Articles | Volume 10, issue 6
17 Dec 2014
Research article | 17 Dec 2014
Implication of methodological uncertainties for mid-Holocene sea surface temperature reconstructions
I. Hessler et al.
No articles found.
Pauline Cornuault, Thomas Westerhold, Heiko Pälike, Torsten Bickert, Karl-Heinz Baumann, and Michal Kucera
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
We generated high-resolution records of carbonate accumulation rate from Miocene to Quaternary in the tropical Atlantic Ocean to characterise the variability in pelagic carbonate production during warm climate. It follows orbital cycles, responding to local changes in tropical conditions as well as to long-term shifts in climate and ocean chemistry. These changes were sufficiently large to play a role in the carbon cycle and global climate evolution.
Franziska Tell, Lukas Jonkers, Julie Meilland, and Michal Kucera
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
This study analyses the production of calcite shells formed by one of the main Arctic pelagic calcifier, the foraminifera N. pachyderma. Using vertically resolved profiles of shell concentration, size and weight, we show that calcification occurs throughout the upper 300 m with an average production flux below the calcification zone of 8 mg CaCO3 m-2 d-1 representing 23 % of the total pelagic biogenic carbonate production. The production flux is attenuated in the twilight zone by dissolution.
Geert-Jan A. Brummer and Michal Kučera
J. Micropalaeontol., 41, 29–74,Short summary
To aid researchers working with living planktonic foraminifera, we provide a comprehensive review of names that we consider appropriate for extant species. We discuss the reasons for the decisions we made and provide a list of species and genus-level names as well as other names that have been used in the past but are considered inappropriate for living taxa, stating the reasons.
Lukas Jonkers, Geert-Jan A. Brummer, Julie Meilland, Jeroen Groeneveld, and Michal Kucera
Clim. Past, 18, 89–101,Short summary
The variability in the geochemistry among individual foraminifera is used to reconstruct seasonal to interannual climate variability. This method requires that each foraminifera shell accurately records environmental conditions, which we test here using a sediment trap time series. Even in the absence of environmental variability, planktonic foraminifera display variability in their stable isotope ratios that needs to be considered in the interpretation of individual foraminifera data.
Lukas Jonkers, Oliver Bothe, and Michal Kucera
Clim. Past, 17, 2577–2581,
Julie Meilland, Michael Siccha, Maike Kaffenberger, Jelle Bijma, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 18, 5789–5809,Short summary
Planktonic foraminifera population dynamics has long been assumed to be controlled by synchronous reproduction and ontogenetic vertical migration (OVM). Due to contradictory observations, this concept became controversial. We here test it in the Atlantic ocean for four species of foraminifera representing the main clades. Our observations support the existence of synchronised reproduction and OVM but show that more than half of the population does not follow the canonical trajectory.
Markus Raitzsch, Jelle Bijma, Torsten Bickert, Michael Schulz, Ann Holbourn, and Michal Kučera
Clim. Past, 17, 703–719,Short summary
At approximately 14 Ma, the East Antarctic Ice Sheet expanded to almost its current extent, but the role of CO2 in this major climate transition is not entirely known. We show that atmospheric CO2 might have varied on 400 kyr cycles linked to the eccentricity of the Earth’s orbit. The resulting change in weathering and ocean carbon cycle affected atmospheric CO2 in a way that CO2 rose after Antarctica glaciated, helping to stabilize the climate system on its way to the “ice-house” world.
Bette L. Otto-Bliesner, Esther C. Brady, Anni Zhao, Chris M. Brierley, Yarrow Axford, Emilie Capron, Aline Govin, Jeremy S. Hoffman, Elizabeth Isaacs, Masa Kageyama, Paolo Scussolini, Polychronis C. Tzedakis, Charles J. R. Williams, Eric Wolff, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, Pascale Braconnot, Silvana Ramos Buarque, Jian Cao, Anne de Vernal, Maria Vittoria Guarino, Chuncheng Guo, Allegra N. LeGrande, Gerrit Lohmann, Katrin J. Meissner, Laurie Menviel, Polina A. Morozova, Kerim H. Nisancioglu, Ryouta O'ishi, David Salas y Mélia, Xiaoxu Shi, Marie Sicard, Louise Sime, Christian Stepanek, Robert Tomas, Evgeny Volodin, Nicholas K. H. Yeung, Qiong Zhang, Zhongshi Zhang, and Weipeng Zheng
Clim. Past, 17, 63–94,Short summary
The CMIP6–PMIP4 Tier 1 lig127k experiment was designed to address the climate responses to strong orbital forcing. We present a multi-model ensemble of 17 climate models, most of which have also completed the CMIP6 DECK experiments and are thus important for assessing future projections. The lig127ksimulations show strong summer warming over the NH continents. More than half of the models simulate a retreat of the Arctic minimum summer ice edge similar to the average for 2000–2018.
