Articles | Volume 12, issue 4
Research article 21 Apr 2016
Research article | 21 Apr 2016
Climate variability and long-term expansion of peatlands in Arctic Norway during the late Pliocene (ODP Site 642, Norwegian Sea)
Sina Panitz et al.
No articles found.
Michael Amoo, Ulrich Salzmann, Matthew J. Pound, Nick Thompson, and Peter K. Bijl
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Preprint under review for CPShort summary
Late Eocene to earliest Oligocene (37.97–33.06 Ma) climate and vegetation dynamics around the Tasmanian Gateway region reveal that, changes in ocean circulation due to accelerated deepening of the Tasmanian Gateway may not have been solely responsible for the changes in terrestrial climate and vegetation, but a series of regional and global events, including a change in stratification of water masses and changes in pCO2 may have played significant roles.
Nick Thompson, Ulrich Salzmann, Adrián López-Quirós, Peter K. Bijl, Frida S. Hoem, Johan Etourneau, Marie-Alexandrine Sicre, Sabine Roignant, Emma Hocking, Michael Amoo, and Carlota Escutia
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for CPShort summary
New pollen and spore data from the Antarctic peninsula region reveals temperate rainforests that changed and adapted to in response to Eocene climatic cooling, roughly 35.5 million years ago, and glacial related disturbance in the early Oligocene, approximately 33.5 million years ago. The timing of these events indicates that the opening of ocean gateways alone did not trigger Antarctic glaciation, although ocean gateways may have played a role in climate cooling.
Daniel J. Lunt, Deepak Chandan, Alan M. Haywood, George M. Lunt, Jonathan C. Rougier, Ulrich Salzmann, Gavin A. Schmidt, and Paul J. Valdes
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4307–4317,Short summary
Often in science we carry out experiments with computers in which several factors are explored, for example, in the field of climate science, how the factors of greenhouse gases, ice, and vegetation affect temperature. We can explore the relative importance of these factors by
swapping in and outdifferent values of these factors, and can also carry out experiments with many different combinations of these factors. This paper discusses how best to analyse the results from such experiments.
David K. Hutchinson, Helen K. Coxall, Daniel J. Lunt, Margret Steinthorsdottir, Agatha M. de Boer, Michiel Baatsen, Anna von der Heydt, Matthew Huber, Alan T. Kennedy-Asser, Lutz Kunzmann, Jean-Baptiste Ladant, Caroline H. Lear, Karolin Moraweck, Paul N. Pearson, Emanuela Piga, Matthew J. Pound, Ulrich Salzmann, Howie D. Scher, Willem P. Sijp, Kasia K. Śliwińska, Paul A. Wilson, and Zhongshi Zhang
Clim. Past, 17, 269–315,Short summary
The Eocene–Oligocene transition was a major climate cooling event from a largely ice-free world to the first major glaciation of Antarctica, approximately 34 million years ago. This paper reviews observed changes in temperature, CO2 and ice sheets from marine and land-based records at this time. We present a new model–data comparison of this transition and find that CO2-forced cooling provides the best explanation of the observed global temperature changes.
Erin L. McClymont, Heather L. Ford, Sze Ling Ho, Julia C. Tindall, Alan M. Haywood, Montserrat Alonso-Garcia, Ian Bailey, Melissa A. Berke, Kate Littler, Molly O. Patterson, Benjamin Petrick, Francien Peterse, A. Christina Ravelo, Bjørg Risebrobakken, Stijn De Schepper, George E. A. Swann, Kaustubh Thirumalai, Jessica E. Tierney, Carolien van der Weijst, Sarah White, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, Michiel L. J. Baatsen, Esther C. Brady, Wing-Le Chan, Deepak Chandan, Ran Feng, Chuncheng Guo, Anna S. von der Heydt, Stephen Hunter, Xiangyi Li, Gerrit Lohmann, Kerim H. Nisancioglu, Bette L. Otto-Bliesner, W. Richard Peltier, Christian Stepanek, and Zhongshi Zhang
Clim. Past, 16, 1599–1615,Short summary
We examine the sea-surface temperature response to an interval of climate ~ 3.2 million years ago, when CO2 concentrations were similar to today and the near future. Our geological data and climate models show that global mean sea-surface temperatures were 2.3 to 3.2 ºC warmer than pre-industrial climate, that the mid-latitudes and high latitudes warmed more than the tropics, and that the warming was particularly enhanced in the North Atlantic Ocean.
