Articles | Volume 14, issue 7
25 Jul 2018
Research article | 25 Jul 2018
Thermocline state change in the eastern equatorial Pacific during the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation
Kim Alix Jakob et al.
No articles found.
Emilija Krsnik, Katharina Methner, Marion Campani, Svetlana Botsyun, Sebastian G. Mutz, Todd A. Ehlers, Oliver Kempf, Jens Fiebig, Fritz Schlunegger, and Andreas Mulch
Solid Earth, 12, 2615–2631,Short summary
Here we present new surface elevation constraints for the middle Miocene Central Alps based on stable and clumped isotope geochemical analyses. Our reconstructed paleoelevation estimate is supported by isotope-enabled paleoclimate simulations and indicates that the Miocene Central Alps were characterized by a heterogeneous and spatially transient topography with high elevations locally exceeding 4000 m.
Nicolai Schleinkofer, David Evans, Max Wisshak, Janina Vanessa Büscher, Jens Fiebig, André Freiwald, Sven Härter, Horst R. Marschall, Silke Voigt, and Jacek Raddatz
Biogeosciences, 18, 4733–4753,Short summary
We have measured the chemical composition of the carbonate shells of the parasitic foraminifera Hyrrokkin sarcophaga in order to test if it is influenced by the host organism (bivalve or coral). We find that both the chemical and isotopic composition is influenced by the host organism. For example strontium is enriched in foraminifera that grew on corals, whose skeleton is built from aragonite, which is naturally enriched in strontium compared to the bivalves' calcite shell.
André Bahr, Monika Doubrawa, Jürgen Titschack, Gregor Austermann, Andreas Koutsodendris, Dirk Nürnberg, Ana Luiza Albuquerque, Oliver Friedrich, and Jacek Raddatz
Biogeosciences, 17, 5883–5908,Short summary
We explore the sensitivity of cold-water corals (CWCs) to environmental changes utilizing a multiproxy approach on a coral-bearing sediment core from off southeastern Brazil. Our results reveal that over the past 160 kyr, CWCs flourished during glacial high-northern-latitude cold events (Heinrich stadials). These periods were associated with anomalous wet phases on the continent enhancing terrigenous nutrient and organic-matter supply to the continental margin, boosting food supply to the CWCs.
Margot J. Cramwinckel, Lineke Woelders, Emiel P. Huurdeman, Francien Peterse, Stephen J. Gallagher, Jörg Pross, Catherine E. Burgess, Gert-Jan Reichart, Appy Sluijs, and Peter K. Bijl
Clim. Past, 16, 1667–1689,Short summary
Phases of past transient warming can be used as a test bed to study the environmental response to climate change independent of tectonic change. Using fossil plankton and organic molecules, here we reconstruct surface ocean temperature and circulation in and around the Tasman Gateway during a warming phase 40 million years ago termed the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum. We find that plankton assemblages track ocean circulation patterns, with superimposed variability being related to temperature.
Georg Schwamborn, Kai Hartmann, Bernd Wünnemann, Wolfgang Rösler, Annette Wefer-Roehl, Jörg Pross, Marlen Schlöffel, Franziska Kobe, Pavel E. Tarasov, Melissa A. Berke, and Bernhard Diekmann
Solid Earth, 11, 1375–1398,Short summary
We use a sediment core from the Gobi Desert (Ejina Basin, NW China) to illustrate the landscape history of the area. During 2.5 million years a sediment package of 223 m thickness has been accumulated. Various sediment types document that the area turned from a playa environment (shallow water environment with multiple flooding events) to an alluvial–fluvial environment after the arrival of the Heihe in the area. The river has been diverted due to tectonics.
Bernd R. Schöne, Aliona E. Meret, Sven M. Baier, Jens Fiebig, Jan Esper, Jeffrey McDonnell, and Laurent Pfister
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 673–696,Short summary
We present the first annually resolved stable isotope record (1819–1998) from shells of Swedish river mussels. Data reflect hydrological processes in the catchment and changes in the isotope value of local precipitation. The latter is related to the origin of moisture from which precipitation formed (North Atlantic or the Arctic) and governed by large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns. Results help to better understand climate dynamics and constrain ecological changes in river ecosystems.
Simon Michael Ritter, Margot Isenbeck-Schröter, Christian Scholz, Frank Keppler, Johannes Gescher, Lukas Klose, Nils Schorndorf, Jerónimo Avilés Olguín, Arturo González-González, and Wolfgang Stinnesbeck
Biogeosciences, 16, 2285–2305,Short summary
Unique and spectacular under water speleothems termed as Hells Bells were recently reported from sinkholes (cenotes) of the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. However, the mystery of their formation remained unresolved. Here, we present detailed geochemical analyses and delineate that the growth of Hells Bells results from a combination of biogeochemical processes and variable hydraulic conditions within the cenote.
Peter K. Bijl, Alexander J. P. Houben, Julian D. Hartman, Jörg Pross, Ariadna Salabarnada, Carlota Escutia, and Francesca Sangiorgi
Clim. Past, 14, 1015–1033,Short summary
We document Southern Ocean surface ocean conditions and changes therein during the Oligocene and Miocene (34–10 Myr ago). We infer profound long-term and short-term changes in ice-proximal oceanographic conditions: sea surface temperature, nutrient conditions and sea ice. Our results point to warm-temperate, oligotrophic, ice-proximal oceanographic conditions. These distinct oceanographic conditions may explain the high amplitude in inferred Oligocene–Miocene Antarctic ice volume changes.