Masa Kageyama, Louise C. Sime, Marie Sicard, Maria-Vittoria Guarino, Anne de Vernal, Ruediger Stein, David Schroeder, Irene Malmierca-Vallet, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, Cecilia Bitz, Pascale Braconnot, Esther C. Brady, Jian Cao, Matthew A. Chamberlain, Danny Feltham, Chuncheng Guo, Allegra N. LeGrande, Gerrit Lohmann, Katrin J. Meissner, Laurie Menviel, Polina Morozova, Kerim H. Nisancioglu, Bette L. Otto-Bliesner, Ryouta O'ishi, Silvana Ramos Buarque, David Salas y Melia, Sam Sherriff-Tadano, Julienne Stroeve, Xiaoxu Shi, Bo Sun, Robert A. Tomas, Evgeny Volodin, Nicholas K. H. Yeung, Qiong Zhang, Zhongshi Zhang, Weipeng Zheng, and Tilo Ziehn
Clim. Past, 17, 37–62,Short summary
The Last interglacial (ca. 127 000 years ago) is a period with increased summer insolation at high northern latitudes, resulting in a strong reduction in Arctic sea ice. The latest PMIP4-CMIP6 models all simulate this decrease, consistent with reconstructions. However, neither the models nor the reconstructions agree on the possibility of a seasonally ice-free Arctic. Work to clarify the reasons for this model divergence and the conflicting interpretations of the records will thus be needed.
Catarina Cavaleiro, Antje H. L. Voelker, Heather Stoll, Karl-Heinz Baumann, and Michal Kucera
Clim. Past, 16, 2017–2037,
Bronwen L. Konecky, Nicholas P. McKay, Olga V. Churakova (Sidorova), Laia Comas-Bru, Emilie P. Dassié, Kristine L. DeLong, Georgina M. Falster, Matt J. Fischer, Matthew D. Jones, Lukas Jonkers, Darrell S. Kaufman, Guillaume Leduc, Shreyas R. Managave, Belen Martrat, Thomas Opel, Anais J. Orsi, Judson W. Partin, Hussein R. Sayani, Elizabeth K. Thomas, Diane M. Thompson, Jonathan J. Tyler, Nerilie J. Abram, Alyssa R. Atwood, Olivier Cartapanis, Jessica L. Conroy, Mark A. Curran, Sylvia G. Dee, Michael Deininger, Dmitry V. Divine, Zoltán Kern, Trevor J. Porter, Samantha L. Stevenson, Lucien von Gunten, and Iso2k Project Members
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2261–2288,
Douglas Lessa, Raphaël Morard, Lukas Jonkers, Igor M. Venancio, Runa Reuter, Adrian Baumeister, Ana Luiza Albuquerque, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 17, 4313–4342,Short summary
We observed that living planktonic foraminifera had distinct vertically distributed communities across the Subtropical South Atlantic. In addition, a hierarchic alternation of environmental parameters was measured to control the distribution of planktonic foraminifer's species depending on the water depth. This implies that not only temperature but also productivity and subsurface processes are signed in fossil assemblages, which could be used to perform paleoceanographic reconstructions.
Lukas Jonkers, Olivier Cartapanis, Michael Langner, Nick McKay, Stefan Mulitza, Anne Strack, and Michal Kucera
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1053–1081,
Aurélie Marcelle Renée Aubry, Stijn De Schepper, and Anne de Vernal
J. Micropalaeontol., 39, 41–60,Short summary
We used organic-walled microfossils to better define the Plio–Pleistocene transition (2.56 Ma) that is associated with the intensification of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation. The disappearance of species around 2.75 Ma reflects an ecological response accompanying the Greenland ice sheet growth. A strong regionalism marks the Labrador Sea and suggests cooler conditions than elsewhere in the North Atlantic, although our zone boundaries are contemporaneous with the eastern North Atlantic.
Jianjun Zou, Xuefa Shi, Aimei Zhu, Selvaraj Kandasamy, Xun Gong, Lester Lembke-Jene, Min-Te Chen, Yonghua Wu, Shulan Ge, Yanguang Liu, Xinru Xue, Gerrit Lohmann, and Ralf Tiedemann
Clim. Past, 16, 387–407,Short summary
Large-scale reorganization of global ocean circulation has been documented in a variety of marine archives, including the enhanced North Pacific Intermediate Water NPIW. Our data support both the model- and data-based ideas that the enhanced NPIW mainly developed during cold spells, while an expansion of oxygen-poor zones occurred at warming intervals (Bölling-Alleröd).
Anna Jentzen, Joachim Schönfeld, Agnes K. M. Weiner, Manuel F. G. Weinkauf, Dirk Nürnberg, and Michal Kučera
J. Micropalaeontol., 38, 231–247,Short summary
The study assessed the population dynamics of living planktic foraminifers on a weekly, seasonal, and interannual timescale off the coast of Puerto Rico to improve our understanding of short- and long-term variations. The results indicate a seasonal change of the faunal composition, and over the last decades. Lower standing stocks and lower stable carbon isotope values of foraminifers in shallow waters can be linked to the hurricane Sandy, which passed the Greater Antilles during autumn 2012.
