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CP | Articles | Volume 14, issue 8
Clim. Past, 14, 1229–1252, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-14-1229-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Special issue: Paleoclimate data synthesis and analysis of associated uncertainty...

Clim. Past, 14, 1229–1252, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-14-1229-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 16 Aug 2018

Research article | 16 Aug 2018

Deglacial carbon cycle changes observed in a compilation of 127 benthic δ13C time series (20–6 ka)

Carlye D. Peterson and Lorraine E. Lisiecki

Data sets

Stable oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of benthic foraminifera from sediment core GeoB3104-1 H. W. Arz, J. Pätzold, and G. Wefer https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.54790

Stable isotopes and sedimentology of core GeoB1117-2 T. Bickert, G. Wefer, and P. J. Müller https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.58780

Stable isotopes and sedimentology of core GeoB1101-4 T. Bickert, G. Wefer, and P. J. Müller https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.103621

Stable isotopes and sedimentology of core GeoB1112-3 T. Bickert, G. Wefer, and P. J. Müller https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.103625

Stable isotopes and sedimentology of core GeoB1214-1 T. Bickert, G. Wefer, and P. J. Müller https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.103635

Stable isotopes and sedimentology of core GeoB1041 T. Bickert, G. Wefer, and P. J. Müller https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.58771

Stable isotopes and sedimentology of core GeoB1211 T. Bickert, G. Wefer, and P. J. Müller https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.58782

Stable isotopes from sediment core FR01/97-12, Tasman Sea H. C. Bostock, B. N. Opdyke, M. K. Gagan, and L. K. Fifield https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.832096

Millennial-scale changes ventilation of the thermocline, intermediate and deep waters of the Glacial North Atlantic (ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/contributions_by_author/curry1999/cibs_103ggc_all_calendar.txt) W. B. Curry, T. M. Marchitto, J. F. McManus, D. W. Oppo, and K. L. Laarkamp https://doi.org/10.1029/GM112p0059

Carbon and oxygen isotopes from benthic foraminifera of sediment core MD97-2151 M.-T. Chen https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.114672

(Fig. 3a) Stable oxygen isotope ratios of benthic foraminifera of sediment core SU90-03 E. Cortijo, L. Scott, L. D. Keigwin, M. R. Chapman, D. Paillard, and L. D. Labeyrie https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.857320

Stable isotope analysis on sediment core RC13-228 W. B. Curry https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.139596

Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of Planulina wuellerstorfi from sediments of the Vema Channel W. B. Curry and G. P. Lohmann https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.726254

(Table 1) Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of Planulina wuellerstorfi from sediment core EN066-38PG W. B. Curry and G. P. Lohmann https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.726019

(Table 1) Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of Planulina wuellerstorfi from sediment core EN066-16PG W. B. Curry and G. P. Lohmann https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.726013

(Table 1) Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of Planulina wuellerstorfi from sediment core EN066-21PG W. B. Curry and G. P. Lohmann https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.726014

(Table 1) Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of Planulina wuellerstorfi from sediment core EN066-26PG W. B. Curry and G. P. Lohmann https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.726015

(Table 1) Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of Planulina wuellerstorfi from sediment core EN066-36PG W. B. Curry and G. P. Lohmann https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.726018

(Table 1) Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of Planulina wueller storfi from sediment core EN066-44PG W. B. Curry and G. P. Lohmann https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.726020

(Table 1) Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of Planulina wuellerstorfi from sediment core EN066-32PG W. B. Curry and G. P. Lohmann https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.726017

Stable isotope record of foraminifera from sediment core EW9209-1JPC W. B. Curry and D. W. Oppo https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.730044

Glacial water mass geometry and the distribution of δ13C of sumCO2 in the western Atlantic Ocean (https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/8673) W. B. Curry and D. W. Oppo https://doi.org/10.1029/2004PA001021

