Articles | Volume 13, issue 8
Research article 17 Aug 2017
Research article | 17 Aug 2017
Mediterranean Outflow Water variability during the Early Pleistocene
Stefanie Kaboth et al.
No articles found.
Bas de Boer, Marit Peters, and Lucas J. Lourens
Clim. Past, 17, 331–344,
Anna Joy Drury, Diederik Liebrand, Thomas Westerhold, Helen M. Beddow, David A. Hodell, Nina Rohlfs, Roy H. Wilkens, Mitch Lyle, David B. Bell, Dick Kroon, Heiko Pälike, and Lucas L. Lourens
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for CPShort summary
We use the first high-resolution southeast Atlantic carbonate record to see how climate dynamics evolved since 30 million years ago (Ma). During Oligocene-mid Miocene warmth (~30–13 Ma), eccentricity (orbital circularity) paced carbonate deposition. After the mid Miocene Climate Transition (~14 Ma), precession (Earth’s tilt direction) increasingly drove carbonate variability. In the latest Miocene (~8 Ma), obliquity (Earth’s tilt) pacing appeared, signalling increasing high latitude influence.
Emily Dearing Crampton-Flood, Lars J. Noorbergen, Damian Smits, R. Christine Boschman, Timme H. Donders, Dirk K. Munsterman, Johan ten Veen, Francien Peterse, Lucas Lourens, and Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté
Clim. Past, 16, 523–541,Short summary
The mid-Pliocene warm period (mPWP; 3.3–3.0 million years ago) is thought to be the last geological interval with similar atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations as the present day. Further, the mPWP was 2–3 °C warmer than present, making it a good analogue for estimating the effects of future climate change. Here, we construct a new precise age model for the North Sea during the mPWP, and provide a detailed reconstruction of terrestrial and marine climate using a multi-proxy approach.
Christopher J. Hollis, Tom Dunkley Jones, Eleni Anagnostou, Peter K. Bijl, Margot J. Cramwinckel, Ying Cui, Gerald R. Dickens, Kirsty M. Edgar, Yvette Eley, David Evans, Gavin L. Foster, Joost Frieling, Gordon N. Inglis, Elizabeth M. Kennedy, Reinhard Kozdon, Vittoria Lauretano, Caroline H. Lear, Kate Littler, Lucas Lourens, A. Nele Meckler, B. David A. Naafs, Heiko Pälike, Richard D. Pancost, Paul N. Pearson, Ursula Röhl, Dana L. Royer, Ulrich Salzmann, Brian A. Schubert, Hannu Seebeck, Appy Sluijs, Robert P. Speijer, Peter Stassen, Jessica Tierney, Aradhna Tripati, Bridget Wade, Thomas Westerhold, Caitlyn Witkowski, James C. Zachos, Yi Ge Zhang, Matthew Huber, and Daniel J. Lunt
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3149–3206,Short summary
The Deep-Time Model Intercomparison Project (DeepMIP) is a model–data intercomparison of the early Eocene (around 55 million years ago), the last time that Earth's atmospheric CO2 concentrations exceeded 1000 ppm. Previously, we outlined the experimental design for climate model simulations. Here, we outline the methods used for compilation and analysis of climate proxy data. The resulting climate
atlaswill provide insights into the mechanisms that control past warm climate states.
Timme H. Donders, Niels A. G. M. van Helmond, Roel Verreussel, Dirk Munsterman, Johan ten Veen, Robert P. Speijer, Johan W. H. Weijers, Francesca Sangiorgi, Francien Peterse, Gert-Jan Reichart, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, Lucas Lourens, Gesa Kuhlmann, and Henk Brinkhuis
Clim. Past, 14, 397–411,Short summary
The buildup and melting of ice during the early glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere, around 2.5 million years ago, were far shorter in duration than during the last million years. Based on molecular compounds and microfossils from sediments dating back to the early glaciations we show that the temperature on land and in the sea changed simultaneously and was a major factor in the ice buildup in the Northern Hemisphere. These data provide key insights into the dynamics of early glaciations.
Ángela García-Gallardo, Patrick Grunert, and Werner E. Piller
Clim. Past, 14, 339–350,Short summary
We study the variability in Mediterranean–Atlantic exchange, focusing on the surface Atlantic inflow across the mid-Pliocene warm period and the onset of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation, still unresolved by previous works. Oxygen isotope gradients between both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar reveal weak inflow during warm periods that turns stronger during severe glacials and the start of a negative feedback between exchange at the Strait and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation.
Helen M. Beddow, Diederik Liebrand, Douglas S. Wilson, Frits J. Hilgen, Appy Sluijs, Bridget S. Wade, and Lucas J. Lourens
Clim. Past, 14, 255–270,Short summary
We present two astronomy-based timescales for climate records from the Pacific Ocean. These records range from 24 to 22 million years ago, a time period when Earth was warmer than today and the only land ice was located on Antarctica. We use tectonic plate-pair spreading rates to test the two timescales, which shows that the carbonate record yields the best timescale. In turn, this implies that Earth’s climate system and carbon cycle responded slowly to changes in incoming solar radiation.