Mattia Greco, Lukas Jonkers, Kerstin Kretschmer, Jelle Bijma, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 16, 3425–3437,Short summary
To be able to interpret the paleoecological signal contained in N. pachyderma's shells, its habitat depth must be known. Our investigation on 104 density profiles of this species from the Arctic and North Atlantic shows that specimens reside closer to the surface when sea-ice and/or surface chlorophyll concentrations are high. This is in contrast with previous investigations that pointed at the position of the deep chlorophyll maximum as the main driver of N. pachyderma vertical distribution.
Haruka Takagi, Katsunori Kimoto, Tetsuichi Fujiki, Hiroaki Saito, Christiane Schmidt, Michal Kucera, and Kazuyoshi Moriya
Biogeosciences, 16, 3377–3396,Short summary
Photosymbiosis (endosymbiosis with algae) is an evolutionary important ecology for many marine organisms but has poorly been identified among planktonic foraminifera. In this study, we identified and characterized photosymbiosis of various species of planktonic foraminifera by focusing on their photosynthesis–related features. We finally proposed a new framework showing a potential strength of photosymbiosis, which will serve as a basis for future ecological studies of planktonic foraminifera.
Andreia Rebotim, Antje Helga Luise Voelker, Lukas Jonkers, Joanna J. Waniek, Michael Schulz, and Michal Kucera
J. Micropalaeontol., 38, 113–131,Short summary
To reconstruct subsurface water conditions using deep-dwelling planktonic foraminifera, we must fully understand how the oxygen isotope signal incorporates into their shell. We report δ18O in four species sampled in the eastern North Atlantic with plankton tows. We assess the size and crust effect on the isotopic δ18O and compared them with predictions from two equations. We reveal different patterns of calcite addition with depth, highlighting the need to perform species-specific calibrations.
Lukas Jonkers and Michal Kučera
Clim. Past, 15, 881–891,Short summary
Fossil plankton assemblages have been widely used to reconstruct SST. In such approaches, full taxonomic resolution is often used. We assess whether this is required for reliable reconstructions as some species may not respond to SST. We find that only a few species are needed for low reconstruction errors but that species selection has a pronounced effect on reconstructions. We suggest that the sensitivity of a reconstruction to species pruning can be used as a measure of its robustness.
Nadia Al-Sabouni, Isabel S. Fenton, Richard J. Telford, and Michal Kučera
J. Micropalaeontol., 37, 519–534,Short summary
In this study we investigate consistency in species-level identifications and whether disagreements are predictable. Overall, 21 researchers from across the globe identified sets of 300 specimens or digital images of planktonic foraminifera. Digital identifications tended to be more disparate. Participants trained by the same person often had more similar identifications. Disagreements hardly affected transfer-function temperature estimates but produced larger differences in diversity metrics.
Kerstin Kretschmer, Lukas Jonkers, Michal Kucera, and Michael Schulz
Biogeosciences, 15, 4405–4429,Short summary
The fossil shells of planktonic foraminifera are widely used to reconstruct past climate conditions. To do so, information about their seasonal and vertical habitat is needed. Here we present an updated version of a planktonic foraminifera model to better understand species-specific habitat dynamics under climate change. This model produces spatially and temporally coherent distribution patterns, which agree well with available observations, and can thus aid the interpretation of proxy records.
Marie Nicolle, Maxime Debret, Nicolas Massei, Christophe Colin, Anne deVernal, Dmitry Divine, Johannes P. Werner, Anne Hormes, Atte Korhola, and Hans W. Linderholm
Clim. Past, 14, 101–116,Short summary
Arctic climate variability for the last 2 millennia has been investigated using statistical and signal analyses from North Atlantic, Siberia and Alaska regionally averaged records. A focus on the last 2 centuries shows a climate variability linked to anthropogenic forcing but also a multidecadal variability likely due to regional natural processes acting on the internal climate system. It is an important issue to understand multidecadal variabilities occurring in the instrumental data.
Sergey A. Gorbarenko, Xuefa Shi, Galina Yu. Malakhova, Aleksandr A. Bosin, Jianjun Zou, Yanguang Liu, and Min-Te Chen
Clim. Past, 13, 1063–1080,
Raphaël Morard, Franck Lejzerowicz, Kate F. Darling, Béatrice Lecroq-Bennet, Mikkel Winther Pedersen, Ludovic Orlando, Jan Pawlowski, Stefan Mulitza, Colomban de Vargas, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 14, 2741–2754,Short summary
The exploitation of deep-sea sedimentary archive relies on the recovery of mineralized skeletons of pelagic organisms. Planktonic groups leaving preserved remains represent only a fraction of the total marine diversity. Environmental DNA left by non-fossil organisms is a promising source of information for paleo-reconstructions. Here we show how planktonic-derived environmental DNA preserves ecological structure of planktonic communities. We use planktonic foraminifera as a case study.
Lukas Jonkers and Michal Kučera
Clim. Past, 13, 573–586,Short summary
Planktonic foraminifera – the most important proxy carriers in palaeoceanography – adjust their seasonal and vertical habitat. They are thought to do so in a way that minimises the change in their environment, implying that proxy records based on these organisms may not capture the full amplitude of past climate change. Here we demonstrate that they indeed track a particular thermal habitat and suggest that this could lead to a 40 % underestimation of reconstructed temperature change.