Aurélie Marcelle Renée Aubry, Stijn De Schepper, and Anne de Vernal
J. Micropalaeontol., 39, 41–60,Short summary
We used organic-walled microfossils to better define the Plio–Pleistocene transition (2.56 Ma) that is associated with the intensification of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation. The disappearance of species around 2.75 Ma reflects an ecological response accompanying the Greenland ice sheet growth. A strong regionalism marks the Labrador Sea and suggests cooler conditions than elsewhere in the North Atlantic, although our zone boundaries are contemporaneous with the eastern North Atlantic.
Christopher J. Hollis, Tom Dunkley Jones, Eleni Anagnostou, Peter K. Bijl, Margot J. Cramwinckel, Ying Cui, Gerald R. Dickens, Kirsty M. Edgar, Yvette Eley, David Evans, Gavin L. Foster, Joost Frieling, Gordon N. Inglis, Elizabeth M. Kennedy, Reinhard Kozdon, Vittoria Lauretano, Caroline H. Lear, Kate Littler, Lucas Lourens, A. Nele Meckler, B. David A. Naafs, Heiko Pälike, Richard D. Pancost, Paul N. Pearson, Ursula Röhl, Dana L. Royer, Ulrich Salzmann, Brian A. Schubert, Hannu Seebeck, Appy Sluijs, Robert P. Speijer, Peter Stassen, Jessica Tierney, Aradhna Tripati, Bridget Wade, Thomas Westerhold, Caitlyn Witkowski, James C. Zachos, Yi Ge Zhang, Matthew Huber, and Daniel J. Lunt
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3149–3206,Short summary
The Deep-Time Model Intercomparison Project (DeepMIP) is a model–data intercomparison of the early Eocene (around 55 million years ago), the last time that Earth's atmospheric CO2 concentrations exceeded 1000 ppm. Previously, we outlined the experimental design for climate model simulations. Here, we outline the methods used for compilation and analysis of climate proxy data. The resulting climate
atlaswill provide insights into the mechanisms that control past warm climate states.
Florence Sylvestre, Mathieu Schuster, Hendrik Vogel, Moussa Abdheramane, Daniel Ariztegui, Ulrich Salzmann, Antje Schwalb, Nicolas Waldmann, and the ICDP CHADRILL Consortium
Sci. Dril., 24, 71–78,Short summary
CHADRILL aims to recover a sedimentary core spanning the Miocene–Pleistocene sediment succession of Lake Chad through deep drilling. This record will provide significant insights into the modulation of orbitally forced changes in northern African hydroclimate under different climate boundary conditions and the most continuous climatic and environmental record to be compared with hominid migrations across northern Africa and the implications for understanding human evolution.
Anna Binczewska, Bjørg Risebrobakken, Irina Polovodova Asteman, Matthias Moros, Amandine Tisserand, Eystein Jansen, and Andrzej Witkowski
Biogeosciences, 15, 5909–5928,Short summary
Primary productivity is an important factor in the functioning and structuring of the coastal ecosystem. Thus, two sediment cores from the Skagerrak (North Sea) were investigated in order to obtain a comprehensive picture of primary productivity changes during the last millennium and identify associated forcing factors (e.g. anthropogenic, climate). The cores were dated and analysed for palaeoproductivity proxies and palaeothermometers.
