Articles | Volume 18, issue 4
12 Apr 2022
Research article | 12 Apr 2022
Dynamic boreal summer atmospheric circulation response as negative feedback to Greenland melt during the MIS-11 interglacial
Brian R. Crow et al.
No articles found.
Takasumi Kurahashi-Nakamura, André Paul, Ute Merkel, and Michael Schulz
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for CPShort summary
With a comprehensive Earth-system model including the global carbon cycle, we simulated the climate state during the last glacial maximum. We demonstrated that the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere both in the modern (pre-industrial) age (~280 ppm) and in the glacial age (~190 ppm) can be reproduced by the model with a common configuration by giving reasonable model forcing and total ocean inventories of carbon and other biogeochemical matter for the respective ages.
Markus Raitzsch, Jelle Bijma, Torsten Bickert, Michael Schulz, Ann Holbourn, and Michal Kučera
Clim. Past, 17, 703–719,Short summary
At approximately 14 Ma, the East Antarctic Ice Sheet expanded to almost its current extent, but the role of CO2 in this major climate transition is not entirely known. We show that atmospheric CO2 might have varied on 400 kyr cycles linked to the eccentricity of the Earth’s orbit. The resulting change in weathering and ocean carbon cycle affected atmospheric CO2 in a way that CO2 rose after Antarctica glaciated, helping to stabilize the climate system on its way to the “ice-house” world.
Martim Mas e Braga, Jorge Bernales, Matthias Prange, Arjen P. Stroeven, and Irina Rogozhina
The Cryosphere, 15, 459–478,Short summary
We combine a computer model with different climate records to simulate how Antarctica responded to warming during marine isotope substage 11c, which can help understand Antarctica's natural drivers of change. We found that the regional climate warming of Antarctica seen in ice cores was necessary for the model to match the recorded sea level rise. A collapse of its western ice sheet is possible if a modest warming is sustained for ca. 4000 years, contributing 6.7 to 8.2 m to sea level rise.
Kaveh Purkiani, André Paul, Annemiek Vink, Maren Walter, Michael Schulz, and Matthias Haeckel
Biogeosciences, 17, 6527–6544,Short summary
There has been a steady increase in interest in mining of deep-sea minerals in the eastern Pacific Ocean recently. The ocean state in this region is known to be highly influenced by rotating bodies of water (eddies), some of which can travel long distances in the ocean and impact the deeper layers of the ocean. Better insight into the variability of eddy activity in this region is of great help to mitigate the impact of the benthic ecosystem from future potential deep-sea mining activity.
Takasumi Kurahashi-Nakamura, André Paul, Guy Munhoven, Ute Merkel, and Michael Schulz
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 825–840,Short summary
Chemical processes in ocean-floor sediments have a large influence on the marine carbon cycle, hence the global climate, at long timescales. We developed a new coupling scheme for a chemical sediment model and a comprehensive climate model. The new coupled model outperformed the original uncoupled climate model in reproducing the global distribution of sediment properties. The sediment model will also act as a
bridgebetween the ocean model and paleoceanographic data.
Pepijn Bakker, Irina Rogozhina, Ute Merkel, and Matthias Prange
Clim. Past, 16, 371–386,Short summary
Northeastern Siberia is currently known for its harsh cold climate, but remarkably it did not experience large-scale glaciation during the last ice age. We show that the region is also exceptional in climate models. As a result of subtle changes in model setup, climate models show a strong divergence in simulated glacial summer temperatures that is ultimately driven by changes in the circumpolar atmospheric stationary wave pattern and associated northward heat transport to northeastern Siberia.
Gerlinde Jung and Matthias Prange
Clim. Past, 16, 161–181,Short summary
All major mountain ranges were uplifted during Earth's history. Previous work showed that African uplift might have influenced upper-ocean cooling in the Benguela region. But the surface ocean cooled also in other upwelling regions during the last 10 million years. We performed a set of model experiments altering topography in major mountain regions to explore the effects on atmosphere and ocean. The simulations show that mountain uplift is important for upper-ocean temperature evolution.
Andreia Rebotim, Antje Helga Luise Voelker, Lukas Jonkers, Joanna J. Waniek, Michael Schulz, and Michal Kucera
J. Micropalaeontol., 38, 113–131,Short summary
To reconstruct subsurface water conditions using deep-dwelling planktonic foraminifera, we must fully understand how the oxygen isotope signal incorporates into their shell. We report δ18O in four species sampled in the eastern North Atlantic with plankton tows. We assess the size and crust effect on the isotopic δ18O and compared them with predictions from two equations. We reveal different patterns of calcite addition with depth, highlighting the need to perform species-specific calibrations.