Lennert B. Stap, Roderik S. W. van de Wal, Bas de Boer, Richard Bintanja, and Lucas J. Lourens
Clim. Past, 13, 1243–1257,Short summary
We show the results of transient simulations with a coupled climate–ice sheet model over the past 38 million years. The CO2 forcing of the model is inversely obtained from a benthic δ18O stack. These simulations enable us to study the influence of ice sheet variability on climate change on long timescales. We find that ice sheet–climate interaction strongly enhances Earth system sensitivity and polar amplification.
Hemmo A. Abels, Vittoria Lauretano, Anna E. van Yperen, Tarek Hopman, James C. Zachos, Lucas J. Lourens, Philip D. Gingerich, and Gabriel J. Bowen
Clim. Past, 12, 1151–1163,Short summary
Ancient greenhouse warming episodes are studied in river floodplain sediments in the western interior of the USA. Paleohydrological changes of four smaller warming episodes are revealed to be the opposite of those of the largest, most-studied event. Carbon cycle tracers are used to ascertain whether the largest event was a similar event but proportional to the smaller ones or whether this event was distinct in size as well as in carbon sourcing, a question the current work cannot answer.
J. H. C. Bosmans, F. J. Hilgen, E. Tuenter, and L. J. Lourens
Clim. Past, 11, 1335–1346,Short summary
Our study shows that the influence of obliquity (the tilt of Earth's rotational axis) can be explained through changes in the insolation gradient across the tropics. This explanation is fundamentally different from high-latitude mechanisms that were previously often inferred to explain obliquity signals in low-latitude paleoclimate records, for instance glacial fluctuations. Our study is based on state-of-the-art climate model experiments.
V. Lauretano, K. Littler, M. Polling, J. C. Zachos, and L. J. Lourens
Clim. Past, 11, 1313–1324,Short summary
Several episodes of global warming took place during greenhouse conditions in the early Eocene and are recorded in deep-sea sediments. The stable carbon and oxygen isotope records are used to investigate the magnitude of six of these events describing their effects on the global carbon cycle and the associated temperature response. Findings indicate that these events share a common nature and hint to the presence of multiple sources of carbon release.
B. S. Slotnick, V. Lauretano, J. Backman, G. R. Dickens, A. Sluijs, and L. Lourens
Clim. Past, 11, 473–493,
L. B. Stap, R. S. W. van de Wal, B. de Boer, R. Bintanja, and L. J. Lourens
Clim. Past, 10, 2135–2152,
D. A. Hodell, L. Lourens, D. A. V. Stow, J. Hernández-Molina, C. A. Alvarez Zarikian, and the Shackleton Site Project Members
Sci. Dril., 16, 13–19,
R. S. W. van de Wal, B. de Boer, L. J. Lourens, P. Köhler, and R. Bintanja
Clim. Past, 7, 1459–1469,
D. Liebrand, L. J. Lourens, D. A. Hodell, B. de Boer, R. S. W. van de Wal, and H. Pälike
Clim. Past, 7, 869–880,
Related subject area
Subject: Ocean Dynamics | Archive: Marine Archives | Timescale: PleistoceneLower oceanic δ13C during the last interglacial period compared to the HoloceneChange in the North Atlantic circulation associated with the mid-Pleistocene transitionThermocline state change in the eastern equatorial Pacific during the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciationA multi-proxy analysis of Late Quaternary ocean and climate variability for the Maldives, Inner SeaCentral Arctic Ocean paleoceanography from ∼ 50 ka to present, on the basis of ostracode faunal assemblages from the SWERUS 2014 expeditionDeglacial sea level history of the East Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea marginsLast Glacial Maximum and deglacial abyssal seawater oxygen isotopic ratiosSubsurface North Atlantic warming as a trigger of rapid cooling events: evidence from the early Pleistocene (MIS 31–19)Photic zone changes in the north-west Pacific Ocean from MIS 4–5eSeasonal changes in glacial polynya activity inferred from Weddell Sea varvesHigh-latitude obliquity as a dominant forcing in the Agulhas current systemSensitivity of Red Sea circulation to sea level and insolation forcing during the last interglacialSea-surface salinity variations in the northern Caribbean Sea across the Mid-Pleistocene TransitionOceanic tracer and proxy time scales revisitedVariations in mid-latitude North Atlantic surface water properties during the mid-Brunhes (MIS 9–14) and their implications for the thermohaline circulationA simple mixing explanation for late Pleistocene changes in the Pacific-South Atlantic benthic δ13C gradientHigh Arabian Sea productivity conditions during MIS 13 – odd monsoon event or intensified overturning circulation at the end of the Mid-Pleistocene transition?
