Articles | Volume 13, issue 5
19 May 2017
Research article | 19 May 2017
Decadal resolution record of Oman upwelling indicates solar forcing of the Indian summer monsoon (9–6 ka)
Philipp M. Munz et al.
No articles found.
Raúl Tapia, Sze Ling Ho, Hui-Yu Wang, Jeroen Groeneveld, and Mahyar Mohtadi
Biogeosciences, 19, 3185–3208,Short summary
We report census counts of planktic foraminifera in depth-stratified plankton net samples off Indonesia. Our results show that the vertical distribution of foraminifera species routinely used in paleoceanographic reconstructions varies in hydrographically distinct regions, likely in response to food availability. Consequently, the thermal gradient based on mixed layer and thermocline dwellers also differs for these regions, suggesting potential implications for paleoceanographic reconstructions.
Pauline Cornuault, Thomas Westerhold, Heiko Pälike, Torsten Bickert, Karl-Heinz Baumann, and Michal Kucera
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
We generated high-resolution records of carbonate accumulation rate from Miocene to Quaternary in the tropical Atlantic Ocean to characterise the variability in pelagic carbonate production during warm climate. It follows orbital cycles, responding to local changes in tropical conditions as well as to long-term shifts in climate and ocean chemistry. These changes were sufficiently large to play a role in the carbon cycle and global climate evolution.
Franziska Tell, Lukas Jonkers, Julie Meilland, and Michal Kucera
Revised manuscript under review for BGShort summary
This study analyses the production of calcite shells formed by one of the main Arctic pelagic calcifier, the foraminifera N. pachyderma. Using vertically resolved profiles of shell concentration, size and weight, we show that calcification occurs throughout the upper 300 m with an average production flux below the calcification zone of 8 mg CaCO3 m-2 d-1 representing 23 % of the total pelagic biogenic carbonate production. The production flux is attenuated in the twilight zone by dissolution.
Geert-Jan A. Brummer and Michal Kučera
J. Micropalaeontol., 41, 29–74,Short summary
To aid researchers working with living planktonic foraminifera, we provide a comprehensive review of names that we consider appropriate for extant species. We discuss the reasons for the decisions we made and provide a list of species and genus-level names as well as other names that have been used in the past but are considered inappropriate for living taxa, stating the reasons.
Lukas Jonkers, Geert-Jan A. Brummer, Julie Meilland, Jeroen Groeneveld, and Michal Kucera
Clim. Past, 18, 89–101,Short summary
The variability in the geochemistry among individual foraminifera is used to reconstruct seasonal to interannual climate variability. This method requires that each foraminifera shell accurately records environmental conditions, which we test here using a sediment trap time series. Even in the absence of environmental variability, planktonic foraminifera display variability in their stable isotope ratios that needs to be considered in the interpretation of individual foraminifera data.
Lukas Jonkers, Oliver Bothe, and Michal Kucera
Clim. Past, 17, 2577–2581,
Julie Meilland, Michael Siccha, Maike Kaffenberger, Jelle Bijma, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 18, 5789–5809,Short summary
Planktonic foraminifera population dynamics has long been assumed to be controlled by synchronous reproduction and ontogenetic vertical migration (OVM). Due to contradictory observations, this concept became controversial. We here test it in the Atlantic ocean for four species of foraminifera representing the main clades. Our observations support the existence of synchronised reproduction and OVM but show that more than half of the population does not follow the canonical trajectory.
Andrew M. Dolman, Torben Kunz, Jeroen Groeneveld, and Thomas Laepple
Clim. Past, 17, 825–841,Short summary
Uncertainties in climate proxy records are temporally autocorrelated. By deriving expressions for the power spectra of errors in proxy records, we can estimate appropriate uncertainties for any timescale, for example, for temporally smoothed records or for time slices. Here we outline and demonstrate this approach for climate proxies recovered from marine sediment cores.
Markus Raitzsch, Jelle Bijma, Torsten Bickert, Michael Schulz, Ann Holbourn, and Michal Kučera
Clim. Past, 17, 703–719,Short summary
At approximately 14 Ma, the East Antarctic Ice Sheet expanded to almost its current extent, but the role of CO2 in this major climate transition is not entirely known. We show that atmospheric CO2 might have varied on 400 kyr cycles linked to the eccentricity of the Earth’s orbit. The resulting change in weathering and ocean carbon cycle affected atmospheric CO2 in a way that CO2 rose after Antarctica glaciated, helping to stabilize the climate system on its way to the “ice-house” world.