Philipp M. Munz, Stephan Steinke, Anna Böll, Andreas Lückge, Jeroen Groeneveld, Michal Kucera, and Hartmut Schulz
Clim. Past, 13, 491–509,Short summary
We present the results of several independent proxies of summer SST and upwelling SST from the Oman margin indicative of monsoon strength during the early Holocene. In combination with indices of carbonate preservation and bottom water redox conditions, we demonstrate that a persistent solar influence was modulating summer monsoon intensity. Furthermore, bottom water conditions are linked to atmospheric forcing, rather than changes of intermediate water masses.
Andreia Rebotim, Antje H. L. Voelker, Lukas Jonkers, Joanna J. Waniek, Helge Meggers, Ralf Schiebel, Igaratza Fraile, Michael Schulz, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 14, 827–859,Short summary
Planktonic foraminifera species depth habitat remains poorly constrained and the existing conceptual models are not sufficiently tested by observational data. Here we present a synthesis of living planktonic foraminifera abundance data in the subtropical eastern North Atlantic from vertical plankton tows. We also test potential environmental factors influencing the species depth habitat and investigate yearly or lunar migration cycles. These findings may impact paleoceanographic studies.
Corinne Le Quéré, Erik T. Buitenhuis, Róisín Moriarty, Séverine Alvain, Olivier Aumont, Laurent Bopp, Sophie Chollet, Clare Enright, Daniel J. Franklin, Richard J. Geider, Sandy P. Harrison, Andrew G. Hirst, Stuart Larsen, Louis Legendre, Trevor Platt, I. Colin Prentice, Richard B. Rivkin, Sévrine Sailley, Shubha Sathyendranath, Nick Stephens, Meike Vogt, and Sergio M. Vallina
Biogeosciences, 13, 4111–4133,Short summary
We present a global biogeochemical model which incorporates ecosystem dynamics based on the representation of ten plankton functional types, and use the model to assess the relative roles of iron vs. grazing in determining phytoplankton biomass in the Southern Ocean. Our results suggest that observed low phytoplankton biomass in the Southern Ocean during summer is primarily explained by the dynamics of the Southern Ocean zooplankton community, despite iron limitation of phytoplankton growth.
B. A. A. Hoogakker, R. S. Smith, J. S. Singarayer, R. Marchant, I. C. Prentice, J. R. M. Allen, R. S. Anderson, S. A. Bhagwat, H. Behling, O. Borisova, M. Bush, A. Correa-Metrio, A. de Vernal, J. M. Finch, B. Fréchette, S. Lozano-Garcia, W. D. Gosling, W. Granoszewski, E. C. Grimm, E. Grüger, J. Hanselman, S. P. Harrison, T. R. Hill, B. Huntley, G. Jiménez-Moreno, P. Kershaw, M.-P. Ledru, D. Magri, M. McKenzie, U. Müller, T. Nakagawa, E. Novenko, D. Penny, L. Sadori, L. Scott, J. Stevenson, P. J. Valdes, M. Vandergoes, A. Velichko, C. Whitlock, and C. Tzedakis
Clim. Past, 12, 51–73,Short summary
In this paper we use two climate models to test how Earth’s vegetation responded to changes in climate over the last 120 000 years, looking at warm interglacial climates like today, cold ice-age glacial climates, and intermediate climates. The models agree well with observations from pollen, showing smaller forested areas and larger desert areas during cold periods. Forests store most terrestrial carbon; the terrestrial carbon lost during cold climates was most likely relocated to the oceans.
A. Abe-Ouchi, F. Saito, M. Kageyama, P. Braconnot, S. P. Harrison, K. Lambeck, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, W. R. Peltier, L. Tarasov, J.-Y. Peterschmitt, and K. Takahashi
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3621–3637,Short summary
We describe the creation of boundary conditions related to the presence of ice sheets, including ice-sheet extent and height, ice-shelf extent, and the distribution and altitude of ice-free land, at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), for use in LGM experiments conducted as part of the Coupled Modelling Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP3). The difference in the ice sheet boundary conditions as well as the climate response to them are discussed.
L. Jonkers and M. Kučera
Biogeosciences, 12, 2207–2226,
L. Lo, C.-C. Shen, K.-Y. Wei, G. S. Burr, H.-S. Mii, M.-T. Chen, S.-Y. Lee, and M.-C. Tsai
Clim. Past, 10, 2253–2261,Short summary
1. We have reconstructed new meridional thermal and precipitation stacked records in the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) during the last termination. 2. Meridional thermal gradient variations in the IPWP show tight links to the Northern Hemisphere millennial timescales event. 3. Anomalous warming in the south IPWP region could induce the southward shifting of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in the IPWP during the Heinrich 1 and Younger Dryas events.