Charlotte Breitkreuz, André Paul, and Michael Schulz
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Publication in CP not foreseenShort summary
We combined a model simulation of the Last Glacial Maximum ocean with sea surface temperature and calcite oxygen isotope data through data assimilation. The reconstructed ocean state is very similar to the modern and it follows that the employed proxy data do not require an ocean state very different from today's. Sensitivity experiments reveal that data from the deep North Atlantic but also from the global deep Southern Ocean are most important to constrain the Atlantic overturning circulation.
Charlotte Breitkreuz, André Paul, Stefan Mulitza, Javier García-Pintado, and Michael Schulz
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Publication in GMD not foreseenShort summary
We present a technique for ocean state estimation based on the combination of a simple data assimilation method with a state reduction approach. The technique proves to be very efficient and successful in reducing the model-data misfit and reconstructing a target ocean circulation from synthetic observations. In an application to Last Glacial Maximum proxy data the model-data misfit is greatly reduced but some misfit remains. Two different ocean states are found with similar model-data misfit.
Axel Wagner, Gerrit Lohmann, and Matthias Prange
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Publication in GMD not foreseenShort summary
This study demonstrates the dependence of simulated surface air temperatures on variations in grid resolution and resolution-dependent orography in simulations of the Mid-Holocene. A set of Mid-Holocene sensitivity experiments is carried out. The simulated Mid-Holocene temperature differences (low versus high resolution) reveal a response that regionally exceeds the Mid-Holocene to preindustrial modelled temperature anomalies, and show partly reversed signs across the same geographical regions.
Andrea Klus, Matthias Prange, Vidya Varma, Louis Bruno Tremblay, and Michael Schulz
Clim. Past, 14, 1165–1178,Short summary
Numerous proxy records from the northern North Atlantic suggest substantial climate variability including the occurrence of multi-decadal-to-centennial cold events during the Holocene. We analyzed two abrupt cold events in a Holocene simulation using a comprehensive climate model. It is shown that the events were ultimately triggered by prolonged phases of positive North Atlantic Oscillation causing changes in ocean circulation followed by severe cooling, freshening, and expansion of sea ice.
Kerstin Kretschmer, Lukas Jonkers, Michal Kucera, and Michael Schulz
Biogeosciences, 15, 4405–4429,Short summary
The fossil shells of planktonic foraminifera are widely used to reconstruct past climate conditions. To do so, information about their seasonal and vertical habitat is needed. Here we present an updated version of a planktonic foraminifera model to better understand species-specific habitat dynamics under climate change. This model produces spatially and temporally coherent distribution patterns, which agree well with available observations, and can thus aid the interpretation of proxy records.
Amanda Frigola, Matthias Prange, and Michael Schulz
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1607–1626,Short summary
The application of climate models to study the Middle Miocene Climate Transition, characterized by major Antarctic ice-sheet expansion and global cooling at the interval 15–13 million years ago, is currently hampered by the lack of boundary conditions. To fill this gap, we compiled two internally consistent sets of boundary conditions, including global topography, bathymetry, vegetation and ice volume, for the periods before and after the transition.
Rike Völpel, André Paul, Annegret Krandick, Stefan Mulitza, and Michael Schulz
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3125–3144,Short summary
This study presents the implementation of stable water isotopes in the MITgcm and describes the results of an equilibrium simulation under pre-industrial conditions. The model compares well to observational data and measurements of plankton tow records and thus opens wide prospects for long-term simulations in a paleoclimatic context.
Andreia Rebotim, Antje H. L. Voelker, Lukas Jonkers, Joanna J. Waniek, Helge Meggers, Ralf Schiebel, Igaratza Fraile, Michael Schulz, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 14, 827–859,Short summary
Planktonic foraminifera species depth habitat remains poorly constrained and the existing conceptual models are not sufficiently tested by observational data. Here we present a synthesis of living planktonic foraminifera abundance data in the subtropical eastern North Atlantic from vertical plankton tows. We also test potential environmental factors influencing the species depth habitat and investigate yearly or lunar migration cycles. These findings may impact paleoceanographic studies.
Vidya Varma, Matthias Prange, and Michael Schulz
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3859–3873,Short summary
We compare the results from simulations of the present and the last interglacial, with and without acceleration of the orbital forcing, using a comprehensive coupled climate model. In low latitudes, the simulation of long-term variations in interglacial surface climate is not significantly affected by the use of the acceleration technique and hence model–data comparison of surface variables is therefore not hampered but major repercussions of the orbital forcing are obvious below thermocline.
Rima Rachmayani, Matthias Prange, and Michael Schulz
Clim. Past, 12, 677–695,Short summary
A set of 13 interglacial time slice experiments was carried out using a CCSM3-DGVM to study global climate variability between and within the Quaternary interglaciations of MIS 1, 5, 11, 13, and 15. Seasonal surface temperature anomalies can be explained by local insolation anomalies induced by the astronomical forcing in most regions and by GHG forcing at high latitudes and early Bruhnes interglacials. However, climate feedbacks may modify the surface temperature response in specific regions.