Ariadna Salabarnada, Carlota Escutia, Ursula Röhl, C. Hans Nelson, Robert McKay, Francisco J. Jiménez-Espejo, Peter K. Bijl, Julian D. Hartman, Stephanie L. Strother, Ulrich Salzmann, Dimitris Evangelinos, Adrián López-Quirós, José Abel Flores, Francesca Sangiorgi, Minoru Ikehara, and Henk Brinkhuis
Clim. Past, 14, 991–1014,Short summary
Here we reconstruct ice sheet and paleoceanographic configurations in the East Antarctic Wilkes Land margin based on a multi-proxy study conducted in late Oligocene (26–25 Ma) sediments from IODP Site U1356. The new obliquity-forced glacial–interglacial sedimentary model shows that, under the high CO2 values of the late Oligocene, ice sheets had mostly retreated to their terrestrial margins and the ocean was very dynamic with shifting positions of the polar fronts and associated water masses.
Mari F. Jensen, Aleksi Nummelin, Søren B. Nielsen, Henrik Sadatzki, Evangeline Sessford, Bjørg Risebrobakken, Carin Andersson, Antje Voelker, William H. G. Roberts, Joel Pedro, and Andreas Born
Clim. Past, 14, 901–922,Short summary
We combine North Atlantic sea-surface temperature reconstructions and global climate model simulations to study rapid glacial climate shifts (30–40 000 years ago). Pre-industrial climate boosts similar, albeit weaker, sea-surface temperature variability as the glacial period. However, in order to reproduce most of the amplitude of this variability, and to see temperature variability in Greenland similar to the ice-core record, although with a smaller amplitude, we need forced simulations.
Paul E. Bachem, Bjørg Risebrobakken, Stijn De Schepper, and Erin L. McClymont
Clim. Past, 13, 1153–1168,Short summary
We present a high-resolution multi-proxy study of the Norwegian Sea, covering the 5.33 to 3.14 Ma time window within the Pliocene. We show that large-scale climate transitions took place during this warmer than modern time, most likely in response to ocean gateway transformations. Strong warming at 4.0 Ma in the Norwegian Sea, when regions closer to Greenland cooled, indicate that increased northward ocean heat transport may be compatible with expanding glaciation and Arctic sea ice growth.
Jack Longman, Daniel Veres, Vasile Ersek, Ulrich Salzmann, Katalin Hubay, Marc Bormann, Volker Wennrich, and Frank Schäbitz
Clim. Past, 13, 897–917,Short summary
We present the first record of dust input into an eastern European bog over the past 10 800 years. We find significant changes in past dust deposition, with large inputs related to both natural and human influences. We show evidence that Saharan desertification has had a significant impact on dust deposition in eastern Europe for the past 6100 years.
Stephanie L. Strother, Ulrich Salzmann, Francesca Sangiorgi, Peter K. Bijl, Jörg Pross, Carlota Escutia, Ariadna Salabarnada, Matthew J. Pound, Jochen Voss, and John Woodward
Biogeosciences, 14, 2089–2100,Short summary
One of the main challenges in Antarctic vegetation reconstructions is the uncertainty in unambiguously identifying reworked pollen and spore assemblages in marine sedimentary records influenced by waxing and waning ice sheets. This study uses red fluorescence and digital imaging as a new tool to identify reworking in a marine sediment core from circum-Antarctic waters to reconstruct Cenozoic climate change and vegetation with high confidence.