G. Li, S. P. Harrison, I. C. Prentice, and D. Falster
Biogeosciences, 11, 6711–6724,
T. Caley, D. M. Roche, C. Waelbroeck, and E. Michel
Clim. Past, 10, 1939–1955,
M. Martin Calvo, I. C. Prentice, and S. P. Harrison
Biogeosciences, 11, 6017–6027,
D. I. Kelley, S. P. Harrison, and I. C. Prentice
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2411–2433,
I. Bistinas, S. P. Harrison, I. C. Prentice, and J. M. C. Pereira
Biogeosciences, 11, 5087–5101,
H. S. Sundqvist, D. S. Kaufman, N. P. McKay, N. L. Balascio, J. P. Briner, L. C. Cwynar, H. P. Sejrup, H. Seppä, D. A. Subetto, J. T. Andrews, Y. Axford, J. Bakke, H. J. B. Birks, S. J. Brooks, A. de Vernal, A. E. Jennings, F. C. Ljungqvist, K. M. Rühland, C. Saenger, J. P. Smol, and A. E. Viau
Clim. Past, 10, 1605–1631,
F. Klein, H. Goosse, A. Mairesse, and A. de Vernal
Clim. Past, 10, 1145–1163,
E. Journet, Y. Balkanski, and S. P. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3801–3816,
A. J. Enge, U. Witte, M. Kucera, and P. Heinz
Biogeosciences, 11, 2017–2026,
A. Perez-Sanz, G. Li, P. González-Sampériz, and S. P. Harrison
Clim. Past, 10, 551–568,
G. A. Schmidt, J. D. Annan, P. J. Bartlein, B. I. Cook, E. Guilyardi, J. C. Hargreaves, S. P. Harrison, M. Kageyama, A. N. LeGrande, B. Konecky, S. Lovejoy, M. E. Mann, V. Masson-Delmotte, C. Risi, D. Thompson, A. Timmermann, L.-B. Tremblay, and P. Yiou
Clim. Past, 10, 221–250,
A. M. Foley, D. Dalmonech, A. D. Friend, F. Aires, A. T. Archibald, P. Bartlein, L. Bopp, J. Chappellaz, P. Cox, N. R. Edwards, G. Feulner, P. Friedlingstein, S. P. Harrison, P. O. Hopcroft, C. D. Jones, J. Kolassa, J. G. Levine, I. C. Prentice, J. Pyle, N. Vázquez Riveiros, E. W. Wolff, and S. Zaehle
Biogeosciences, 10, 8305–8328,
M. Yamamoto, H. Sai, M.-T. Chen, and M. Zhao
Clim. Past, 9, 2777–2788,
M. F. G. Weinkauf, T. Moller, M. C. Koch, and M. Kučera
Biogeosciences, 10, 6639–6655,
Y. Milker, R. Rachmayani, M. F. G. Weinkauf, M. Prange, M. Raitzsch, M. Schulz, and M. Kučera
Clim. Past, 9, 2231–2252,
C. V. Dylmer, J. Giraudeau, F. Eynaud, K. Husum, and A. De Vernal
Clim. Past, 9, 1505–1518,
D. I. Kelley, I. C. Prentice, S. P. Harrison, H. Wang, M. Simard, J. B. Fisher, and K. O. Willis
Biogeosciences, 10, 3313–3340,
F. J. Bragg, I. C. Prentice, S. P. Harrison, G. Eglinton, P. N. Foster, F. Rommerskirchen, and J. Rullkötter
Biogeosciences, 10, 2001–2010,
R. J. Telford, C. Li, and M. Kucera
Clim. Past, 9, 859–870,
D. J. Charman, D. W. Beilman, M. Blaauw, R. K. Booth, S. Brewer, F. M. Chambers, J. A. Christen, A. Gallego-Sala, S. P. Harrison, P. D. M. Hughes, S. T. Jackson, A. Korhola, D. Mauquoy, F. J. G. Mitchell, I. C. Prentice, M. van der Linden, F. De Vleeschouwer, Z. C. Yu, J. Alm, I. E. Bauer, Y. M. C. Corish, M. Garneau, V. Hohl, Y. Huang, E. Karofeld, G. Le Roux, J. Loisel, R. Moschen, J. E. Nichols, T. M. Nieminen, G. M. MacDonald, N. R. Phadtare, N. Rausch, Ü. Sillasoo, G. T. Swindles, E.-S. Tuittila, L. Ukonmaanaho, M. Väliranta, S. van Bellen, B. van Geel, D. H. Vitt, and Y. Zhao
Biogeosciences, 10, 929–944,
V. Valsecchi, M. F. Sanchez Goñi, and L. Londeix
Clim. Past, 8, 1941–1956,
Related subject area
Subject: Ocean Dynamics | Archive: Marine Archives | Timescale: HoloceneResponse of biological productivity to North Atlantic marine front migration during the HoloceneSea surface temperature in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean over the Late Glacial and HoloceneSurface and subsurface Labrador Shelf water mass conditions during the last 6000 yearsReconstruction of Holocene oceanographic conditions in eastern Baffin BayMultiproxy evidence of the Neoglacial expansion of Atlantic Water to eastern SvalbardIs there evidence for a 4.2 ka BP event in the northern North Atlantic region?Holocene hydrography evolution in the Alboran Sea: a multi-record and multi-proxy comparisonInfluence of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre circulation on the 4.2 ka BP eventThe 4.2 ka event, ENSO, and coral reef developmentIndian winter and summer monsoon strength over the 4.2 ka BP event in foraminifer isotope records from the Indus River delta in the Arabian SeaNeoglacial climate anomalies and the Harappan metamorphosisAtlantic Water advection vs. glacier dynamics in northern Spitsbergen since early deglaciationHolocene dynamics in the Bering Strait inflow to the Arctic and the Beaufort Gyre circulation based on sedimentary records from the Chukchi SeaPost-glacial flooding of the Bering Land Bridge dated to 11 cal ka BP based on new geophysical and sediment recordsSouthern