Joost Frieling, Emiel P. Huurdeman, Charlotte C. M. Rem, Timme H. Donders, Jörg Pross, Steven M. Bohaty, Guy R. Holdgate, Stephen J. Gallagher, Brian McGowran, and Peter K. Bijl
J. Micropalaeontol., 37, 317–339,Short summary
The hothouse climate of the early Paleogene and the associated violent carbon cycle perturbations are of particular interest to understanding current and future global climate change. Using dinoflagellate cysts and stable carbon isotope analyses, we identify several significant events, e.g., the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum in sedimentary deposits from the Otway Basin, SE Australia. We anticipate that this study will facilitate detailed climate reconstructions west of the Tasmanian Gateway.
Peter K. Bijl, Alexander J. P. Houben, Anja Bruls, Jörg Pross, and Francesca Sangiorgi
J. Micropalaeontol., 37, 105–138,Short summary
In order to use ocean sediments as a recorder of past oceanographic changes, a critical first step is to stratigraphically date the sediments. The absence of microfossils with known stratigraphic ranges has always hindered dating of Southern Ocean sediments. Here we tie dinocyst ranges to the international timescale in a well-dated sediment core from offshore Antarctica. With this, we can now use dinocysts as a biostratigraphic tool in otherwise stratigraphically poorly dated sediments.
Stephanie L. Strother, Ulrich Salzmann, Francesca Sangiorgi, Peter K. Bijl, Jörg Pross, Carlota Escutia, Ariadna Salabarnada, Matthew J. Pound, Jochen Voss, and John Woodward
Biogeosciences, 14, 2089–2100,Short summary
One of the main challenges in Antarctic vegetation reconstructions is the uncertainty in unambiguously identifying reworked pollen and spore assemblages in marine sedimentary records influenced by waxing and waning ice sheets. This study uses red fluorescence and digital imaging as a new tool to identify reworking in a marine sediment core from circum-Antarctic waters to reconstruct Cenozoic climate change and vegetation with high confidence.
Odile Peyron, Nathalie Combourieu-Nebout, David Brayshaw, Simon Goring, Valérie Andrieu-Ponel, Stéphanie Desprat, Will Fletcher, Belinda Gambin, Chryssanthi Ioakim, Sébastien Joannin, Ulrich Kotthoff, Katerina Kouli, Vincent Montade, Jörg Pross, Laura Sadori, and Michel Magny
Clim. Past, 13, 249–265,Short summary
This study aims to reconstruct the climate evolution of the Mediterranean region during the Holocene from pollen data and model outputs. The model- and pollen-inferred precipitation estimates show overall agreement: the eastern Medit. experienced wetter-than-present summer conditions during the early–late Holocene. This regional climate model highlights how the patchy nature of climate signals and data in the Medit. may lead to stronger local signals than the large-scale pattern suggests.
Oliver Friedrich, Sietske J. Batenburg, Kazuyoshi Moriya, Silke Voigt, Cécile Cournède, Iris Möbius, Peter Blum, André Bornemann, Jens Fiebig, Takashi Hasegawa, Pincelli M. Hull, Richard D. Norris, Ursula Röhl, Thomas Westerhold, Paul A. Wilson, and IODP Expedition
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
A lack of knowledge on the timing of Late Cretaceous climatic change inhibits our understanding of underlying causal mechanisms. Therefore, we used an expanded deep ocean record from the North Atlantic that shows distinct sedimentary cyclicity suggesting orbital forcing. A high-resolution carbon-isotope record from bulk carbonates allows to identify global trends in the carbon cycle. Our new carbon isotope record and the established cyclostratigraphy may serve as a future reference site.
O. Friedrich, R. D. Norris, P. A. Wilson, and B. N. Opdyke
Sci. Dril., 19, 39–42,Short summary
This workshop brought together specialists from various fields to develop a drilling proposal to fill the “Oligo-Miocene Gap” that exists in our understanding of the functions of Earth’s systems. We propose to establish the first continuous high-deposition record of the Oligo-Miocene through International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) drilling in the North Atlantic. We give a short overview of the major topics discussed during the workshop and the scientific goals of the resulting pre-proposal.
E. O. Walliser, B. R. Schöne, T. Tütken, J. Zirkel, K. I. Grimm, and J. Pross
Clim. Past, 11, 653–668,
N. A. G. M. van Helmond, A. Sluijs, J. S. Sinninghe Damsté, G.-J. Reichart, S. Voigt, J. Erbacher, J. Pross, and H. Brinkhuis
Clim. Past, 11, 495–508,Short summary
Based on the chemistry and microfossils preserved in sediments deposited in a shallow sea, in the current Lower Saxony region (NW Germany), we conclude that changes in Earth’s orbit around the Sun led to enhanced rainfall and organic matter production. The additional supply of organic matter, depleting oxygen upon degradation, and freshwater, inhibiting the mixing of oxygen-rich surface waters with deeper waters, caused the development of oxygen-poor waters about 94 million years ago.