Daniel J. Lunt, Matthew Huber, Eleni Anagnostou, Michiel L. J. Baatsen, Rodrigo Caballero, Rob DeConto, Henk A. Dijkstra, Yannick Donnadieu, David Evans, Ran Feng, Gavin L. Foster, Ed Gasson, Anna S. von der Heydt, Chris J. Hollis, Gordon N. Inglis, Stephen M. Jones, Jeff Kiehl, Sandy Kirtland Turner, Robert L. Korty, Reinhardt Kozdon, Srinath Krishnan, Jean-Baptiste Ladant, Petra Langebroek, Caroline H. Lear, Allegra N. LeGrande, Kate Littler, Paul Markwick, Bette Otto-Bliesner, Paul Pearson, Christopher J. Poulsen, Ulrich Salzmann, Christine Shields, Kathryn Snell, Michael Stärz, James Super, Clay Tabor, Jessica E. Tierney, Gregory J. L. Tourte, Aradhna Tripati, Garland R. Upchurch, Bridget S. Wade, Scott L. Wing, Arne M. E. Winguth, Nicky M. Wright, James C. Zachos, and Richard E. Zeebe
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 889–901,Short summary
In this paper we describe the experimental design for a set of simulations which will be carried out by a range of climate models, all investigating the climate of the Eocene, about 50 million years ago. The intercomparison of model results is called 'DeepMIP', and we anticipate that we will contribute to the next IPCC report through an analysis of these simulations and the geological data to which we will compare them.
Harry Dowsett, Aisling Dolan, David Rowley, Robert Moucha, Alessandro M. Forte, Jerry X. Mitrovica, Matthew Pound, Ulrich Salzmann, Marci Robinson, Mark Chandler, Kevin Foley, and Alan Haywood
Clim. Past, 12, 1519–1538,Short summary
Past intervals in Earth history provide unique windows into conditions much different than those observed today. We investigated the paleoenvironments of a past warm interval (~ 3 million years ago). Our reconstruction includes data sets for surface temperature, vegetation, soils, lakes, ice sheets, topography, and bathymetry. These data are being used along with global climate models to expand our understanding of the climate system and to help us prepare for future changes.
Alan M. Haywood, Harry J. Dowsett, Aisling M. Dolan, David Rowley, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, Bette Otto-Bliesner, Mark A. Chandler, Stephen J. Hunter, Daniel J. Lunt, Matthew Pound, and Ulrich Salzmann
Clim. Past, 12, 663–675,Short summary
Our paper presents the experimental design for the second phase of the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP). We outline the way in which climate models should be set up in order to study the Pliocene – a period of global warmth in Earth's history which is relevant for our understanding of future climate change. By conducting a model intercomparison we hope to understand the uncertainty associated with model predictions of a warmer climate.
M. J. Pound, J. Tindall, S. J. Pickering, A. M. Haywood, H. J. Dowsett, and U. Salzmann
Clim. Past, 10, 167–180,
Related subject area
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Vann Smith, Sophie Warny, Kliti Grice, Bettina Schaefer, Michael T. Whalen, Johan Vellekoop, Elise Chenot, Sean P. S. Gulick, Ignacio Arenillas, Jose A. Arz, Thorsten Bauersachs, Timothy Bralower, François Demory, Jérôme Gattacceca, Heather Jones, Johanna Lofi, Christopher M. Lowery, Joanna Morgan, Noelia B. Nuñez Otaño, Jennifer M. K. O'Keefe, Katherine O'Malley, Francisco J. Rodríguez-Tovar, Lorenz Schwark, and the IODP–ICDP Expedition 364 Scientists
Clim. Past, 16, 1889–1899,Short summary
A rare tropical record of the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, a potential analog for future global warming, has been identified from post-impact strata in the Chicxulub crater. Multiproxy analysis has yielded evidence for increased humidity, increased pollen and fungi input, salinity stratification, bottom water anoxia, and sea surface temperatures up to 38 °C. Pollen and plant spore assemblages indicate a nearby diverse coastal shrubby tropical forest resilient to hyperthermal conditions.
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This paper presents the first late Pliocene high-resolution pollen record for the Norwegian Arctic, covering the time period 3.60 to 3.14 million years ago (Ma). The climate of the late Pliocene has been widely regarded as relatively stable. Our results suggest a high climate variability with alternating cool temperate forests during warmer-than-presen periods and boreal forests similar to today during cooler intervals. A spread of peatlands at the expense of forest indicates long-term cooling.
This paper presents the first late Pliocene high-resolution pollen record for the Norwegian...