Hemisphere anticyclonic circulation drives oceanic and climatic conditions in late Holocene southernmost AfricaHolocene evolution of the North Atlantic subsurface transportChanges in Holocene meridional circulation and poleward Atlantic flow: the Bay of Biscay as a nodal pointHydrological variations of the intermediate water masses of the western Mediterranean Sea during the past 20 ka inferred from neodymium isotopic composition in foraminifera and cold-water coralsSea surface temperature variability in the central-western Mediterranean Sea during the last 2700 years: a multi-proxy and multi-record approachCarbon isotope (δ13C) excursions suggest times of major methane release during the last 14 kyr in Fram Strait, the deep-water gateway to the ArcticLate Weichselian and Holocene palaeoceanography of Storfjordrenna, southern SvalbardThe role of the northward-directed (sub)surface limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during the 8.2 ka eventReconstruction of Atlantic water variability during the Holocene in the western Barents SeaNorthward advection of Atlantic water in the eastern Nordic Seas over the last 3000 yrControls of Caribbean surface hydrology during the mid- to late Holocene: insights from monthly resolved coral recordsPaleohydrology reconstruction and Holocene climate variability in the South Adriatic Sea
David J. Harning, Anne E. Jennings, Denizcan Köseoğlu, Simon T. Belt, Áslaug Geirsdóttir, and Julio Sepúlveda
Clim. Past, 17, 379–396,Short summary
Today, the waters north of Iceland are characterized by high productivity that supports a diverse food web. However, it is not known how this may change and impact Iceland's economy with future climate change. Therefore, we explored how the local productivity has changed in the past 8000 years through fossil and biogeochemical indicators preserved in Icelandic marine mud. We show that this productivity relies on the mixing of Atlantic and Arctic waters, which migrate north under warming.
Lisa Claire Orme, Xavier Crosta, Arto Miettinen, Dmitry V. Divine, Katrine Husum, Elisabeth Isaksson, Lukas Wacker, Rahul Mohan, Olivier Ther, and Minoru Ikehara
Clim. Past, 16, 1451–1467,Short summary
A record of past sea temperature in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, spanning the last 14 200 years, has been developed by analysis of fossil diatoms in marine sediment. During the late deglaciation the reconstructed temperature changes were highly similar to those over Antarctica, most likely due to a reorganisation of global ocean and atmospheric circulation. During the last 11 600 years temperatures gradually cooled and became increasingly variable.
Annalena A. Lochte, Ralph Schneider, Markus Kienast, Janne Repschläger, Thomas Blanz, Dieter Garbe-Schönberg, and Nils Andersen
Clim. Past, 16, 1127–1143,Short summary
The Labrador Sea is important for the modern global thermohaline circulation system through the formation of Labrador Sea Water. However, the role of the southward flowing Labrador Current in Labrador Sea convection is still debated. In order to better assess its role in deep-water formation and climate variability, we present high-resolution mid- to late Holocene records of sea surface and bottom water temperatures, freshening, and sea ice cover on the Labrador Shelf during the last 6000 years.
Katrine Elnegaard Hansen, Jacques Giraudeau, Lukas Wacker, Christof Pearce, and Marit-Solveig Seidenkrantz
Clim. Past, 16, 1075–1095,Short summary
In this study, we present RainNet, a deep convolutional neural network for radar-based precipitation nowcasting, which was trained to predict continuous precipitation intensities at a lead time of 5 min. RainNet significantly outperformed the benchmark models at all lead times up to 60 min. Yet an undesirable property of RainNet predictions is the level of spatial smoothing. Obviously, RainNet learned an optimal level of smoothing to produce a nowcast at 5 min lead time.
Joanna Pawłowska, Magdalena Łącka, Małgorzata Kucharska, Jan Pawlowski, and Marek Zajączkowski
Clim. Past, 16, 487–501,Short summary
Paleoceanographic changes in Storfjorden during the Neoglacial (the last 4000 years) were reconstructed based on microfossil and ancient DNA records. Environmental changes were steered mainly by the interaction between the inflow of Atlantic Water (AW) and sea ice cover. Warming periods were associated with AW inflow and sea ice melting, stimulating primary production. The cold phases were characterized by densely packed sea ice, resulting in limited productivity.