L. Contreras, J. Pross, P. K. Bijl, R. B. O'Hara, J. I. Raine, A. Sluijs, and H. Brinkhuis
Clim. Past, 10, 1401–1420,
Related subject area
Subject: Ocean Dynamics | Archive: Marine Archives | Timescale: PleistoceneSea ice changes in the southwest Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean during the last 140 000 yearsSummer sea-ice variability on the Antarctic margin during the last glacial period reconstructed from snow petrel (Pagodroma nivea) stomach-oil depositsVariations in export production, lithogenic sediment transport and iron fertilization in the Pacific sector of the Drake Passage over the past 400 kyrLower oceanic δ13C during the last interglacial period compared to the HoloceneChange in the North Atlantic circulation associated with the mid-Pleistocene transitionA multi-proxy analysis of Late Quaternary ocean and climate variability for the Maldives, Inner SeaCentral Arctic Ocean paleoceanography from ∼ 50 ka to present, on the basis of ostracode faunal assemblages from the SWERUS 2014 expeditionDeglacial sea level history of the East Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea marginsMediterranean Outflow Water variability during the Early PleistoceneLast Glacial Maximum and deglacial abyssal seawater oxygen isotopic ratiosSubsurface North Atlantic warming as a trigger of rapid cooling events: evidence from the early Pleistocene (MIS 31–19)Photic zone changes in the north-west Pacific Ocean from MIS 4–5eSeasonal changes in glacial polynya activity inferred from Weddell Sea varvesHigh-latitude obliquity as a dominant forcing in the Agulhas current systemSensitivity of Red Sea circulation to sea level and insolation forcing during the last interglacialSea-surface salinity variations in the northern Caribbean Sea across the Mid-Pleistocene TransitionOceanic tracer and proxy time scales revisitedVariations in mid-latitude North Atlantic surface water properties during the mid-Brunhes (MIS 9–14) and their implications for the thermohaline circulationA simple mixing explanation for late Pleistocene changes in the Pacific-South Atlantic benthic δ13C gradientHigh Arabian Sea productivity conditions during MIS 13 – odd monsoon event or intensified overturning circulation at the end of the Mid-Pleistocene transition?
Jacob Jones, Karen E. Kohfeld, Helen Bostock, Xavier Crosta, Melanie Liston, Gavin Dunbar, Zanna Chase, Amy Leventer, Harris Anderson, and Geraldine Jacobsen
Clim. Past, 18, 465–483,Short summary
We provide new winter sea ice and summer sea surface temperature estimates for marine core TAN1302-96 (59° S, 157° E) in the Southern Ocean. We find that sea ice was not consolidated over the core site until ~65 ka and therefore believe that sea ice may not have been a major contributor to early glacial CO2 drawdown. Sea ice does appear to have coincided with Antarctic Intermediate Water production and subduction, suggesting it may have influenced intermediate ocean circulation changes.
Erin L. McClymont, Michael J. Bentley, Dominic A. Hodgson, Charlotte L. Spencer-Jones, Thomas Wardley, Martin D. West, Ian W. Croudace, Sonja Berg, Darren R. Gröcke, Gerhard Kuhn, Stewart S. R. Jamieson, Louise Sime, and Richard A. Phillips
Clim. Past, 18, 381–403,Short summary
Sea ice is important for our climate system and for the unique ecosystems it supports. We present a novel way to understand past Antarctic sea-ice ecosystems: using the regurgitated stomach contents of snow petrels, which nest above the ice sheet but feed in the sea ice. During a time when sea ice was more extensive than today (24 000–30 000 years ago), we show that snow petrel diet had varying contributions of fish and krill, which we interpret to show changing sea-ice distribution.
María H. Toyos, Gisela Winckler, Helge W. Arz, Lester Lembke-Jene, Carina B. Lange, Gerhard Kuhn, and Frank Lamy
Clim. Past, 18, 147–166,Short summary
Past export production in the southeast Pacific and its link to Patagonian ice dynamics is unknown. We reconstruct biological productivity changes at the Pacific entrance to the Drake Passage, covering the past 400 000 years. We show that glacial–interglacial variability in export production responds to glaciogenic Fe supply from Patagonia and silica availability due to shifts in oceanic fronts, whereas dust, as a source of lithogenic material, plays a minor role.
Shannon A. Bengtson, Laurie C. Menviel, Katrin J. Meissner, Lise Missiaen, Carlye D. Peterson, Lorraine E. Lisiecki, and Fortunat Joos
Clim. Past, 17, 507–528,Short summary
The last interglacial was a warm period that may provide insights into future climates. Here, we compile and analyse stable carbon isotope data from the ocean during the last interglacial and compare it to the Holocene. The data show that Atlantic Ocean circulation was similar during the last interglacial and the Holocene. We also establish a difference in the mean oceanic carbon isotopic ratio between these periods, which was most likely caused by burial and weathering carbon fluxes.
Gloria M. Martin-Garcia, Francisco J. Sierro, José A. Flores, and Fátima Abrantes
Clim. Past, 14, 1639–1651,Short summary
This work documents major oceanographic changes that occurred in the N. Atlantic from 812 to 530 ka and were related to the mid-Pleistocene transition. Since ~ 650 ka, glacials were more prolonged and intense than before. Larger ice sheets may have worked as a positive feedback mechanism to prolong the duration of glacials. We explore the connection between the change in the N. Atlantic oceanography and the enhanced ice-sheet growth, which contributed to the change of cyclicity in climate.