I. Bouimetarhan, L. Dupont, H. Kuhlmann, J. Pätzold, M. Prange, E. Schefuß, and K. Zonneveld
Clim. Past, 11, 751–764,Short summary
This study has great paleoclimatic and paleoecological significance, as it deals with the poorly documented tropical SE African ecosystem during the last deglaciation. Changes in the Rufiji upland vegetation evidenced the response of the regional hydrologic system to high-latitude climatic fluctuations associated with ITCZ shifts, while changes in sensitive tropical salt marshes and mangrove communities in the Rufiji lowland evidenced the impact of sea level changes on the intertidal ecosystem.
R. Rachmayani, M. Prange, and M. Schulz
Clim. Past, 11, 175–185,Short summary
The role of vegetation-precipitation feedbacks in modifying the North African rainfall response to enhanced early to mid-Holocene summer insolation is analysed using the climate-vegetation model CCSM3-DGVM. Dynamic vegetation amplifies the positive early to mid-Holocene summer precipitation anomaly by ca. 20% in the Sahara-Sahel region. The primary vegetation feedback operates through surface latent heat flux anomalies by canopy evapotranspiration and their effect on the African easterly jet.
N. Merz, C. C. Raible, H. Fischer, V. Varma, M. Prange, and T. F. Stocker
Clim. Past, 9, 2433–2450,
Y. Milker, R. Rachmayani, M. F. G. Weinkauf, M. Prange, M. Raitzsch, M. Schulz, and M. Kučera
Clim. Past, 9, 2231–2252,
M. Kageyama, U. Merkel, B. Otto-Bliesner, M. Prange, A. Abe-Ouchi, G. Lohmann, R. Ohgaito, D. M. Roche, J. Singarayer, D. Swingedouw, and X Zhang
Clim. Past, 9, 935–953,
P. Bakker, E. J. Stone, S. Charbit, M. Gröger, U. Krebs-Kanzow, S. P. Ritz, V. Varma, V. Khon, D. J. Lunt, U. Mikolajewicz, M. Prange, H. Renssen, B. Schneider, and M. Schulz
Clim. Past, 9, 605–619,
Related subject area
Subject: Atmospheric Dynamics | Archive: Modelling only | Timescale: PleistocenePMIP4/CMIP6 last interglacial simulations using three different versions of MIROC: importance of vegetationA modified seasonal cycle during MIS31 super-interglacial favors stronger interannual ENSO and monsoon variabilityHow might the North American ice sheet influence the northwestern Eurasian climate?
Ryouta O'ishi, Wing-Le Chan, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, Sam Sherriff-Tadano, Rumi Ohgaito, and Masakazu Yoshimori
Clim. Past, 17, 21–36,Short summary
The last interglacial is known as the warmest period in the recent glacial–interglacial cycle. We carry out a last interglacial experiment using three versions of general circulation models to reproduce the warm climate indicated by geological evidence. Our result clearly shows that vegetation change in the last interglacial is a necessary factor to predict a strong warming in northern high latitudes, which is indicated by geological evidence.
Flavio Justino, Fred Kucharski, Douglas Lindemann, Aaron Wilson, and Frode Stordal
Clim. Past, 15, 735–749,Short summary
This study evaluates the impact of enhanced seasonality characteristic of the Marine Isotope Stage 31 (MIS31) on the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Based upon coupled climate simulations driven by present-day (CTR) and MIS31 boundary conditions, we demonstrate that MIS31 does show a strong power spectrum at interannual timescales but the absence of decadal periodicity. The implementation of the MIS31 conditions results in a distinct global monsoon system and its link to the ENSO.
P. Beghin, S. Charbit, C. Dumas, M. Kageyama, and C. Ritz
Clim. Past, 11, 1467–1490,Short summary
The present study investigates the potential impact of the North American ice sheet on the surface mass balance of the Eurasian ice sheet through changes in the past glacial atmospheric circulation. Using an atmospheric circulation model and an ice-sheet model, we show that the albedo of the American ice sheet favors the growth of the Eurasian ice sheet, whereas the topography of the American ice sheet leads to more ablation over North Eurasia, and therefore to a smaller Eurasian ice sheet.
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To better understand the climate conditions which lead to extensive melting of the Greenland ice sheet, we used climate models to reconstruct the climate conditions of the warmest period of the last 800 000 years, which was centered around 410 000 years ago. Surprisingly, we found that atmospheric circulation changes may have acted to reduce the melt of the ice sheet rather than enhance it, despite the extensive warmth of the time.
To better understand the climate conditions which lead to extensive melting of the Greenland ice...