Raymond S. Bradley and Jostein Bakke
Clim. Past, 15, 1665–1676,Short summary
We review paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic records from the northern North Atlantic to assess the nature of climatic conditions at 4.2 ka BP. There was a general decline in temperatures after ~ 5 ka BP, which led to the onset of neoglaciation. Although a few records do show a distinct anomaly around 4.2 ka BP (associated with a glacial advance), this is not widespread and we interpret it as a local manifestation of the overall climatic deterioration that characterized the late Holocene.
Albert Català, Isabel Cacho, Jaime Frigola, Leopoldo D. Pena, and Fabrizio Lirer
Clim. Past, 15, 927–942,Short summary
We present a new high-resolution sea surface temperature (SST) reconstruction for the Holocene (last 11 700 years) in the westernmost Mediterranean Sea. We identify three sub-periods: the Early Holocene with warmest SST; the Middle Holocene with a cooling trend ending at 4200 years, which is identified as a double peak cooling event that marks the transition between the Middle and Late Holocene; and the Late Holocene with very different behaviour in both long- and short-term SST variability.
Bassem Jalali, Marie-Alexandrine Sicre, Julien Azuara, Violaine Pellichero, and Nathalie Combourieu-Nebout
Clim. Past, 15, 701–711,
Lauren T. Toth and Richard B. Aronson
Clim. Past, 15, 105–119,Short summary
We explore the hypothesis that a shift in global climate 4200 years ago (the 4.2 ka event) was related to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We summarize records of coral reef development in the tropical eastern Pacific, where intensification of ENSO stalled reef growth for 2500 years starting around 4.2 ka. Because corals are highly sensitive to climatic changes, like ENSO, we suggest that records from coral reefs may provide important clues about the role of ENSO in the 4.2 ka event.
Alena Giesche, Michael Staubwasser, Cameron A. Petrie, and David A. Hodell
Clim. Past, 15, 73–90,Short summary
A foraminifer oxygen isotope record from the northeastern Arabian Sea was used to reconstruct winter and summer monsoon strength from 5.4 to 3.0 ka. We found a 200-year period of strengthened winter monsoon (4.5–4.3 ka) that coincides with the earliest phase of the Mature Harappan period of the Indus Civilization, followed by weakened winter and summer monsoons by 4.1 ka. Aridity spanning both rainfall seasons at 4.1 ka may help to explain some of the observed archaeological shifts.
Liviu Giosan, William D. Orsi, Marco Coolen, Cornelia Wuchter, Ann G. Dunlea, Kaustubh Thirumalai, Samuel E. Munoz, Peter D. Clift, Jeffrey P. Donnelly, Valier Galy, and Dorian Q. Fuller
Clim. Past, 14, 1669–1686,Short summary
Climate reorganization during the early neoglacial anomaly (ENA) may explain the Harappan civilization metamorphosis from an urban, expansive culture to a rural, geographically-confined one. Landcover change is a candidate for causing this climate instability. During ENA agriculture along the flood-deficient floodplains of the Indus became too risky, which pushed people out. In the same time the Himalayan piedmont received augmented winter rain and steady summer precipitation, pulling people in.
Martin Bartels, Jürgen Titschack, Kirsten Fahl, Rüdiger Stein, Marit-Solveig Seidenkrantz, Claude Hillaire-Marcel, and Dierk Hebbeln
Clim. Past, 13, 1717–1749,Short summary
Multi-proxy analyses (i.a., benthic foraminiferal assemblages and sedimentary properties) of a marine record from Woodfjorden at the northern Svalbard margin (Norwegian Arctic) illustrate a significant contribution of relatively warm Atlantic water to the destabilization of tidewater glaciers, especially during the deglaciation and early Holocene (until ~ 7800 years ago), whereas its influence on glacier activity has been fading during the last 2 millennia, enabling glacier readvances.
Masanobu Yamamoto, Seung-Il Nam, Leonid Polyak, Daisuke Kobayashi, Kenta Suzuki, Tomohisa Irino, and Koji Shimada
Clim. Past, 13, 1111–1127,Short summary
Based on mineral records from the northern Chukchi Sea, we report a long-term decline in the Beaufort Gyre (BG) strength during the Holocene, consistent with a decrease in summer insolation. Multi-centennial variability in BG circulation is consistent with fluctuations in solar irradiance. The Bering Strait inflow shows intensification during the middle Holocene, associated with sea-ice retreat and an increase in marine production in the Chukchi Sea, which is attributed to a weaker Aleutian Low.
Martin Jakobsson, Christof Pearce, Thomas M. Cronin, Jan Backman, Leif G. Anderson, Natalia Barrientos, Göran Björk, Helen Coxall, Agatha de Boer, Larry A. Mayer, Carl-Magnus Mörth, Johan Nilsson, Jayne E. Rattray, Christian Stranne, Igor Semiletov, and Matt O'Regan
Clim. Past, 13, 991–1005,Short summary
The Arctic and Pacific oceans are connected by the presently ~53 m deep Bering Strait. During the last glacial period when the sea level was lower than today, the Bering Strait was exposed. Humans and animals could then migrate between Asia and North America across the formed land bridge. From analyses of sediment cores and geophysical mapping data from Herald Canyon north of the Bering Strait, we show that the land bridge was flooded about 11 000 years ago.
