H. Goosse, P. B. Holden, F. Joos, M. Kawamiya, D. Kicklighter, H. Kienert, K. Matsumoto, I. I. Mokhov, E. Monier, S. M. Olsen, J. O. P. Pedersen, M. Perrette, G. Philippon-Berthier, A. Ridgwell, A. Schlosser, T. Schneider von Deimling, G. Shaffer, R. S. Smith, R. Spahni, A. P. Sokolov, M. Steinacher, K. Tachiiri, K. Tokos, M. Yoshimori, N. Zeng, and F. Zhao
Clim. Past, 9, 1111–1140,
P. B. Holden, N. R. Edwards, S. A. Müller, K. I. C. Oliver, R. M. Death, and A. Ridgwell
Biogeosciences, 10, 1815–1833,
F. Joos, R. Roth, J. S. Fuglestvedt, G. P. Peters, I. G. Enting, W. von Bloh, V. Brovkin, E. J. Burke, M. Eby, N. R. Edwards, T. Friedrich, T. L. Frölicher, P. R. Halloran, P. B. Holden, C. Jones, T. Kleinen, F. T. Mackenzie, K. Matsumoto, M. Meinshausen, G.-K. Plattner, A. Reisinger, J. Segschneider, G. Shaffer, M. Steinacher, K. Strassmann, K. Tanaka, A. Timmermann, and A. J. Weaver
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2793–2825,
P. B. Holden, N. R. Edwards, D. Gerten, and S. Schaphoff
Biogeosciences, 10, 339–355,
Related subject area
Subject: Carbon Cycle | Archive: Modelling only | Timescale: PleistoceneMarine carbon cycle response to a warmer Southern Ocean: the case of the last interglacialLocal oceanic CO2 outgassing triggered by terrestrial carbon fluxes during deglacial floodingSequential changes in ocean circulation and biological export productivity during the last glacial–interglacial cycle: a model–data studyLong-term deglacial permafrost carbon dynamics in MPI-ESMThe simulated climate of the Last Glacial Maximum and insights into the global marine carbon cycleQuantifying the ocean's role in glacial CO2 reductionsA multi-variable box model approach to the soft tissue carbon pump
Dipayan Choudhury, Laurie Menviel, Katrin J. Meissner, Nicholas K. H. Yeung, Matthew Chamberlain, and Tilo Ziehn
Clim. Past, 18, 507–523,Short summary
We investigate the effects of a warmer climate from the Earth's paleoclimate (last interglacial) on the marine carbon cycle of the Southern Ocean using a carbon-cycle-enabled state-of-the-art climate model. We find a 150 % increase in CO2 outgassing during this period, which results from competition between higher sea surface temperatures and weaker oceanic circulation. From this we unequivocally infer that the carbon uptake by the Southern Ocean will reduce under a future warming scenario.
Thomas Extier, Katharina D. Six, Bo Liu, Hanna Paulsen, and Tatiana Ilyina
Clim. Past, 18, 273–292,Short summary
The role of land–sea fluxes during deglacial flooding in ocean biogeochemistry and CO2 exchange remains poorly constrained due to the lack of climate models that consider such fluxes. We implement the terrestrial organic matter fluxes into the ocean at a transiently changing land–sea interface in MPI-ESM and investigate their effect during the last deglaciation. Most of the terrestrial carbon goes to the ocean during flooding events of Meltwater Pulse 1a, which leads to regional CO2 outgassing.
Cameron M. O'Neill, Andrew McC. Hogg, Michael J. Ellwood, Bradley N. Opdyke, and Stephen M. Eggins
Clim. Past, 17, 171–201,Short summary
We undertake a model–data study of the last glacial–interglacial cycle of atmospheric CO2, spanning 0–130 ka. We apply a carbon cycle box model, constrained with glacial–interglacial observations, and solve for optimal model parameter values against atmospheric and ocean proxy data. The results indicate that the last glacial drawdown in atmospheric CO2 was delivered mainly by slowing ocean circulation, lower sea surface temperatures and also increased Southern Ocean biological productivity.
Thomas Schneider von Deimling, Thomas Kleinen, Gustaf Hugelius, Christian Knoblauch, Christian Beer, and Victor Brovkin
Clim. Past, 14, 2011–2036,Short summary
Past cold ice age temperatures and the subsequent warming towards the Holocene had large consequences for soil organic carbon (SOC) stored in perennially frozen grounds. Using an Earth system model we show how the spread in areas affected by permafrost have changed under deglacial warming, along with changes in SOC accumulation. Our model simulations suggest phases of circum-Arctic permafrost SOC gain and losses, with a net increase in SOC between the last glacial maximum and the pre-industrial.
Pearse J. Buchanan, Richard J. Matear, Andrew Lenton, Steven J. Phipps, Zanna Chase, and David M. Etheridge
Clim. Past, 12, 2271–2295,Short summary
We quantify the contributions of physical and biogeochemical changes in the ocean to enhancing ocean carbon storage at the Last Glacial Maximum. We find that simulated circulation and surface conditions cannot explain changes in carbon storage or other major biogeochemical fields that existed during the glacial climate. Key modifications to the functioning of the biological pump are therefore required to explain the glacial climate and improve model–proxy agreement for all fields.
M. O. Chikamoto, A. Abe-Ouchi, A. Oka, R. Ohgaito, and A. Timmermann
Clim. Past, 8, 545–563,
A. M. de Boer, A. J. Watson, N. R. Edwards, and K. I. C. Oliver
Clim. Past, 6, 827–841,
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We simulate the Last Glacial Maximum atmospheric CO2 decrease with a large ensemble of parameter sets to investigate the range of possible physical and biogeochemical Earth system changes accompanying the CO2 decrease. Amongst the dominant ensemble changes is an increase in terrestrial carbon, which we attribute to a slower soil respiration rate, and the preservation of carbon by the LGM ice sheets. Further investigation into the role of terrestrial carbon is warranted.
We simulate the Last Glacial Maximum atmospheric CO2 decrease with a large ensemble of parameter...