Shannon A. Bengtson, Laurie C. Menviel, Katrin J. Meissner, Lise Missiaen, Carlye D. Peterson, Lorraine E. Lisiecki, and Fortunat Joos
Clim. Past, 17, 507–528,Short summary
The last interglacial was a warm period that may provide insights into future climates. Here, we compile and analyse stable carbon isotope data from the ocean during the last interglacial and compare it to the Holocene. The data show that Atlantic Ocean circulation was similar during the last interglacial and the Holocene. We also establish a difference in the mean oceanic carbon isotopic ratio between these periods, which was most likely caused by burial and weathering carbon fluxes.
Gloria M. Martin-Garcia, Francisco J. Sierro, José A. Flores, and Fátima Abrantes
Clim. Past, 14, 1639–1651,Short summary
This work documents major oceanographic changes that occurred in the N. Atlantic from 812 to 530 ka and were related to the mid-Pleistocene transition. Since ~ 650 ka, glacials were more prolonged and intense than before. Larger ice sheets may have worked as a positive feedback mechanism to prolong the duration of glacials. We explore the connection between the change in the N. Atlantic oceanography and the enhanced ice-sheet growth, which contributed to the change of cyclicity in climate.
Kim Alix Jakob, Jörg Pross, Christian Scholz, Jens Fiebig, and Oliver Friedrich
Clim. Past, 14, 1079–1095,Short summary
Eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) thermocline dynamics during the intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation (iNHG; ~ 2.5 Ma) currently remain unclear. In light of this uncertainty, we generated geochemical, faunal and sedimentological data for EEP Site 849 (~ 2.75–2.4 Ma). We recorded a thermocline depth change shortly before the final phase of the iNHG, which supports the hypothesis that tropical thermocline shoaling may have contributed to substantial Northern Hemisphere ice growth.
Dorothea Bunzel, Gerhard Schmiedl, Sebastian Lindhorst, Andreas Mackensen, Jesús Reolid, Sarah Romahn, and Christian Betzler
Clim. Past, 13, 1791–1813,Short summary
We investigated a sediment core from the Maldives to unravel the interaction between equatorial climate and ocean variability of the past 200 000 years. The sedimentological, geochemical and foraminiferal data records reveal enhanced dust, which was transported by intensified winter monsoon winds during glacial conditions. Precessional fluctuations of bottom water oxygen suggests an expansion of the Arabian Sea OMZ and a varying inflow of Antarctic Intermediate Water.
Laura Gemery, Thomas M. Cronin, Robert K. Poirier, Christof Pearce, Natalia Barrientos, Matt O'Regan, Carina Johansson, Andrey Koshurnikov, and Martin Jakobsson
Clim. Past, 13, 1473–1489,Short summary
Continuous, highly abundant and well-preserved fossil ostracodes were studied from radiocarbon-dated sediment cores collected on the Lomonosov Ridge (Arctic Ocean) that indicate varying oceanographic conditions during the last ~50 kyr. Ostracode assemblages from cores taken during the SWERUS-C3 2014 Expedition, Leg 2, reflect paleoenvironmental changes during glacial, deglacial, and interglacial transitions, including changes in sea-ice cover and Atlantic Water inflow into the Eurasian Basin.
Thomas M. Cronin, Matt O'Regan, Christof Pearce, Laura Gemery, Michael Toomey, Igor Semiletov, and Martin Jakobsson
Clim. Past, 13, 1097–1110,Short summary
Global sea level rise during the last deglacial flooded the Siberian continental shelf in the Arctic Ocean. Sediment cores, radiocarbon dating, and microfossils show that the regional sea level in the Arctic rose rapidly from about 12 500 to 10 700 years ago. Regional sea level history on the Siberian shelf differs from the global deglacial sea level rise perhaps due to regional vertical adjustment resulting from the growth and decay of ice sheets.
Clim. Past, 12, 1281–1296,Short summary
This paper examines the oxygen isotope data in several deep-sea cores. The question addressed is whether those data support an inference that the abyssal ocean in the Last Glacial Maximum period was significantly colder than it is today. Along with a separate analysis of salinity data in the same cores, it is concluded that a cold, saline deep ocean is consistent with the available data but so is an abyss much more like that found today. LGM model testers should beware.
I. Hernández-Almeida, F.-J. Sierro, I. Cacho, and J.-A. Flores
Clim. Past, 11, 687–696,Short summary
This manuscript presents new Mg/Ca and previously published δ18O measurements of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sinistral for MIS 31-19, from a sediment core from the subpolar North Atlantic. The mechanism proposed here involves northward subsurface transport of warm and salty subtropical waters during periods of weaker AMOC, leading to ice-sheet instability and IRD discharge. This is the first time that these rapid climate oscillations are described for the early Pleistocene.
G. E. A. Swann and A. M. Snelling
Clim. Past, 11, 15–25,Short summary
New diatom isotope records are presented alongside existing geochemical and isotope records to document changes in the photic zone, including nutrient supply and the efficiency of the soft-tissue biological pump, between MIS 4 and MIS 5e in the subarctic north-west Pacific Ocean. The results provide evidence for temporal changes in the strength and efficiency of the regional soft-tissue biological pump, altering the ratio of regenerated to preformed nutrients in the water.