Dorothea Bunzel, Gerhard Schmiedl, Sebastian Lindhorst, Andreas Mackensen, Jesús Reolid, Sarah Romahn, and Christian Betzler
Clim. Past, 13, 1791–1813,Short summary
We investigated a sediment core from the Maldives to unravel the interaction between equatorial climate and ocean variability of the past 200 000 years. The sedimentological, geochemical and foraminiferal data records reveal enhanced dust, which was transported by intensified winter monsoon winds during glacial conditions. Precessional fluctuations of bottom water oxygen suggests an expansion of the Arabian Sea OMZ and a varying inflow of Antarctic Intermediate Water.
Laura Gemery, Thomas M. Cronin, Robert K. Poirier, Christof Pearce, Natalia Barrientos, Matt O'Regan, Carina Johansson, Andrey Koshurnikov, and Martin Jakobsson
Clim. Past, 13, 1473–1489,Short summary
Continuous, highly abundant and well-preserved fossil ostracodes were studied from radiocarbon-dated sediment cores collected on the Lomonosov Ridge (Arctic Ocean) that indicate varying oceanographic conditions during the last ~50 kyr. Ostracode assemblages from cores taken during the SWERUS-C3 2014 Expedition, Leg 2, reflect paleoenvironmental changes during glacial, deglacial, and interglacial transitions, including changes in sea-ice cover and Atlantic Water inflow into the Eurasian Basin.
Thomas M. Cronin, Matt O'Regan, Christof Pearce, Laura Gemery, Michael Toomey, Igor Semiletov, and Martin Jakobsson
Clim. Past, 13, 1097–1110,Short summary
Global sea level rise during the last deglacial flooded the Siberian continental shelf in the Arctic Ocean. Sediment cores, radiocarbon dating, and microfossils show that the regional sea level in the Arctic rose rapidly from about 12 500 to 10 700 years ago. Regional sea level history on the Siberian shelf differs from the global deglacial sea level rise perhaps due to regional vertical adjustment resulting from the growth and decay of ice sheets.
Stefanie Kaboth, Patrick Grunert, and Lucas Lourens
Clim. Past, 13, 1023–1035,Short summary
This study is devoted to reconstructing Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) variability and the interplay between the Mediterranean and North Atlantic climate systems during the Early Pleistocene. We find indication that the increasing production of MOW aligns with the intensification of the North Atlantic overturning circulation, highlighting the potential of MOW to modulate the North Atlantic salt budget. Our results are based on new stable isotope and grain-size data from IODP 339 Site U1389.
Clim. Past, 12, 1281–1296,Short summary
This paper examines the oxygen isotope data in several deep-sea cores. The question addressed is whether those data support an inference that the abyssal ocean in the Last Glacial Maximum period was significantly colder than it is today. Along with a separate analysis of salinity data in the same cores, it is concluded that a cold, saline deep ocean is consistent with the available data but so is an abyss much more like that found today. LGM model testers should beware.
I. Hernández-Almeida, F.-J. Sierro, I. Cacho, and J.-A. Flores
Clim. Past, 11, 687–696,Short summary
This manuscript presents new Mg/Ca and previously published δ18O measurements of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sinistral for MIS 31-19, from a sediment core from the subpolar North Atlantic. The mechanism proposed here involves northward subsurface transport of warm and salty subtropical waters during periods of weaker AMOC, leading to ice-sheet instability and IRD discharge. This is the first time that these rapid climate oscillations are described for the early Pleistocene.
G. E. A. Swann and A. M. Snelling
Clim. Past, 11, 15–25,Short summary
New diatom isotope records are presented alongside existing geochemical and isotope records to document changes in the photic zone, including nutrient supply and the efficiency of the soft-tissue biological pump, between MIS 4 and MIS 5e in the subarctic north-west Pacific Ocean. The results provide evidence for temporal changes in the strength and efficiency of the regional soft-tissue biological pump, altering the ratio of regenerated to preformed nutrients in the water.
D. Sprenk, M. E. Weber, G. Kuhn, V. Wennrich, T. Hartmann, and K. Seelos
Clim. Past, 10, 1239–1251,
T. Caley, J.-H. Kim, B. Malaizé, J. Giraudeau, T. Laepple, N. Caillon, K. Charlier, H. Rebaubier, L. Rossignol, I. S. Castañeda, S. Schouten, and J. S. Sinninghe Damsté
Clim. Past, 7, 1285–1296,
G. Trommer, M. Siccha, E. J. Rohling, K. Grant, M. T. J. van der Meer, S. Schouten, U. Baranowski, and M. Kucera
Clim. Past, 7, 941–955,
S. Sepulcre, L. Vidal, K. Tachikawa, F. Rostek, and E. Bard
Clim. Past, 7, 75–90,
C. Siberlin and C. Wunsch
Clim. Past, 7, 27–39,
A. H. L. Voelker, T. Rodrigues, K. Billups, D. Oppo, J. McManus, R. Stein, J. Hefter, and J. O. Grimalt
Clim. Past, 6, 531–552,
L. E. Lisiecki
Clim. Past, 6, 305–314,
M. Ziegler, L. J. Lourens, E. Tuenter, and G.-J. Reichart
Clim. Past, 6, 63–76,
Adelseck, C. G. and Anderson, T. F.: The late Pleistocene record of productivity fluctuations in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, Geology, 6, 388–391, 1978.