(Appendix 1) Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of Cibicidoides spp. from sediment core BT4 W. B. Curry, J.-C. Duplessy, L. D. Labeyrie, and N. J. Shackleton https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.52328

(Appendix 1) Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of Cibicidoides spp. from sediment core CHN82-24 W. B. Curry, J.-C. Duplessy, L. D. Labeyrie, and N. J. Shackleton https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.52327

(Appendix 1) Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi from sediment core KNR110-0082GGC W. B. Curry, J.-C. Duplessy, L. D. Labeyrie, and N. J. Shackleton https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.357162

(Appendix 1) Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi from sediment core KNR110-0050GGC W. B. Curry, J.-C. Duplessy, L. D. Labeyrie, and N. J. Shackleton https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.357156

(Appendix 1) Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi from sediment core KNR110-0055GGC W. B. Curry, J.-C. Duplessy, L. D. Labeyrie, and N. J. Shackleton https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.357157

(Appendix 1) Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi from sediment core KNR110-0058GGC W. B. Curry, J.-C. Duplessy, L. D. Labeyrie, and N. J. Shackleton https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.357158

(Appendix 1) Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi from sediment core KNR110-0066GGC W. B. Curry, J.-C. Duplessy, L. D. Labeyrie, and N. J. Shackleton https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.357159

(Appendix 1) Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi from sediment core KNR110-0071GGC W. B. Curry, J.-C. Duplessy, L. D. Labeyrie, and N. J. Shackleton https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.357160

(Appendix 1) Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi from sediment core KNR110-0091GGC W. B. Curry, J.-C. Duplessy, L. D. Labeyrie, and N. J. Shackleton https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.357163

Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of benthic foraminifera W. B. Curry, J.-C. Duplessy, L. D. Labeyrie, and N. J. Shackleton https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.726195

(Appendix 1) Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of Cibicidoides spp. from sediment core V22-197 W. B. Curry, J.-C. Duplessy, L. D. Labeyrie, and N. J. Shackleton https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.52291

(Appendix 1) Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi from sediment core V25-59 W. B. Curry, J.-C. Duplessy, L. D. Labeyrie, and N. J. Shackleton https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.52290

(Appendix 1) Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi from sediment core V30-49 W. B. Curry, J.-C. Duplessy, L. D. Labeyrie, and N. J. Shackleton https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.52280

Pleistocene δ 13C variability of North Atlantic intermediate water (https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo-search/study/2554) P. B. Demenocal, D. W. Oppo, R. G. Fairbanks, and W. L. Prell https://doi.org/10.1029/92PA00420

(Appendix 3) Stable isotopes of sediment core GeoB6718-2 B. Dorschel, D. Hebbeln, A. Rüggeberg, W. C. Dullo, and A. Freiwald https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.134554

(Table 6) Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of Cibicides species from sediment core CH73-139 J.-C. Duplessy https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.726215

Stable isotope of sediment core NA87-22 J.-C. Duplessy https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.54411

Age model, stable isotope record, CaCO3 and TOC of sediment core GeoB4240-2 T. Freudenthal, H. Meggers, J. Henderiks, H. Kuhlmann, A. Moreno, and G. Wefer https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.57859

Age model, stable isotope record, CaCO3 and TOC of sediment core GeoB4216-1 T. Freudenthal, H. Meggers, J. Henderiks, H. Kuhlmann, A. Moreno, and G. Wefer https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.57856

Eemian and early Weichselian (140– 60 ka) paleoceanography and paleoclimate in the Nordic seas with comparisons to Holocene conditions (https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/2524) T. Fronval and E. Jansen https://doi.org/10.1029/97PA00322

(Table T1) Stable oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of Cibicidoides and carbonate concentrations of the sediment in ODP Hole 177-1088B in the Southern Ocean D. A. Hodell, C. D. Charles, J. H. Curtis, P. G. Mortyn, U. S. Ninnemann, and K. A. Venz https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.218111