D. Sprenk, M. E. Weber, G. Kuhn, V. Wennrich, T. Hartmann, and K. Seelos
Clim. Past, 10, 1239–1251,
T. Caley, J.-H. Kim, B. Malaizé, J. Giraudeau, T. Laepple, N. Caillon, K. Charlier, H. Rebaubier, L. Rossignol, I. S. Castañeda, S. Schouten, and J. S. Sinninghe Damsté
Clim. Past, 7, 1285–1296,
G. Trommer, M. Siccha, E. J. Rohling, K. Grant, M. T. J. van der Meer, S. Schouten, U. Baranowski, and M. Kucera
Clim. Past, 7, 941–955,
S. Sepulcre, L. Vidal, K. Tachikawa, F. Rostek, and E. Bard
Clim. Past, 7, 75–90,
C. Siberlin and C. Wunsch
Clim. Past, 7, 27–39,
A. H. L. Voelker, T. Rodrigues, K. Billups, D. Oppo, J. McManus, R. Stein, J. Hefter, and J. O. Grimalt
Clim. Past, 6, 531–552,
L. E. Lisiecki
Clim. Past, 6, 305–314,
M. Ziegler, L. J. Lourens, E. Tuenter, and G.-J. Reichart
Clim. Past, 6, 63–76,
Ambar, I. and Howe, M. R.: Observations of the mediterranean outflow – II the deep circulation in the vicinity of the gulf of cadiz, Deep Sea Res. Part A, 26, 555–568, https://doi.org/10.1016/0198-0149(79)90096-7, 1979.
Bahr, A., Jiménez-Espejo, F. J., Kolasinac, N., Grunert, P., Hernández-Molina, F. J., Röhl, U., Voelker, A. H. L., Escutia, C., Stow, D. A. V., Hodell, D., and Alvarez-Zarikian, C. A.: Deciphering bottom current velocity and paleoclimate signals from contourite deposits in the Gulf of Cadiz during the last 140kyr: an inorganic geochemical approach, Geochemistry, Geophys. Geosystems, 15, 3145–3160, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GC005356, 2014.
Bahr, A., Kaboth, S., Jiménez-Espejo, F. J., Sierro, F. J., Voelker, A. H. L., Lourens, L., Röhl, U., Reichart, G. J., Escutia, C., Hernández-Molina, F. J., Pross, J., and Friedrich, O.: Persistent monsoonal forcing of Mediterranean Outflow Water dynamics during the late Pleistocene, Geology, 43, 951–954, https://doi.org/10.1130/G37013.1, 2015.
Baringer, M. O. and Price, J. F.: Mixing and Spreading of the Mediterranean Outflow, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 1654–1677, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1997)027<1654:MASOTM>2.0.CO;2, 1997.
Becker, J., Lourens, L. J., Hilgen, F. J., van derLaan, E., Kouwenhoven, T. J., and Reichart, G.-J.: Late Pliocene climate variability on Milankovitch to millennial time scales: A high-resolution study of MIS100 from the Mediterranean, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 228, 338–360, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2005.06.020, 2005.
Becker, J., Lourens, L. J., and Raymo, M. E.: High-frequency climate linkages between the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean during marine oxygen isotope stage 100 (MIS100), Paleoceanography, 21, PA3002, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005PA001168, 2006.
Bell, D. B., Jung, S. J. A., and Kroon, D.: The Plio-Pleistocene development of Atlantic deep-water circulation and its influence on climate trends, Quat. Sci. Rev., 123, 265–282, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2015.06.026, 2015.
Borenäs, K. M., Wåhlin, A. K., Ambar, I., and Serra, N.: The Mediterranean outflow splitting – a comparison between theoretical models and CANIGO data, Deep Sea Res. Part II, 49, 4195–4205, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(02)00150-9, 2002.
Bryden, H. L. and Stommel, H. M.: Liminting processes thatdetermine basic features of the circulation in the Mediterranean Sea, Oceanol. Acta, 7, 289–296, 1984.
Bryden, H. L., Candela, J., and Kinder, T. H.: Exchange through the Strait of Gibraltar, Prog. Oceanogr., 33, 201–248, https://doi.org/10.1016/0079-6611(94)90028-0, 1994.
Cramp, A. and O'Sullivan, G.: Neogene sapropels in the Mediterranean: a review, Mar. Geol., 153, 11–28, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-3227(98)00092-9, 1999.
de Winter, N. J., Zeeden, C., and Hilgen, F. J.: Low-latitude climate variability in the Heinrich frequency band of the Late Cretaceous greenhouse world, Clim. Past, 10, 1001–1015, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-10-1001-2014, 2014.
Emeis, K.-C., Sakamoto, T., Wehausen, R., and Brumsack, H.-J.: The sapropel record of the eastern Mediterranean Sea – results of Ocean Drilling Program Leg 160, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 158, 371–395, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-0182(00)00059-6, 2000.