Anand, P., Elderfield, H., and Conte, M. H.: Calibration of Mg ∕ Ca thermometry in planktonic foraminifera from a sediment trap time series, Paleoceanography, 18, 1050, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002PA000846, 2003.
Bailey, I., Hole, G. M., Foster, G. L., Wilson, P. A., Storey, C. D., Trueman, C. N., and Raymo, M. E.: An alternative suggestion for the Pliocene onset of major northern hemisphere glaciation based on the geochemical provenance of North Atlantic Ocean ice-rafted debris, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 75, 181–194, 2013.
Barker, S., Greaves, M., and Elderfield, H.: A study of cleaning procedures used for foraminiferal Mg ∕ Ca paleothermometry, Geochem. Geophy. Geosy., 4, 8407, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GC000559, 2003.
Bartoli, G., Sarnthein, M., and Weinelt, M.: Late Pliocene millennial-scale climate variability in the northern North Atlantic prior to and after the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, Paleoceanography, 21, PA4205, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005PA001185, 2006.
Bé, A. W. H.: An ecological, zoogeographic and taxonomic review of recent planktonic foraminifera, in: Oceanic micropaleontology, edited by: Ramsey, A. T. S., Academic Press, London, 1–100, 1977.
Berger, W. H., Bonneau, M.-C., and Parker, F. L.: Foraminifera on the deep-sea floor: lysocline and dissolution rate, Oceanol. Acta, 5, 249–258, 1982.
Billups, K., Channell, J. E. T., and Zachos, J.: Late Oligocene to early Miocene geochronology and paleoceanography from the subantarctic South Atlantic, Paleoceanography, 17, 1004, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000PA000568, 2002.
Bolton, C. T., Gibbs, S. J., and Wilson, P. A.: Evolution of nutricline dynamics in the equatorial Pacific during the late Pliocene, Paleoceanography, 25, PA1207, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009PA001821, 2010.
Cane, M. A. and Molnar, P.: Closing of the Indonesian seaway as a precursor to east African aridification around 3–4 million years ago, Nature, 411, 157–162, 2001.
Cléroux, C. and Lynch-Stieglitz, J.: What caused G. truncatulinoides to calcify in shallower water during the early Holocene in the western Atlantic/Gulf of Mexico?, IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., 9, 012020, https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/9/1/012020, 2010.
Craig, H. and Gordon, L. I.: Deuterium and oxygen-18 variations in the ocean and the marine atmosphere, in: Stable isotopes in oceanographic studies and paleotemperatures, edited by: Tongiorgi, E., Spoletto, Pisa, 9–130, 1965.
Dekens, P. S., Lea, D. W., Pak, D. K., and Spero, H. J.: Core top calibration of Mg ∕ Ca in tropical foraminifera: Refining paleotemperature estimation, Geochem. Geophy. Geosy., 3, 1–29, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001GC000200, 2002.
Dekens, P. S., Ravelo, A. C., and McCarthy, M. D.: Warm upwelling regions in the Pliocene warm period, Paleoceanography, 22, PA3211, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006PA001394, 2007.
Deuser, W. G. and Hunt, J. M.: Stable isotope ratios of dissolved inorganic carbon in the Atlantic, Deep-Sea Res., 16, 221–225, 1969.
Dittert, N., Baumann, K.-H., Bickert, T., Henrich, R., Huber, R., Kinkel, H., and Meggers, H.: Carbonate dissolution in the deep-sea: Methods, quantification and paleoceanographic application, in: Use of Proxies in Paleoceanography, edited by: Fischer, G. and Wefer, G., Springer, New York, 255–284, 1999.
Elderfield, H., Vautravers, M., and Cooper, M.: The relationship between shell size and Mg ∕ Ca, Sr ∕ Ca, δ18O, and δ13C of species of planktonic foraminifera, Geochem. Geophy. Geosy., 3, 1–13, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001GC000194, 2002.
Etourneau, J., Schneider, R., Blanz, T., and Martinez, P.: Intensification of the Walker and Hadley atmospheric circulations during the Pliocene-Pleistocene climate transition, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 297, 103–110, 2010.
Faul, K. L., Ravelo, A. C., and Delaney, M. L.: Reconstructions of upwelling, productivity, and photic zone depth in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean using planktonic foraminiferal stable isotopes and abundances, J. Foramin. Res., 30, 110–125, https://doi.org/10.2113/0300110, 2000.
Fedorov, A. V. and Philander, S. G.: Is El Nino changing?, Science, 288, 1997–2002, 2000.
Fedorov, A. V., Pacanowski, R. C., Philander, S. G., and Boccaletti, G.: The effect of salinity on the wind-driven circulation and the thermal structure of the upper ocean, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 1949–1966, 2004.
Fedorov, A. V., Dekens, P. S., McCarthy, M., Ravelo, A. C., deMenocal, P. B., Barriero, M., Pacanowski, R. C., and Philander, S. G.: The Pliocene paradox (mechanisms for a permanent El Niño), Science, 312, 1485–1489, 2006.