Annette Hahn, Enno Schefuß, Jeroen Groeneveld, Charlotte Miller, and Matthias Zabel
Clim. Past, 17, 345–360,
Catarina Cavaleiro, Antje H. L. Voelker, Heather Stoll, Karl-Heinz Baumann, and Michal Kucera
Clim. Past, 16, 2017–2037,
Douglas Lessa, Raphaël Morard, Lukas Jonkers, Igor M. Venancio, Runa Reuter, Adrian Baumeister, Ana Luiza Albuquerque, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 17, 4313–4342,Short summary
We observed that living planktonic foraminifera had distinct vertically distributed communities across the Subtropical South Atlantic. In addition, a hierarchic alternation of environmental parameters was measured to control the distribution of planktonic foraminifer's species depending on the water depth. This implies that not only temperature but also productivity and subsurface processes are signed in fossil assemblages, which could be used to perform paleoceanographic reconstructions.
Lukas Jonkers, Olivier Cartapanis, Michael Langner, Nick McKay, Stefan Mulitza, Anne Strack, and Michal Kucera
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1053–1081,
Anna Jentzen, Joachim Schönfeld, Agnes K. M. Weiner, Manuel F. G. Weinkauf, Dirk Nürnberg, and Michal Kučera
J. Micropalaeontol., 38, 231–247,Short summary
The study assessed the population dynamics of living planktic foraminifers on a weekly, seasonal, and interannual timescale off the coast of Puerto Rico to improve our understanding of short- and long-term variations. The results indicate a seasonal change of the faunal composition, and over the last decades. Lower standing stocks and lower stable carbon isotope values of foraminifers in shallow waters can be linked to the hurricane Sandy, which passed the Greater Antilles during autumn 2012.
Mariem Saavedra-Pellitero, Karl-Heinz Baumann, Miguel Ángel Fuertes, Hartmut Schulz, Yann Marcon, Nele Manon Vollmar, José-Abel Flores, and Frank Lamy
Biogeosciences, 16, 3679–3702,Short summary
Open ocean phytoplankton include coccolithophore algae, a key element in carbon cycle regulation with important feedbacks to the climate system. We document latitudinal variability in both coccolithophore assemblage and the mass variation in one particular species, Emiliania huxleyi, for a transect across the Drake Passage (in the Southern Ocean). Coccolithophore abundance, diversity and maximum depth habitat decrease southwards, coinciding with changes in the predominant E. huxleyi morphotypes.
Mattia Greco, Lukas Jonkers, Kerstin Kretschmer, Jelle Bijma, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 16, 3425–3437,Short summary
To be able to interpret the paleoecological signal contained in N. pachyderma's shells, its habitat depth must be known. Our investigation on 104 density profiles of this species from the Arctic and North Atlantic shows that specimens reside closer to the surface when sea-ice and/or surface chlorophyll concentrations are high. This is in contrast with previous investigations that pointed at the position of the deep chlorophyll maximum as the main driver of N. pachyderma vertical distribution.
Haruka Takagi, Katsunori Kimoto, Tetsuichi Fujiki, Hiroaki Saito, Christiane Schmidt, Michal Kucera, and Kazuyoshi Moriya
Biogeosciences, 16, 3377–3396,Short summary
Photosymbiosis (endosymbiosis with algae) is an evolutionary important ecology for many marine organisms but has poorly been identified among planktonic foraminifera. In this study, we identified and characterized photosymbiosis of various species of planktonic foraminifera by focusing on their photosynthesis–related features. We finally proposed a new framework showing a potential strength of photosymbiosis, which will serve as a basis for future ecological studies of planktonic foraminifera.
Andreia Rebotim, Antje Helga Luise Voelker, Lukas Jonkers, Joanna J. Waniek, Michael Schulz, and Michal Kucera
J. Micropalaeontol., 38, 113–131,Short summary
To reconstruct subsurface water conditions using deep-dwelling planktonic foraminifera, we must fully understand how the oxygen isotope signal incorporates into their shell. We report δ18O in four species sampled in the eastern North Atlantic with plankton tows. We assess the size and crust effect on the isotopic δ18O and compared them with predictions from two equations. We reveal different patterns of calcite addition with depth, highlighting the need to perform species-specific calibrations.