Etourneau, J., Schneider, R., Blanz, T., and Martinez, P.: Intensification of the Walker and Hadley atmospheric circulations during the Pliocene–Pleistocene climate transition, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 297, 103–110, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2010.06.010, 2010.
Fiúza, A. F. G., Hamann, M., Ambar, I., Díaz del Río, G., González, N., and Cabanas, J. M.: Water masses and their circulation off western Iberia during May 1993, Deep Sea Res. Part I, 45, 1127–1160, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0637(98)00008-9, 1998.
Fontanier, C., Mackensen, A., Jorissen, F. J., Anschutz, P., Licari, L., and Griveaud, C.: Stable oxygen and carbon isotopes of live benthic foraminifera from the Bay of Biscay: Microhabitat impact and seasonal variability, Mar. Micropaleontol., 58, 159–183, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marmicro.2005.09.004, 2006.
García-Gallardo, Á., Grunert, P., Van derSchee, M., Sierro, F. J., Jiménez-Espejo, F. J., Alvarez Zarikian, C. A., and Piller, W. E.: Benthic foraminifera-based reconstruction of the first Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange in the early Pliocene Gulf of Cadiz, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 472, 93–107, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2017.02.009, 2017.
Gouhier, T. C., Grinstead, A., and Simko, V.: biwavelet: Conduct univariate and bivariate wavelet analyses (Version 0.20.10), available at: http://github.com/tgouhier/biwavelet (last access: July 2017), 2016.
Gradstein, F. M., Ogg, J. G., and Hilgen, F. J.: On The Geologic Time Scale, Newsletters Stratigr., 45, 171–188, https://doi.org/10.1127/0078-0421/2012/0020, 2012.
Grinsted, A., Moore, J. C., and Jevrejeva, S.: Application of the cross wavelet transform and wavelet coherence to geophysical time series, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 11, 561–566, https://doi.org/10.5194/npg-11-561-2004, 2004.
Grunert, P., Balestra, B., Richter, C., Flores, J.-A., Auer, G., Garcia Gallardo, A., and Piller, W. E.: Revised and refined age model for the upper Pliocene of IODP Site U1389 (IODP Exp. 339, Gulf of Cadiz), Newsl. Stratigr., https://doi.org/10.1127/nos/2017/0396, 2017.
Hernández-Molina, F. J., Llave, E., Stow, D. A. V., García, M., Somoza, L., Vázquez, J. T., Lobo, F. J., Maestro, A., Díaz del Río, V., León, R., Medialdea, T., and Gardner, J.: The contourite depositional system of the Gulf of Cádiz: A sedimentary model related to the bottom current activity of the Mediterranean outflow water and its interaction with the continental margin, Deep Sea Res. Part II, 53, 1420–1463, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2006.04.016, 2006.
Hernández-Molina, F. J., Stow, D., Alvarez-Zarikian, C., and Expedition IODP 339 Scientists: IODP Expedition 339 in the Gulf of Cadiz and off West Iberia: decoding the environmental significance of the Mediterranean outflow water and its global influence, Sci. Dril., 16, 1–11, https://doi.org/10.5194/sd-16-1-2013, 2013.
Hernandez-Molina, F. J., Llave, E., Preu, B., Ercilla, G., Fontan, A., Bruno, M., Serra, N., Gomiz, J. J., Brackenridge, R. E., Sierro, F. J., Stow, D. A.V., Garcia, M., Juan, C., Sandoval, N., and Arnaiz, A.: Contourite processes associated with the Mediterranean Outflow Water after its exit from the Strait of Gibraltar: Global and conceptual implications, Geology, 42, 227–230, https://doi.org/10.1130/G35083.1, 2014a.
Hernandez-Molina, F. J., Stow, D. A. V., Alvarez-Zarikian, C. A., Acton, G., Bahr, A., Balestra, B., Ducassou, E., Flood, R., Flores, J.-A., Furota, S., Grunert, P., Hodell, D., Jimenez-Espejo, F., Kim, J. K., Krissek, L., Kuroda, J., Li, B., Llave, E., Lofi, J., Lourens, L., Miller, M., Nanayama, F., Nishida, N., Richter, C., Roque, C., Pereira, H., Sanchez Goni, M. F., Sierro, F. J., Singh, A. D., Sloss, C., Takashimizu, Y., Tzanova, A., Voelker, A., Williams, T., and Xuan, C.: Onset of Mediterranean outflow into the North Atlantic, Science, 344, 1244–1250, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1251306, 2014b.
Hernández-Molina, F. J., Sierro, F. J., Llave, E., Roque, C., Stow, D. A.V, Williams, T., Lofi, J., Van derSchee, M., Arnaiz, A., Ledesma, S., Rosales, C., Rodriguez-Tovar, F. J., Pardo-Iguzquiza, E., and Brackenridge, R. E.: Evolution of the Gulf of Cadiz margin and southwest Portugal contourite depositional system: Tectonic, sedimentary and paleoceanographic implications from IODP expedition 339, Mar. Geol., 377, 7–39, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2015.09.013, 2015.