Ford, H. L., Ravelo, A. C., and Hovan, S.: A deep Eastern Equatorial Pacific thermocline during the early Pliocene warm period, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 355–356, 152–161, 2012.
Ford, H. L., Ravelo, A. C., and Polissar, P. J.: Reduced El Niño–Southern Oscillation during the Last Glacial Maximum, Science, 347, 255–258, 2015.
Friedrich, O., Schiebel, R., Wilson, P. A., Weldeab, S., Beer, S. J., Cooper, M. J., and Fiebig, J.: Influence of test size, water depth, and ecology on Mg ∕ Ca, Sr/Ca, δ18O and δ13C in nine modern species of planktic foraminifers, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 319, 133–145, 2012.
Greaves, M., Caillon, N., Rebaubier, H., Bartoli, G., Bohaty, S., Cacho, I., Clarke, L. J., Cooper, M., Daunt, C., Delaney, M., deMenocal, P., Dutton, A., Eggins, S., Elderfield, H., Garbe-Schoenberg, D., Goddard, E., Green, D., Groeneveld, J., Hastings, D., Hathorne, E., Kimoto, K., Klinkhammer, G., Labeyrie, L., Lea, D. W., Marchitto, T., Martinez-Boti, M. A., Mortyn, P. G., Ni, Y., Nuernberg, D., Paradis, G., Pena, L., Quinn, T., Rosenthal, Y., Russell, A., Sagawa, T., Sosdain, S., Stott, L., Tachikawa, K., Tappa, E., Thunell, R., and Wilson, P. A.: Interlaboratory comparison study of calibration standards for foraminiferal Mg ∕ Ca thermometry, Geochem. Geophy. Geosy., 9, Q08010, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GC001974, 2008.
Groeneveld, J., Steph, S., Tiedemann, R., Garbe-Schönberg, D., Nürnberg, D., and Sturm, A.: Pliocene mixed-layer oceanography for Site 1241, using combined Mg ∕ Ca and δ18O analyses of Globigerinoides sacculifer, in: Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 202, College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), edited by: Tiedemann, R., Mix, A. C., Richter, C., and Ruddiman, W. F., https://doi.org/10.2973/odp.proc.sr.202.209.2006, 2006.
Groeneveld, J., Hathorne, E. C., Steinke, S., DeBey, H., Mackensen, A., and Tiedemann, R.: Glacial induced closure of the Panamanian Gateway during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 95–100 (∼2.5 Ma), Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 404, 296–306, 2014.
Hertzberg, J. E., Schmidt, M. W., Bianchi, T. S., Smith, R. W., Shields, M. R., and Marcantonio, F.: Comparison of eastern tropical Pacific TEX86 and Globigerinoides ruber Mg ∕ Ca derived sea surface temperatures: Insights from the Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 434, 320–332, 2016.
Jakob, K. A., Wilson, P. A., Bahr, A., Bolton, C. T., Pross, J., Fiebig, J., and Friedrich, O.: Plio-Pleistocene glacial- interglacial productivity changes in the eastern equatorial Pacific upwelling system, Paleoceanography, 31, 453–470, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015PA002899, 2016.
Jakob, K. A., Bolton, C. T., Wilson, P. A., Bahr, A., Pross, J., Fiebig, J., Kähler, K., and Friedrich, O.: Glacial-interglacial changes in equatorial Pacific surface-water structure during the Plio-Pleistocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 463, 69–80, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2017.01.028, 2017.
Jones, J. I.: Significance of distribution of planktonic foraminifers in the Equatorial Atlantic Undercurrent, Micropaleontology, 13, 489–501, 1967.
Jonkers, L. and Kučera, M.: Global analysis of seasonality in the shell flux of extant planktonic Foraminifera, Biogeosciences, 12, 2207–2226, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-2207-2015, 2015.
Karas, C., Nürnberg, D., Gupta, A. K., Tiedemann, R., Mohan, K., and Bickert, T.: Mid-Pliocene climate change amplified by a switch in Indonesian subsurface throughflow, Nat. Geosci., 2, 434–438, 2009.
Kemle von Mücke, S. and Hemleben, C.: Foraminifera, in: South Atlantic Zooplankton, Vol. 1, edited by: Boltovskoy, D., Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, 43–74, 1999.
Koutavas, A. and Lynch-Stieglitz, J.: Glacial-interglacial dynamics of the eastern equatorial Pacific cold tongue-Intertropical Convergence Zone system reconstructed from oxygen isotope records, Paleoceanography, 18, 1089, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003PA000894, 2003.
Kroopnick, P. M.: The distribution of 13C of ΣCO2 in the world oceans, Deep-Sea Res., 32, 57–84, 1985.
Lee, S. Y. and Poulsen, C. J.: Tropical Pacific climate response to obliquity forcing in the Pleistocene, Paleoceanography, 20, PA4010, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005PA001161, 2005.
Lin, H.-L., Peterson, L. C., Overpeck, J. T., Trumbore, S. E., and Murray, D. W.: Late Quaternary climate change from δ18O records of multiple species of planktonic foraminifera: High-resolution records from the Anoxic Cariaco Basin, Venezuela, Paleoceanography, 12, 415–427, 1997.
Lisiecki, L. E. and Raymo, M. E.: A Pliocene-Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18O records, Paleoceanography, 20, PA1003, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004PA001071, 2005.
