Articles | Volume 11, issue 9
Clim. Past, 11, 1249–1270, 2015
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Special issue: Climatic and biotic events of the Paleogene
30 Sep 2015
Research article | 30 Sep 2015
Microfossil evidence for trophic changes during the Eocene–Oligocene transition in the South Atlantic (ODP Site 1263, Walvis Ridge)
M. Bordiga et al.
No articles found.
Boris Theofanis Karatsolis and Jorijntje Henderiks
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for CPShort summary
Ocean circulation around NW Australia plays a key role in regulating the climate in the area and is characterised by seasonal variations in the activity of a major boundary current named the Leeuwin Current. By investigating nannofossils found in sediment cores recovered from the NW Australian shelf, we reconstructed ocean circulation in the warmer-than-present world between 6 and 3.5 million years ago, as mirrored by long-term changes in stratification and nutrient availability.
Francesco Miniati, Carlotta Cappelli, and Simonetta Monechi
J. Micropalaeontol., 40, 101–144,Short summary
This study presents a taxonomic revision of calcareous nannoplankton, known as fasciculiths (family Fasciculithaceae). The investigation approach is based on a direct light microscope and SEM comparison of the same individual specimen, providing a key to clarify a correct classification of several taxa. The new findings document the early evolutionary history of fasciculiths, demonstrating the biostratigraphic relevance of this group in the early Paleocene (Danian–Selandian transition).
Luka Šupraha and Jorijntje Henderiks
Biogeosciences, 17, 2955–2969,Short summary
The cell size, degree of calcification and growth rates of coccolithophores impact their role in the carbon cycle and may also influence their adaptation to environmental change. Combining insights from culture experiments and the fossil record, we show that the selection for smaller cells over the past 15 Myr has been a common adaptive trait among different lineages. However, heavily calcified species maintained a more stable biogeochemical output than the ancestral lineage of E. huxleyi.
Andrea C. Gerecht, Luka Šupraha, Gerald Langer, and Jorijntje Henderiks
Biogeosciences, 15, 833–845,Short summary
Calcifying phytoplankton play an import role in long-term CO2 removal from the atmosphere. We therefore studied the ability of a representative species to continue sequestrating CO2 under future climate conditions. We show that CO2 sequestration is negatively affected by both an increase in temperature and the resulting decrease in nutrient availability. This will impact the biogeochemical cycle of carbon and may have a positive feedback on rising CO2 levels.
L. Giusberti, F. Boscolo Galazzo, and E. Thomas
Clim. Past, 12, 213–240,
P. N. Pearson and E. Thomas
Clim. Past, 11, 95–104,Short summary
The Paleocene-to-Eocene thermal maximum was a period of extreme global warming caused by perturbation to the global carbon cycle 56Mya. Evidence from marine sediment cores has been used to suggest that the onset of the event was very rapid, over just 11 years of annually resolved sedimentation. However, we argue that the supposed annual layers are an artifact caused by drilling disturbance, and that the microfossil content of the cores shows the onset took in the order of thousands of years.
A. C. Gerecht, L. Šupraha, B. Edvardsen, I. Probert, and J. Henderiks
Biogeosciences, 11, 3531–3545,
Related subject area
Subject: Ocean Dynamics | Archive: Marine Archives | Timescale: CenozoicPlio-Pleistocene Perth Basin water temperatures and Leeuwin Current dynamics (Indian Ocean) derived from oxygen and clumped-isotope paleothermometryTemperate Oligocene surface ocean conditions offshore of Cape Adare, Ross Sea, AntarcticaA revised mid-Pliocene composite section centered on the M2 glacial event for ODP Site 846Lessons from a high-CO2 world: an ocean view from ∼ 3 million years agoLate Pliocene Cordilleran Ice Sheet development with warm northeast Pacific sea surface temperaturesUnderstanding the mechanisms behind high glacial productivity in the southern Brazilian marginPaleoceanography and ice sheet variability offshore Wilkes Land, Antarctica – Part 3: Insights from Oligocene–Miocene TEX86-based sea surface temperature reconstructionsPaleoceanography and ice sheet variability offshore Wilkes Land, Antarctica – Part 2: Insights from Oligocene–Miocene dinoflagellate cyst assemblagesVariations in Mediterranean–Atlantic exchange across the late Pliocene climate transitionRevisiting the Ceara Rise, equatorial Atlantic Ocean: isotope stratigraphy of ODP Leg 154 from 0 to 5 MaConstraints on ocean circulation at the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum from neodymium isotopesExpansion and diversification of high-latitude radiolarian assemblages in the late Eocene linked to a cooling event in the southwest PacificA major change in North Atlantic deep water circulation 1.6 million years agoContribution of changes in opal productivity and nutrient distribution in the coastal upwelling systems to Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene climate coolingProductivity response of calcareous nannoplankton to Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2)Technical note: Late Pliocene age control and composite depths at ODP Site 982, revisitedPliocene three-dimensional global ocean temperature reconstruction
David De Vleeschouwer, Marion Peral, Marta Marchegiano, Angelina Füllberg, Niklas Meinicke, Heiko Pälike, Gerald Auer, Benjamin Petrick, Christophe Snoeck, Steven Goderis, and Philippe Claeys
Clim. Past, 18, 1231–1253,Short summary
The Leeuwin Current transports warm water along the western coast of Australia: from the tropics to the Southern Hemisphere midlatitudes. Therewith, the current influences climate in two ways: first, as a moisture source for precipitation in southwestern Australia; second, as a vehicle for Equator-to-pole heat transport. In this study, we study sediment cores along the Leeuwin Current pathway to understand its ocean–climate interactions between 4 and 2 Ma.