Kaboth, S., Bahr, A., Reichart, G.-J., Jacobs, B., and Lourens, L. J.: New insights into upper MOW variability over the last 150kyr from IODP 339 Site U1386 in the Gulf of Cadiz, Mar. Geol., 377, 136–145, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2015.08.014, 2016.
Kaboth, S., de Boer, B., Bahr, A., Zeeden, C., and Lourens, L. J.: Mediterranean Outflow Water dynamics during the past ∼ 570 kyr: Regional and Global implications: Mid- to Late Pleistocene MOW, Paleoceanography, 32, 634–647, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016PA003063, 2017a.
Kaboth, S., Grunert, P., and Lourens, L. J.: Data set of “Mediterranean Outflow Water variability during the Early Pleistocene”, available at: https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.871499, 2017b.
Khélifi, N. and Frank, M.: A major change in North Atlantic deep water circulation 1.6 million years ago, Clim. Past, 10, 1441–1451, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-10-1441-2014, 2014.
Khelifi, N., Sarnthein, M., Andersen, N., Blanz, T., Frank, M., Garbe-Schonberg, D., Haley, B. A., Stumpf, R., and Weinelt, M.: A major and long-term Pliocene intensification of the Mediterranean outflow, 3.5–3.3 Ma ago, Geology, 37, 811–814, https://doi.org/10.1130/G30058A.1, 2009.
Khélifi, N., Sarnthein, M., Frank, M., Andersen, N., and Garbe-Schönberg, D.: Late Pliocene variations of the Mediterranean outflow, Mar. Geol., 357, 182–194, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2014.07.006, 2014.
Lawrence, K. T., Herbert, T. D., Brown, C. M., Raymo, M. E., and Haywood, A. M.: High-amplitude variations in North Atlantic sea surface temperature during the early Pliocene warm period, Paleoceanography, 24, PA2218, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008PA001669, 2009.
Lisiecki, L. E.: Atlantic overturning responses to obliquity and precession over the last 3 Myr, Paleoceanography, 29, 71–86, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013PA002505, 2014.
Liu, Y., San Liang, X., and Weisberg, R. H.: Rectification of the Bias in the Wavelet Power Spectrum, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 24, 2093–2102, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JTECHO511.1, 2007.
Llave, E., Schönfeld, J., Hernández-Molina, F. J., Mulder, T., Somoza, L., Díaz Del Río, V., and Sánchez-Almazo, I.: High-resolution stratigraphy of the Mediterranean outflow contourite system in the Gulf of Cadiz during the late Pleistocene: The impact of Heinrich events, Mar. Geol., 227, 241–262, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2005.11.015, 2006.
Lofi, J., Voelker, A. H. L., Ducassou, E., Hernández-Molina, F. J., Sierro, F. J., Bahr, A., Galvani, A., Lourens, L. J., Pardo-Igúzquiza, E., Pezard, P., Rodríguez-Tovar, F. J., and Williams, T.: Quaternary chronostratigraphic framework and sedimentary processes for the Gulf of Cadiz and Portuguese Contourite Depositional Systems derived from Natural Gamma Ray records, Mar. Geol., https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2015.12.005, 2015.
Loubere, P.: Changes in mid-depth North Atlantic and Mediterranean circulation during the Late Pliocene – Isotopic and sedimentological evidence, Mar. Geol., 77, 15–38, https://doi.org/10.1016/0025-3227(87)90081-8, 1987.
Lourens, L. J.: Revised tuning of Ocean Drilling Program Site 964 and KC01B (Mediterranean) and implications for the δ18O, tephra, calcareous nannofossil, and geomagnetic reversal chronologies of the past 1.1 Myr, Paleoceanography, 19, PA3010, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003PA000997, 2004.
Lourens, L. J.: On the Neogene-Quaternary debate, Episodes, 31, 239–242, 2008.
Lourens, L. J. and Hilgen, F. J.: Long-periodic variations in the earth's obliquity and their relation to third-order eustatic cycles and late Neogene glaciations, Quat. Int., 40, 43–52, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1040-6182(96)00060-2, 1997.
Lourens, L. J., Hilgen, F. J., Gudjonsson, L., and Zachariasse, W. J.: Late Pliocene to early Pleistocene astronomically forced sea surface productivity and temperature variations in the Mediterranean, Mar. Micropaleontol., 19, 49–78, https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8398(92)90021-B, 1992.
Lourens, L. J., Hilgen, F. J., Raffi, I., and Vergnaud-Grazzini, C.: Early Pleistocene chronology of the Vrica Section (Calabria, Italy), Paleoceanography, 11, 797–812, https://doi.org/10.1029/96PA02691, 1996a.
Lourens, L. J., Antonarakou, A., Hilgen, F. J., VanHoof, A. A. M., Vergnaud-Grazzini, C., and Zachariasse, W. J.: Evaluation of the Plio-Pleistocene astronomical timescale, Paleoceanography, 11, 391–413, https://doi.org/10.1029/96PA01125, 1996b.