Locarnini, R. A., Mishonov, A. V., Antonov, J. I., Boyer, T. P., Garcia, H. E., Baranova, O. K., Zweng, M. M., Paver, C. R., Reagan, J. R., Johnson, D. R., Hamilton, M., and Seidov, D.: World Ocean Atlas 2013, Volume 1, Temperature, in: NOAA Atlas NESDIS 73, edited by: Levitus, S. and Mishonov, A., U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 40 pp., 2013.
Ma, H., Wu, L., and Li, Z.: Impact of freshening over the Southern Ocean on ENSO, Atmos. Sci. Lett., 14, 28–33, https://doi.org/10.1002/asl2.410, 2013.
Martínez-Garcia, A., Rosell-Melé, A., McClymont, E. L., Gersonde, R., and Haug, G. H.: Subpolar link to the emergence of the modern equatorial Pacific cold tongue, Science, 328, 1550–1553, 2010.
Mayer, L. A., Pisias, N. G., Janecek, T. R., Baldauf, J. G., Bloomer, S. F., Dadey, K. A., Emeis, K.-C., Farrell J., Flores, J. A., Galimov, E. M., Hagelberg, T. K., Holler, P., Hovan, S. A., Iwai, M., Kemp, A. E. S., Kim, D. C., Klinkhammer, G., Leinen, M., Levi, S., Levitan, M. A., Lyle, M. W., MacKillop, A. K., Meynadier, L. M., Mix, A. C., Moore, T. C., Raffi, I., Ravelo, C., Schneider, D., Shackleton, N. J., Valet, J.-P., and Vincent, E.: Eastern Equatorial Pacific, Proc. ODP, Init. Repts., 138, College Station, TX, Ocean Drilling Program, 1992.
Mix, A. C., Pisias, N. G., Rugh, W., Wilson, J., Morey, A., and Hagelberg, T. K.: Benthic foraminifer stable isotope record from Site 849 (0–5 Ma): local and global climate changes, in: Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 138, College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), edited by: Pisias, N. G., Mayer, L. A., Janecek, T. R., Palmer-Julson, A., and van Adel, T. H., 371–412, 1995.
Mohtadi, M., Steinke, S., Groeneveld, J., Fink, H. G., Rixen, T., Hebbeln, D., Donner, B., and Herunadi, B.: Low-latitude control on seasonal and interannual changes in planktonic foraminiferal flux and shell geochemistry off south Java: A sediment trap study, Paleoceanography, 24, PA1201, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008PA001636, 2009.
Mudelsee, M. and Raymo, M. E.: Slow dynamics of the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation, Paleoceanography, 20, PA4022, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005PA001153, 2005.
Naafs, B. D. A., Hefter, J., and Stein, R.: Millennial-scale ice rafting events and Hudson Strait Heinrich(-like) Events during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene: a review, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 80, 1–28, 2013.
Niebler, H.-S., Hubberten, H.-W., and Gersonde, R.: Oxygen isotope values of planktic foraminifera: A tool for the reconstruction of surface water stratification, in: Use of Proxies in Paleoceanography, edited by: Fischer, G. and Wefer, G., Springer, New York, 165–189, 1999.
Nürnberg, D., Böschen, T., Doering, K., Mollier-Vogel, E., Raddatz, J., and Schneider, R.: Sea surface and subsurface circulation dynamics off equatorial Peru during the last ∼17 kyr, Paleoceanography, 30, 984–999, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014pa002706, 2015.
Pena, L. D., Calvo, E., Cacho, I., Eggins, S., and Pelejero, C.: Identification and removal of Mn-Mg-rich contaminant phases on foraminiferal tests: Implications for Mg ∕ Ca past temperature reconstructions, Geochem. Geophy. Geosy., 6, Q09P02, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GC000930, 2005.
Pennington, J. T., Mahoney, K. L., Kuwahara, V. S., Kolber, D. D., Calienes, R., and Chavez, F. P.: Primary production in the eastern tropical Pacific: A review, Prog. Oceanogr., 69, 285–317, 2006.
Prell, W. L.: The stability of low-latitude sea-surface temperatures: an evaluation of the CLIMAP reconstruction with emphasis on the positive SST anomalies. Rep. TR 025, U.S. Dep. Energy, Washington, 60 pp., 1985.
Pusz, A. E., Thunell, R. C., and Miller, K. G.: Deep water temperature, carbonate ion, and ice volume changes across the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition, Paleoceanography, 26, PA2205, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010PA001950, 2011.
Ravelo, A. C. and Hillaire-Marcel, C.: The use of oxygen and carbon isotopes of foraminifera in Paleoceanography, in: Proxies in Late Cenozoic Paleoceanography, edited by: Hillaire-Marcel, C. and De Vernal, A., Elsevier, Amsterdam, Oxford, 735–764, 2007.
Regenberg, M., Steph, S., Nürnberg, D., Tiedemann, R., and Garbe-Schönberg, D.: Calibrating Mg ∕ Ca ratios of multiple planktonic foraminiferal species with δ18O-calcification temperatures: Paleothermometry for the upper water column, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 278, 324–336, 2009.
Schlitzer, R.: Export production in the equatorial and north Pacific derived from dissolved oxygen, nutrient and carbon data, J. Oceanogr., 60, 53–62, 2004.