Frida S. Hoem, Luis Valero, Dimitris Evangelinos, Carlota Escutia, Bella Duncan, Robert M. McKay, Henk Brinkhuis, Francesca Sangiorgi, and Peter K. Bijl
Clim. Past, 17, 1423–1442,Short summary
We present new offshore palaeoceanographic reconstructions for the Oligocene (33.7–24.4 Ma) in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Our study of dinoflagellate cysts and lipid biomarkers indicates warm-temperate sea surface conditions. We posit that warm surface-ocean conditions near the continental shelf during the Oligocene promoted increased precipitation and heat delivery towards Antarctica that led to dynamic terrestrial ice sheet volumes in the warmer climate state of the Oligocene.
Timothy D. Herbert, Rocio Caballero-Gill, and Joseph B. Novak
Clim. Past, 17, 1385–1394,Short summary
The Pliocene represents a geologically warm period with polar ice restricted to the Antarctic. Nevertheless, variability and ice volume persisted in the Pliocene. This work revisits a classic site on which much of our understanding of Pliocene paleoclimate variability is based and corrects errors in data sets related to ice volume and ocean surface temperature. In particular, it generates an improved representation of an enigmatic glacial episode in Pliocene times (circa 3.3 Ma).
Erin L. McClymont, Heather L. Ford, Sze Ling Ho, Julia C. Tindall, Alan M. Haywood, Montserrat Alonso-Garcia, Ian Bailey, Melissa A. Berke, Kate Littler, Molly O. Patterson, Benjamin Petrick, Francien Peterse, A. Christina Ravelo, Bjørg Risebrobakken, Stijn De Schepper, George E. A. Swann, Kaustubh Thirumalai, Jessica E. Tierney, Carolien van der Weijst, Sarah White, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, Michiel L. J. Baatsen, Esther C. Brady, Wing-Le Chan, Deepak Chandan, Ran Feng, Chuncheng Guo, Anna S. von der Heydt, Stephen Hunter, Xiangyi Li, Gerrit Lohmann, Kerim H. Nisancioglu, Bette L. Otto-Bliesner, W. Richard Peltier, Christian Stepanek, and Zhongshi Zhang
Clim. Past, 16, 1599–1615,Short summary
We examine the sea-surface temperature response to an interval of climate ~ 3.2 million years ago, when CO2 concentrations were similar to today and the near future. Our geological data and climate models show that global mean sea-surface temperatures were 2.3 to 3.2 ºC warmer than pre-industrial climate, that the mid-latitudes and high latitudes warmed more than the tropics, and that the warming was particularly enhanced in the North Atlantic Ocean.
Maria Luisa Sánchez-Montes, Erin L. McClymont, Jeremy M. Lloyd, Juliane Müller, Ellen A. Cowan, and Coralie Zorzi
Clim. Past, 16, 299–313,Short summary
In this paper, we present new climate reconstructions in SW Alaska from recovered marine sediments in the Gulf of Alaska. We find that glaciers reached the Gulf of Alaska during a cooling climate 2.9 million years ago, and after that the Cordilleran Ice Sheet continued growing during a global drop in atmospheric CO2 levels. Cordilleran Ice Sheet growth could have been supported by an increase in heat supply to the SW Alaska and warm ocean evaporation–mountain precipitation mechanisms.
Rodrigo da Costa Portilho-Ramos, Tainã Marcos Lima Pinho, Cristiano Mazur Chiessi, and Cátia Fernandes Barbosa
Clim. Past, 15, 943–955,Short summary
Fossil microorganisms from the last glacial found in marine sediments collected off southern Brazil suggest that more productive austral summer upwelling and more frequent austral winter incursions of nutrient-rich waters from the Plata River boosted regional productivity year-round. While upwelling was more productive due to the higher silicon content from the Southern Ocean, more frequent riverine incursions were modulated by stronger alongshore southwesterly winds.