Lukas Jonkers and Michal Kučera
Clim. Past, 15, 881–891,Short summary
Fossil plankton assemblages have been widely used to reconstruct SST. In such approaches, full taxonomic resolution is often used. We assess whether this is required for reliable reconstructions as some species may not respond to SST. We find that only a few species are needed for low reconstruction errors but that species selection has a pronounced effect on reconstructions. We suggest that the sensitivity of a reconstruction to species pruning can be used as a measure of its robustness.
Nadia Al-Sabouni, Isabel S. Fenton, Richard J. Telford, and Michal Kučera
J. Micropalaeontol., 37, 519–534,Short summary
In this study we investigate consistency in species-level identifications and whether disagreements are predictable. Overall, 21 researchers from across the globe identified sets of 300 specimens or digital images of planktonic foraminifera. Digital identifications tended to be more disparate. Participants trained by the same person often had more similar identifications. Disagreements hardly affected transfer-function temperature estimates but produced larger differences in diversity metrics.
Jeroen Groeneveld, Helena L. Filipsson, William E. N. Austin, Kate Darling, David McCarthy, Nadine B. Quintana Krupinski, Clare Bird, and Magali Schweizer
J. Micropalaeontol., 37, 403–429,Short summary
Current climate and environmental changes strongly affect shallow marine and coastal areas like the Baltic Sea. The combination of foraminiferal geochemistry and environmental parameters demonstrates that in a highly variable setting like the Baltic Sea, it is possible to separate different environmental impacts on the foraminiferal assemblages and therefore use chemical factors to reconstruct how seawater temperature, salinity, and oxygen varied in the past and may vary in the future.
Kerstin Kretschmer, Lukas Jonkers, Michal Kucera, and Michael Schulz
Biogeosciences, 15, 4405–4429,Short summary
The fossil shells of planktonic foraminifera are widely used to reconstruct past climate conditions. To do so, information about their seasonal and vertical habitat is needed. Here we present an updated version of a planktonic foraminifera model to better understand species-specific habitat dynamics under climate change. This model produces spatially and temporally coherent distribution patterns, which agree well with available observations, and can thus aid the interpretation of proxy records.
Birgit Gaye, Anna Böll, Joachim Segschneider, Nicole Burdanowitz, Kay-Christian Emeis, Venkitasubramani Ramaswamy, Niko Lahajnar, Andreas Lückge, and Tim Rixen
Biogeosciences, 15, 507–527,Short summary
The Arabian Sea has one of the most severe oxygen minima of the world's oceans between about 100 and 1200 m of water depth and is therefore a major oceanic nitrogen sink. Stable nitrogen isotopic ratios in sediments record changes in oxygen concentrations and were studied for the last 25 kyr. Oxygen concentrations dropped at the end of the last glacial and became further reduced during the Holocene, probably due to the increasing age of the low-oxygen water mass.
Ulrich Kotthoff, Jeroen Groeneveld, Jeanine L. Ash, Anne-Sophie Fanget, Nadine Quintana Krupinski, Odile Peyron, Anna Stepanova, Jonathan Warnock, Niels A. G. M. Van Helmond, Benjamin H. Passey, Ole Rønø Clausen, Ole Bennike, Elinor Andrén, Wojciech Granoszewski, Thomas Andrén, Helena L. Filipsson, Marit-Solveig Seidenkrantz, Caroline P. Slomp, and Thorsten Bauersachs
Biogeosciences, 14, 5607–5632,Short summary
We present reconstructions of paleotemperature, paleosalinity, and paleoecology from the Little Belt (Site M0059) over the past ~ 8000 years and evaluate the applicability of numerous proxies. Conditions were lacustrine until ~ 7400 cal yr BP. A transition to brackish–marine conditions then occurred within ~ 200 years. Salinity proxies rarely allowed quantitative estimates but revealed congruent results, while quantitative temperature reconstructions differed depending on the proxies used.