Marchitto, T. M., Curry, W. B., Lynch-Stieglitz, J., Bryan, S. P., Cobb, K. M., and Lund, D. C.: Improved oxygen isotope temperature calibrations for cosmopolitan benthic foraminifera, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 130, 1–11, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2013.12.034, 2014.
Martinez-Garcia, A., Rosell-Mele, A., McClymont, E. L., Gersonde, R., and Haug, G. H.: Subpolar Link to the Emergence of the Modern Equatorial Pacific Cold Tongue, Science, 328, 1550–1553, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1184480, 2010.
Millot, C.: Another description of the Mediterranean Sea outflow, Prog. Oceanogr., 82, 101–124, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2009.04.016, 2009.
Millot, C.: Heterogeneities of in- and out-flows in the Mediterranean Sea, Prog. Oceanogr., 120, 254–278, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2013.09.007, 2014.
Millot, C., Candela, J., Fuda, J.-L., and Tber, Y.: Large warming and salinification of the Mediterranean outflow due to changes in its composition, Deep Sea Res. Part I, 53, 656–666, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2005.12.017, 2006.
Mulder, T., Lecroart, P., Hanquiez, V., Marches, E., Gonthier, E., Guedes, J.-C., Thiébot, E., Jaaidi, B., Kenyon, N., Voisset, M., Perez, C., Sayago, M., Fuchey, Y., and Bujan, S.: The western part of the Gulf of Cadiz: contour currents and turbidity currents interactions, Geo-Marine Lett., 26, 31–41, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00367-005-0013-z, 2006.
Myers, P. G.: Flux-forced simulations of the paleocirculation of the Mediterranean, Paleoceanography, 17, 1009, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000PA000613, 2002.
Patterson, M. O., McKay, R., Naish, T., Escutia, C., Jimenez-Espejo, F. J., Raymo, M. E., Meyers, S. R., Tauxe, L., Brinkhuis, H., Klaus, A., Fehr, A., Bendle, J. A. P., Bijl, P. K., Bohaty, S. M., Carr, S. A., Dunbar, R. B., Flores, J. A., Gonzalez, J. J., Hayden, T. G., Iwai, M., Katsuki, K., Kong, G. S., Nakai, M., Olney, M. P., Passchier, S., Pekar, S. F., Pross, J., Riesselman, C. R., Röhl, U., Sakai, T., Shrivastava, P. K., Stickley, C. E., Sugasaki, S., Tuo, S., van deFlierdt, T., Welsh, K., Williams, T., and Yamane, M.: Orbital forcing of the East Antarctic ice sheet during the Pliocene and Early Pleistocene, Nat. Geosci., 7, 841–847, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2273, 2014.
Peliz, Á., Dubert, J., Santos, A. M. P., Oliveira, P. B., and LeCann, B.: Winter upper ocean circulation in the Western Iberian Basin – Fronts, Eddies and Poleward Flows: an overview, Deep Sea Res. Part I, 52, 621–646, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2004.11.005, 2005.
Peliz, A., Marchesiello, P., Santos, A. M. P., Dubert, J., Teles-Machado, A., Marta-Almeida, M., and LeCann, B.: Surface circulation in the Gulf of Cadiz: 2. Inflow-outflow coupling and the Gulf of Cadiz slope current, J. Geophys. Res., 114, C03011, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JC004771, 2009.
Raffi, I., Backman, J., Fornaciari, E., Pälike, H., Rio, D., Lourens, L., and Hilgen, F.: A review of calcareous nannofossil astrobiochronology encompassing the past 25 million years?, Quat. Sci. Rev., 25, 3113–3137, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2006.07.007, 2006.
Raymo, M. E., Hodell, D., and Jansen, E.: Response of deep ocean circulation to initiation of northern hemisphere glaciation (3-2 MA), Paleoceanography, 7, 645–672, https://doi.org/10.1029/92PA01609, 1992.
R Core Team: R: A language and environment for statistical computing, available at: http://www.r-project.org/ (last access: July 2017), 2014.
Rogerson, M., Rohling, E. J., Weaver, P. P. E., and Murray, J. W.: Glacial to interglacial changes in the settling depth of the Mediterranean Outflow plume, Paleoceanography, 20, 1–12, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004PA001106, 2005.
Rogerson, M., Rohling, E. J., and Weaver, P. P. E.: Promotion of meridional overturning by Mediterranean-derived salt during the last deglaciation, Paleoceanography, 21, PA4101, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006PA001306, 2006.
Rogerson, M., Schönfeld, J., and Leng, M. J.: Qualitative and quantitative approaches in palaeohydrography: A case study from core-top parameters in the Gulf of Cadiz, Mar. Geol., 280, 150–167, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2010.12.008, 2011.
Rogerson, M., Rohling, E. J., Bigg, G. R., and Ramirez, J.: Paleoceanography of the Atlantic-Mediterranean exchange: Overview and first quantitative assessment of climatic forcing, Rev. Geophys., 50, RG2003, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011RG000376, 2012.