Julian D. Hartman, Francesca Sangiorgi, Ariadna Salabarnada, Francien Peterse, Alexander J. P. Houben, Stefan Schouten, Henk Brinkhuis, Carlota Escutia, and Peter K. Bijl
Clim. Past, 14, 1275–1297,Short summary
We reconstructed sea surface temperatures for the Oligocene and Miocene periods (34–11 Ma) based on archaeal lipids from a site close to the Wilkes Land coast, Antarctica. Our record suggests generally warm to temperate surface waters: on average 17 °C. Based on the lithology, glacial and interglacial temperatures could be distinguished, showing an average 3 °C offset. The long-term temperature trend resembles the benthic δ18O stack, which may have implications for ice volume reconstructions.
Peter K. Bijl, Alexander J. P. Houben, Julian D. Hartman, Jörg Pross, Ariadna Salabarnada, Carlota Escutia, and Francesca Sangiorgi
Clim. Past, 14, 1015–1033,Short summary
We document Southern Ocean surface ocean conditions and changes therein during the Oligocene and Miocene (34–10 Myr ago). We infer profound long-term and short-term changes in ice-proximal oceanographic conditions: sea surface temperature, nutrient conditions and sea ice. Our results point to warm-temperate, oligotrophic, ice-proximal oceanographic conditions. These distinct oceanographic conditions may explain the high amplitude in inferred Oligocene–Miocene Antarctic ice volume changes.
Ángela García-Gallardo, Patrick Grunert, and Werner E. Piller
Clim. Past, 14, 339–350,Short summary
We study the variability in Mediterranean–Atlantic exchange, focusing on the surface Atlantic inflow across the mid-Pliocene warm period and the onset of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation, still unresolved by previous works. Oxygen isotope gradients between both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar reveal weak inflow during warm periods that turns stronger during severe glacials and the start of a negative feedback between exchange at the Strait and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation.
Roy H. Wilkens, Thomas Westerhold, Anna J. Drury, Mitchell Lyle, Thomas Gorgas, and Jun Tian
Clim. Past, 13, 779–793,Short summary
Here we introduce the Code for Ocean Drilling Data (CODD), a unified and consistent system for integrating disparate data streams such as micropaleontology, physical properties, core images, geochemistry, and borehole logging. As a test case, data from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 154 (Ceara Rise – western equatorial Atlantic) were assembled into a new regional composite benthic stable isotope record covering the last 5 million years.
April N. Abbott, Brian A. Haley, Aradhna K. Tripati, and Martin Frank
Clim. Past, 12, 837–847,Short summary
The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was a brief period when the Earth was in an extreme greenhouse state. We use neodymium isotopes to suggest that during this time deep-ocean circulation was distinct in each basin (North and South Atlanic, Southern, Pacific) with little exchange between. Moreover, the Pacific data show the most variability, suggesting this was a critical region possibly involved in both PETM triggering and remediation.
K. M. Pascher, C. J. Hollis, S. M. Bohaty, G. Cortese, R. M. McKay, H. Seebeck, N. Suzuki, and K. Chiba
Clim. Past, 11, 1599–1620,Short summary
Radiolarian taxa with high-latitude affinities are present from at least the middle Eocene in the SW Pacific and become very abundant in the late Eocene at all investigated sites. A short incursion of low-latitude taxa is observed during the MECO and late Eocene warming event at Site 277. Radiolarian abundance, diversity and taxa with high-latitude affinities increase at Site 277 in two steps in the latest Eocene due to climatic cooling and expansion of cold water masses.
N. Khélifi and M. Frank
Clim. Past, 10, 1441–1451,
J. Etourneau, C. Ehlert, M. Frank, P. Martinez, and R. Schneider
Clim. Past, 8, 1435–1445,
M. Dedert, H. M. Stoll, D. Kroon, N. Shimizu, K. Kanamaru, and P. Ziveri
Clim. Past, 8, 977–993,
N. Khélifi, M. Sarnthein, and B. D. A. Naafs
Clim. Past, 8, 79–87,
H. J. Dowsett, M. M. Robinson, and K. M. Foley
Clim. Past, 5, 769–783,
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Deep-sea sediments at ODP Site 1263 (Walvis Ridge, South Atlantic) show that marine calcifying algae decreased in abundance and size at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, when the Earth transitioned from a greenhouse to a more glaciated and cooler climate. This decreased the food supply for benthic foraminifer communities. The plankton rapidly responded to fast-changing conditions, such as seasonal nutrient availability, or to threshold-levels in pCO2, cooling and ocean circulation.
Deep-sea sediments at ODP Site 1263 (Walvis Ridge, South Atlantic) show that marine calcifying...