Julie Lattaud, Denise Dorhout, Hartmut Schulz, Isla S. Castañeda, Enno Schefuß, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Stefan Schouten
Clim. Past, 13, 1049–1061,Short summary
The study of past sedimentary records from coastal margins allows us to reconstruct variations in terrestrial input into the marine realm and to gain insight into continental climatic variability. The study of two sediment cores close to river mouths allowed us to show the potential of long-chain diols as riverine input proxy.
Raphaël Morard, Franck Lejzerowicz, Kate F. Darling, Béatrice Lecroq-Bennet, Mikkel Winther Pedersen, Ludovic Orlando, Jan Pawlowski, Stefan Mulitza, Colomban de Vargas, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 14, 2741–2754,Short summary
The exploitation of deep-sea sedimentary archive relies on the recovery of mineralized skeletons of pelagic organisms. Planktonic groups leaving preserved remains represent only a fraction of the total marine diversity. Environmental DNA left by non-fossil organisms is a promising source of information for paleo-reconstructions. Here we show how planktonic-derived environmental DNA preserves ecological structure of planktonic communities. We use planktonic foraminifera as a case study.
Lukas Jonkers and Michal Kučera
Clim. Past, 13, 573–586,Short summary
Planktonic foraminifera – the most important proxy carriers in palaeoceanography – adjust their seasonal and vertical habitat. They are thought to do so in a way that minimises the change in their environment, implying that proxy records based on these organisms may not capture the full amplitude of past climate change. Here we demonstrate that they indeed track a particular thermal habitat and suggest that this could lead to a 40 % underestimation of reconstructed temperature change.
Andreia Rebotim, Antje H. L. Voelker, Lukas Jonkers, Joanna J. Waniek, Helge Meggers, Ralf Schiebel, Igaratza Fraile, Michael Schulz, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 14, 827–859,Short summary
Planktonic foraminifera species depth habitat remains poorly constrained and the existing conceptual models are not sufficiently tested by observational data. Here we present a synthesis of living planktonic foraminifera abundance data in the subtropical eastern North Atlantic from vertical plankton tows. We also test potential environmental factors influencing the species depth habitat and investigate yearly or lunar migration cycles. These findings may impact paleoceanographic studies.
Werner Ehrmann, Gerhard Schmiedl, Martin Seidel, Stefan Krüger, and Hartmut Schulz
Clim. Past, 12, 713–727,
C. L. McKay, J. Groeneveld, H. L. Filipsson, D. Gallego-Torres, M. J. Whitehouse, T. Toyofuku, and O.E. Romero
Biogeosciences, 12, 5415–5428,Short summary
We highlight the proxy potential of foraminiferal Mn/Ca determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry and flow-through inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy for recording changes in bottom-water oxygen conditions. Comparisons with Mn sediment bulk measurements from the same sediment core largely agree with the results. High foraminiferal Mn/Ca occurs in samples from times of high productivity export and corresponds with the benthic foraminiferal faunal composition.
L. Jonkers and M. Kučera
Biogeosciences, 12, 2207–2226,
I. Hessler, S. P. Harrison, M. Kucera, C. Waelbroeck, M.-T. Chen, C. Anderson, A. de Vernal, B. Fréchette, A. Cloke-Hayes, G. Leduc, and L. Londeix
Clim. Past, 10, 2237–2252,
H. Schulz and U. von Rad
Biogeosciences, 11, 3107–3120,
A. J. Enge, U. Witte, M. Kucera, and P. Heinz
Biogeosciences, 11, 2017–2026,
M. F. G. Weinkauf, T. Moller, M. C. Koch, and M. Kučera
Biogeosciences, 10, 6639–6655,
Y. Milker, R. Rachmayani, M. F. G. Weinkauf, M. Prange, M. Raitzsch, M. Schulz, and M. Kučera
Clim. Past, 9, 2231–2252,
J. Groeneveld and H. L. Filipsson
Biogeosciences, 10, 5125–5138,
R. J. Telford, C. Li, and M. Kucera
Clim. Past, 9, 859–870,
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We present the results of several independent proxies of summer SST and upwelling SST from the Oman margin indicative of monsoon strength during the early Holocene. In combination with indices of carbonate preservation and bottom water redox conditions, we demonstrate that a persistent solar influence was modulating summer monsoon intensity. Furthermore, bottom water conditions are linked to atmospheric forcing, rather than changes of intermediate water masses.
We present the results of several independent proxies of summer SST and upwelling SST from the...