Annette Hahn, Enno Schefuß, Sergio Andò, Hayley C. Cawthra, Peter Frenzel, Martin Kugel, Stephanie Meschner, Gesine Mollenhauer, and Matthias Zabel
Clim. Past, 13, 649–665,Short summary
Our study demonstrates that a source to sink analysis in the Gouritz catchment can be used to obtain valuable paleoclimatic information form the year-round rainfall zone. In combination with SST reconstructions these data are a valuable contribution to the discussion of Southern Hemisphere palaeoenvironments and climate variability (in particular atmosphere–ocean circulation and hydroclimate change) in the South African Holocene.
Janne Repschläger, Dieter Garbe-Schönberg, Mara Weinelt, and Ralph Schneider
Clim. Past, 13, 333–344,Short summary
We reconstruct changes in the warm water transport from the subtropical to the subpolar North Atlantic over the last 10 000 years. We use stable isotope and Mg / Ca ratios measured on surface and subsurface dwelling foraminifera. Results indicate an overall stable warm water transport at surface. The northward transport at subsurface evolves stepwise and stabilizes at 7 ka BP on the modern mode. These ocean transport changes seem to be controlled by the meltwater inflow into the North Atlantic.
Yannick Mary, Frédérique Eynaud, Christophe Colin, Linda Rossignol, Sandra Brocheray, Meryem Mojtahid, Jennifer Garcia, Marion Peral, Hélène Howa, Sébastien Zaragosi, and Michel Cremer
Clim. Past, 13, 201–216,Short summary
In the boreal Atlantic, the subpolar and subtropical gyres (SPG and STG respectively) are key elements of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) cell and contribute to climate modulations over Europe. Here we document the last 10 kyr evolution of sea-surface temperatures over the North Atlantic with a focus on new data obtained from an exceptional sedimentary archive retrieved the southern Bay of Biscay, enabling the study of Holocene archives at (infra)centennial scales.
Quentin Dubois-Dauphin, Paolo Montagna, Giuseppe Siani, Eric Douville, Claudia Wienberg, Dierk Hebbeln, Zhifei Liu, Nejib Kallel, Arnaud Dapoigny, Marie Revel, Edwige Pons-Branchu, Marco Taviani, and Christophe Colin
Clim. Past, 13, 17–37,
Mercè Cisneros, Isabel Cacho, Jaime Frigola, Miquel Canals, Pere Masqué, Belen Martrat, Marta Casado, Joan O. Grimalt, Leopoldo D. Pena, Giulia Margaritelli, and Fabrizio Lirer
Clim. Past, 12, 849–869,Short summary
We present a high-resolution multi-proxy study about the evolution of sea surface conditions along the last 2700 yr in the north-western Mediterranean Sea based on five sediment records from two different sites north of Minorca. The novelty of the results and the followed approach, constructing stack records from the studied proxies to preserve the most robust patterns, provides a special value to the study. This complex period appears to have significant regional changes in the climatic signal.
C. Consolaro, T. L. Rasmussen, G. Panieri, J. Mienert, S. Bünz, and K. Sztybor
Clim. Past, 11, 669–685,Short summary
A sediment core collected from a pockmark field on the Vestnesa Ridge (~80N) in the Fram Strait is presented. Our results show an undisturbed sedimentary record for the last 14 ka BP and negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) during the Bølling-Allerød interstadials and during the early Holocene. Both CIEs relate to periods of ocean warming, sea-level rise and increased concentrations of methane (CH4) in the atmosphere, suggesting an apparent correlation with warm climatic events.
M. Łącka, M. Zajączkowski, M. Forwick, and W. Szczuciński
Clim. Past, 11, 587–603,Short summary
Storfjordrenna was deglaciated about 13,950 cal yr BP. During the transition from the sub-glacial to glaciomarine setting, Arctic Waters dominated its hydrography. However, the waters were not uniformly cold and experienced several warmer spells. Atlantic Water began to flow onto the shelves off Svalbard and into Storfjorden during the early Holocene, leading to progressive warming and significant glacial melting. A surface-water cooling and freshening occurred in late Holocene.
A. D. Tegzes, E. Jansen, and R. J. Telford
Clim. Past, 10, 1887–1904,
D. E. Groot, S. Aagaard-Sørensen, and K. Husum
Clim. Past, 10, 51–62,
C. V. Dylmer, J. Giraudeau, F. Eynaud, K. Husum, and A. De Vernal
Clim. Past, 9, 1505–1518,
C. Giry, T. Felis, M. Kölling, W. Wei, G. Lohmann, and S. Scheffers
Clim. Past, 9, 841–858,
G. Siani, M. Magny, M. Paterne, M. Debret, and M. Fontugne
Clim. Past, 9, 499–515,
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