Pleistocene vertical carbon isotope and carbonate gradients in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean (https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/6408) D. A. Hodell, K. A. Venz, C. D. Charles, and U. S. Ninnemann https://doi.org/10.1029/2002GC000367

Onset of “Hudson Strait” Heinrich events in the eastern North Atlantic at the end of the middle Pleistocene transition (∼ 640 ka)? (https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/10250) D. A. Hodell, J. E. Channell, J. H. Curtis, O. E. Romero, and U. Röhl https://doi.org/10.1029/2008PA001591

(Figure 2) Stable Isotopes on benthic foraminifera of sediment core MD01-2378 A. Holbourn, W. Kuhnt, H. Kawamura, Z. Jian, P. M. Grootes, H. Erlenkeuser, and J. Xu https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.263755

Stable isotope analysis on sediment core M35003-4 M. Hüls https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.55754

On the structure and origin of major glaciation cycles 1. Linear responses to Milankovitch forcing (https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo-search/study/2511) J. Imbrie, E. Boyle, S. Clemens, A. Duffy, W. Howard, G. Kukla, J. Kutzbach, D. Martinson, A. McIntyre, A. Mix, et al. https://doi.org/10.1029/92PA02253

Stable isotope analysis of foraminifera from sediment core V23-81 (Table 2) E. Jansen and T. Veum https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.106768

Stable isotope data of sediment cores GIK17049-6 S. J. A. Jung and M. Sarnthein https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.112908

Stable isotope data of sediment cores GIK17050-1 S. J. A. Jung and M. Sarnthein https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.112909

Stable isotope 35 data of sediment cores GIK23414-9 S. J. A. Jung and M. Sarnthein https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.112911

Stable isotope data of sediment cores GIK23416-4 S. J. A. Jung and M. Sarnthein https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.112913

Stable isotope data of sediment cores GIK23417-1 S. J. A. Jung and M. Sarnthein https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.112914

Stable isotope data of sediment cores GIK23418-8 S. J. A. Jung and M. Sarnthein https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.112915

Stable isotope data of sediment cores GIK23419-8 S. J. A. Jung and M. Sarnthein https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.112916

Southwest Atlantic water mass evolution during the last deglaciation (https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/19521) D. C. Lund, A. Tessin, J. Hoffman, and A. Schmittner https://doi.org/10.1002/2014PA002657

Stable isotopes (Cibicidoides) of sediment core PS2498-1 A. Mackensen, M. Rudolph, and G. Kuhn https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.80802

Trace element ratios of Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi from sediment core RC13-114 (Appendix A) T. M. Marchitto, J. Lynch-Stieglitz, and S. R. Hemming https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.712938

Pliocene-Pleistocene stable oxygen isotope record of Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi from the North Atlantic K. McIntyre, A. C. Ravelo, and M. L. Delaney https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.698997

Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of foraminifera and ages determination of sediment core GIK23519-5 C. Millo, M. Sarnthein, A. H. L. Voelker, and H. Erlenkeuser https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.271549

(Table 1) Stable isotope ratios of Cibicides wuellerstorfi in sediment core V19-27 in the eastern Pacific A. C. Mix, N. G. Pisias, R. Zahn, W. D. Rugh, C. Lopez, and K. Nelson https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.51844

Stable isotope analyses of sediment core GeoB9508-5 S. Mulitza https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.726776

(Appendix 1) Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of benthic foraminifera in sediment core V30-40 D. W. Oppo and R. G. Fairbanks https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.701355

(Table 3) Stable isotope ratios of Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi from sediment core V28-127 D. W. Oppo and R. G. Fairbanks https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.52404

Glacial deep water geometry: South Atlantic benthic foraminiferal Cd/Ca and δ13C evidence (https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/2592) D. W. Oppo and M. Horowitz https://doi.org/10.1029/1999PA000436

Suborbital timescale variability of North Atlantic Deep Water during the past 200,000 years (https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo-search/study/21450) D. W. Oppo and S. J. Lehman https://doi.org/10.1029/95PA02089