Rohling, E. J., Marino, G., and Grant, K. M.: Mediterranean climate and oceanography, and the periodic development of anoxic events (sapropels), Earth-Sci. Rev., 143, 62–97, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2015.01.008, 2015.
Rossignol-Strick, M.: African monsoons, an immediate climate response to orbital insolation, Nature, 304, 46–49, https://doi.org/10.1038/304046a0, 1983.
Rossignol-Strick, M.: Mediterranean Quaternary sapropels, an immediate response of the African monsoon to variation of insolation, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 49, 237–263, https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-0182(85)90056-2, 1985.
Rutherford, S. and D'Hondt, S.: Early onset and tropical forcing of 100,000-year Pleistocene glacial cycles, Nature, 408, 72–75, https://doi.org/10.1038/35040533, 2000.
Schönfeld, J.: A new benthic foraminiferal proxy for near-bottom current velocities in the Gulf of Cadiz, northeastern Atlantic Ocean, Deep. Res. Part I, 49, 1853–1875, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0637(02)00088-2, 2002.
Schönfeld, J. and Zahn, R.: Late Glacial to Holocene history of the Mediterranean outflow. Evidence from benthic foraminiferal assemblages and stable isotopes at the Portuguese margin, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 159, 85–111, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-0182(00)00035-3, 2000.
Schulz, M. and Mudelsee, M.: REDFIT: estimatingred-noise spectra directly from unevenly spaced paleoclimatic time series, Comput. Geosci., 28, 421–426, 2002.
Shackleton, N. J. and Hall, M. A.: Oxygen and carbon isotope stratigraphy of the deep sea drilling project hole 552A: Plio-Pleistocene glacial history, Initial Reports DSDP, 81, 599–609, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000PA000513, 1984.
Stow, D. A.V., Hernández-Molina, F. J., and Alvarez-Zarikian, C.: Expedition 339 Summary, edited by Expedtion 339 Scientists, Exped. 339 Summ., Proceeding(339), https://doi.org/10.2204/iodp.proc.339.104.2013, 2013.
Torrence, C. and Compo, G. P.: A Practical Guide to Wavelet Analysis, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 79, 61–78, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1998)079<0061:APGTWA>2.0.CO;2, 1998.
Toucanne, S., Mulder, T., Schönfeld, J., Hanquiez, V., Gonthier, E., Duprat, J., Cremer, M., and Zaragosi, S.: Contourites of the Gulf of Cadiz: A high-resolution record of the paleocirculation of the Mediterranean outflow water during the last 50,000 years, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 246, 354–366, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2006.10.007, 2007.
Verhallen, P. J.: Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene Mediterranean mud-dwelling foraminifera: influence of a changing environment on community structure and evolution, Utrecht Micropaleontol. Bull., 40, 220 pp., 1991.
Voelker, A., Lebreiro, S., Schonfeld, J., Cacho, I., Erlenkeuser, H. and Abrantes, F.: Mediterranean outflow strengthening during northern hemisphere coolings: A salt source for the glacial Atlantic?, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 245, 39–55, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2006.03.014, 2006.
Voelker, A. H. L., Colman, A., Olack, G., Waniek, J. J., and Hodell, D.: Oxygen and hydrogen isotope signatures of Northeast Atlantic water masses, Deep Sea Res. Part II, 116, 89–106, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2014.11.006, 2015.
Weaver, P. P. E. and Clement, B. M.: Magnetobiostratigraphy of planktonic foraminiferal datums: Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 94, North Atlantic, vol. 94, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987.
Zachariasse, W. J., Gudjonsson, L., Hilgen, F. J., Langereis, C. G., Lourens, L. J., Verhallen, P. J. J. M., and Zijderveld, J. D. A.: Late Gauss to Early Matuyama invasions of Neogloboquadrina Atlantica in the Mediterranean and associated record of climatic change, Paleoceanography, 5, 239–252, https://doi.org/10.1029/PA005i002p00239, 1990.
Zahn, R., Sarnthein, M., and Erlenkeuser, H.: Benthic isotope evidence for changes of the Mediterranean outflow during the Late Quaternary, Paleoceanography, 2, 543–559, https://doi.org/10.1029/PA002i006p00543, 1987.
Zijderveld, J. D. A., Hilgen, F. J., Langereis, C. G., Verhallen, P., and Zachariasse, W. J.: Integrated magnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the upper Pliocene-lower Pleistocene from the Monte Singa and Crotone areas in Calabria, Italy, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 107, 697–714, 1991.
This study is devoted to reconstructing Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) variability and the interplay between the Mediterranean and North Atlantic climate systems during the Early Pleistocene. We find indication that the increasing production of MOW aligns with the intensification of the North Atlantic overturning circulation, highlighting the potential of MOW to modulate the North Atlantic salt budget. Our results are based on new stable isotope and grain-size data from IODP 339 Site U1389.
This study is devoted to reconstructing Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) variability and the...