Schneider, B. and Schmittner, A.: Simulating the impact of the Panamanian seaway closure on ocean circulation, marine productivity and nutrient cycling, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 246, 367–380, 2006.
Sexton, P. F. and Norris, R. D.: Dispersal and biogeography of marine plankton: Long-distance dispersal of the foraminifer Truncorotalia truncatulinoides, Geology, 36, 899–902, https://doi.org/10.1130/G25232A.1, 2008.
Shackleton, N. J., Backman, J., Zimmerman, H., Kent, D. V., Hall, M., Roberts, D., Schnitker, D., Baldauf, J., Desprairies, A., and Homrighausen, R.: Oxygen isotope calibration of the onset of ice-rafting and history of glaciation in the North Atlantic region, Nature, 307, 620–623, 1984.
Steph, S., Tiedemann, R., Groeneveld, J., Sturm, A., and Nürnberg, D.: Pliocene changes in tropical east Pacific upper ocean stratification: Response to tropical gateways?, Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 202, College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), edited by: Tiedemann, R., Mix, A. C., Richter, C., and Ruddiman, W. F., https://doi.org/10.2973/odp.proc.sr.202.211.2006, 2006a.
Steph, S., Tiedemann, R., Prange, M., Groeneveld, J., Nürnberg, D., Reuning, L., Schulz, M., and Haug, G. H.: Changes in Caribbean surface hydrography during the Pliocene shoaling of the Central American Seaway, Paleoceanography, 21, PA4221, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004PA001092, 2006b.
Steph, S., Regenberg, M., Tiedemann, R., Mulitza, S., and Nürnberg, D.: Stable isotopes of planktonic foraminifera from tropical Atlantic/Caribbean core-tops: Implications for reconstructing upper ocean stratification, Mar. Micropaleontol., 71, 1–19, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marmicro.2008.12.004, 2009.
Steph, S., Tiedemann, R., Prange, M., Groeneveld, J., Schulz, M., Timmermann, A., Nürnberg, D., Rühlemann, C., Saukel, C., and Haug, G. H.: Early Pliocene increase in thermohaline overturning: A precondition for the development of the modern equatorial Pacific cold tongue, Paleoceanography, 25, PA2202, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008PA001645, 2010.
Takahashi, T., Sutherland, S. C., Wanninkhof, R., Sweeney, C., Feely, R. A., Chipman, D. W., Hales, B., Friederich, G., Chavez, F., Sabine, C., Watson, A., Bakker, D. C. E., Schuster, U., Metzl, N., Yoshikawa-Inoue, H., Ishii, M., Midorikawa, T., Nojiri, Y., Körtzinger, A., Steinhoff, T., Hoppema, M., Olafsson, J., Arnarson, T. S., Tilbrook, B., Johannessen, T., Olsen, A., Bellerby, R., Wong, C. S., Delille, B., Bates, N. R., and de Baar, H. J. W.: Climatological mean and decadal change in surface ocean pCO2, and net sea-air CO2 flux over the global oceans, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 56, 554–577, 2009.
Tedesco, K., Thunell, R., Astor, Y., and Muller-Karger, F.: The oxygen isotope composition of planktonic foraminifera from the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela: Seasonal and interannual variations, Mar. Micropaleontol., 62, 180–193, 2007.
Toggweiler, J. R. and Sarmiento, J. L.: Glacial to interglacial changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide: the critical role of ocean surface water in high latitudes, in: The carbon cycle and atmospheric CO2: Natural variations Archean to present, edited by: Sundquist, E. T. and Broecker, W. S., Geoph. Monog. Series 32, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 163–184, 1985.
Wang, B., Wu, R., and Lukas, R.: Annual adjustment of the thermocline in the tropical Pacific Ocean, J. Climate, 13, 596–616, 2000.
Wang, L.: Isotopic signals in two morphotypes of Globigerinoides ruber (white) from the South China Sea: implications for monsoon climate change during the last glacial cycle, Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl., 161, 381–394, 2000.
Wara, M. W., Ravelo, A. C., and Delaney, M. L.: Permanent El Niño-like conditions during the Pliocene warm period, Science, 309, 758–761, 2005.
Watkins, J. M., Mix, A. C., and Wilson, J.: Living planktic foraminifera in the central tropical Pacific Ocean: Articulating the equatorial “cold tongue” during La Niña, Mar. Micropaleontol., 33, 157–174, 1998.
Wilson, J., Abboud, S., and Beman, J. M.: Primary production, community respiration, and net community production along oxygen and nutrient gradients: Environmental controls and biogeochemical feedbacks within and across “Marine Lakes”, Front. Mar. Sci., 4, 12, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2017.00012, 2017.
Wyrtki, K.: An estimate of equatorial upwelling in the Pacific, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 11, 1205–1214, 1981.
Eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) thermocline dynamics during the intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation (iNHG; ~ 2.5 Ma) currently remain unclear. In light of this uncertainty, we generated geochemical, faunal and sedimentological data for EEP Site 849 (~ 2.75–2.4 Ma). We recorded a thermocline depth change shortly before the final phase of the iNHG, which supports the hypothesis that tropical thermocline shoaling may have contributed to substantial Northern Hemisphere ice growth.
Eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) thermocline dynamics during the intensification of Northern...