Articles | Volume 15, issue 1
Review article
16 Jan 2019
Review article |  | 16 Jan 2019

The 4.2 ka event, ENSO, and coral reef development

Lauren T. Toth and Richard B. Aronson

Related authors

A statistical framework for integrating nonparametric proxy distributions into geological reconstructions of relative sea level
Erica L. Ashe, Nicole S. Khan, Lauren T. Toth, Andrea Dutton, and Robert E. Kopp
Adv. Stat. Clim. Meteorol. Oceanogr., 8, 1–29,,, 2022
Short summary

Related subject area

Subject: Ocean Dynamics | Archive: Marine Archives | Timescale: Holocene
Response of biological productivity to North Atlantic marine front migration during the Holocene
David J. Harning, Anne E. Jennings, Denizcan Köseoğlu, Simon T. Belt, Áslaug Geirsdóttir, and Julio Sepúlveda
Clim. Past, 17, 379–396,,, 2021
Short summary
Sea surface temperature in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean over the Late Glacial and Holocene
Lisa Claire Orme, Xavier Crosta, Arto Miettinen, Dmitry V. Divine, Katrine Husum, Elisabeth Isaksson, Lukas Wacker, Rahul Mohan, Olivier Ther, and Minoru Ikehara
Clim. Past, 16, 1451–1467,,, 2020
Short summary
Surface and subsurface Labrador Shelf water mass conditions during the last 6000 years
Annalena A. Lochte, Ralph Schneider, Markus Kienast, Janne Repschläger, Thomas Blanz, Dieter Garbe-Schönberg, and Nils Andersen
Clim. Past, 16, 1127–1143,,, 2020
Short summary
Reconstruction of Holocene oceanographic conditions in eastern Baffin Bay
Katrine Elnegaard Hansen, Jacques Giraudeau, Lukas Wacker, Christof Pearce, and Marit-Solveig Seidenkrantz
Clim. Past, 16, 1075–1095,,, 2020
Short summary
Multiproxy evidence of the Neoglacial expansion of Atlantic Water to eastern Svalbard
Joanna Pawłowska, Magdalena Łącka, Małgorzata Kucharska, Jan Pawlowski, and Marek Zajączkowski
Clim. Past, 16, 487–501,,, 2020
Short summary

Cited articles

Anthony, K. R. N.: Coral reefs under climate change and ocean acidification: challenges and opportunities for management and policy, Annu. Rev. Env. Resour., 41, 59–81, 2016. 
Aronson, R. B. and Precht, W. F.: Evolutionary paleoecology of Caribbean coral reefs, in: Evolutionary paleoecology: the ecological context of macroevolutionary change, edited by: Allmon, W. D. and Bottjer, D. J., Columbia University Press, New York, 171–233, 2001. 
Aronson, R. B., Precht, W. F., Toscano, M. A., and Koltes, K. H.: The 1998 bleaching even and its aftermath on a coral reef in Belize, Mar. Biol., 141, 435–447, 2002. 
Baker, A. C., Starger, C. J., McClanahan, T. R., and Glynn, P. W.: Corals' adaptive response to climate change, Nature, 430, p. 741, 2004. 
Booth, R. K., Jackson, S. T., Forman, S. L., Kutzbach, J. E., Bettis III, E. A., Kreigs, J., and Wright, D. K.: A severe centennial-scale drought in midcontinental North America 4200 years ago and apparent global linkages, Holocene, 15, 321–328, 2005. 
Short summary
We explore the hypothesis that a shift in global climate 4200 years ago (the 4.2 ka event) was related to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We summarize records of coral reef development in the tropical eastern Pacific, where intensification of ENSO stalled reef growth for 2500 years starting around 4.2 ka. Because corals are highly sensitive to climatic changes, like ENSO, we suggest that records from coral reefs may provide important clues about the role of ENSO in the 4.2 ka event.