(Table 2) Stable oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi of ODP Site 162-980 D. W. Oppo, J. F. McManus, and J. L. Cullen https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.742852

Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of foraminifera of sediment core MD96-2080 A. Rau, J. Roger, J. Lutjeharms, J. Giraudeau, J. Lee-Thorp, M.-T. Chen, and C. Waelbroeck https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.113000

Stable isotope data of sediment core GEOFAR KF13 T. Richter https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.66317

Stable isotope analysis on planktic foraminifera on sediment core GIK12328-4 and GIK12328-5 M. Sarnthein https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.52049

Stable isotope analysis on planktic foraminifera on sediment core profile GIK12347-1/-2 M. Sarnthein https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.54364

Stable isotope analysis on planktic foraminifera on sediment core profile GIK12379-1/-3 M. Sarnthein https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.54365

Stable isotope analysis on sediment core GIK12392-1 M. Sarnthein https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.54366

Stable isotope analysis on sediment core GIK13521-1 M. Sarnthein https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.54368

Stable isotope analysis on sediment core GIK15612-2 M. Sarnthein https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.54369

Stable isotope analysis on sediment core GIK15666-6 M. Sarnthein https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.54381

Stable isotope analysis on planktic foraminifera on sediment core profile GIK15672-1/-2 M. Sarnthein https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.54370

Stable isotope analysis on sediment core GIK16004-1 M. Sarnthein https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.54371

Stable isotope analysis on sediment core GIK16006-1 M. Sarnthein https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.54372

Stable isotope analysis on sediment core GIK16006-1 M. Sarnthein https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.54372

Stable isotope analysis on sediment core GIK16030-1 M. Sarnthein https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.54374

Stable isotope analysis on planktic foraminifera on sediment core profile GIK16415-1/-2 M. Sarnthein https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.54377

Stable isotope analysis on sediment core V29-135 M. Sarnthein https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.54408

Stable istope analysis on planktic foraminifera on sediment core GIK15669-1 M. Sarnthein https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.134932

Table 1. Epibenthic d13C averages for time slices 1-8 listed for 95 Atlantic deep sea cores and 20 surface sediment samples M. Sarnthein https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.134784

(Table 3) Stable oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of foraminifera from ODP Site 108-658 M. Sarnthein and R. Tiedemann https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.746217

Changes in east Atlantic deepwater circulation over the last 30,000 years: Eight time slice reconstructions (https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.134784) M. Sarnthein, K. Winn, S. J. Jung, J.-C. Duplessy, L. Labeyrie, H. Erlenkeuser, and G. Ganssen https://doi.org/10.1029/93PA03301

Stable isotopes, diversity and composition of foraminifera in sediment core GeoB3004-1 G. Schmiedl and D. C. Leuschner https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.315174

Benthic foraminifera analysis of two sediments cores from the northern Cape Basin in the eastern South Atlantic Ocean G. Schmiedl and A. Mackensen https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.728744

Stable isotope ratios on benthic foraminifera of sediment core MD95-2040 J. Schönfeld, R. Zahn, and L. de Abreu https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.59933

(Fig. 2) Stable carbon isotope ratios of Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi in sediment core MD95-2039 J. Schönfeld, R. Zahn, and L. de Abreu https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.82018

Stable isotope data and sedimentology of core Orgon4-KS8 F. Sirocko, C.-D. Garbe-Schönberg, and C. W. Devey https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.52392

Stable isotope data and sedimentology of core SO42-74KL F. Sirocko, C.-D. Garbe-Schönberg, and C. W. Devey https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.52389

Age determination and stable carbon oxygen isotopes of sediment core MD99-2334 L. C. Skinner and N. J. Shackleton https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.738036

Intermediate water ventilation on the northeastern Pacific margin during the late Pleistocene inferred from benthic foraminiferal δ13C (https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/2546) L. D. Stott, M. Neumann, and D. Hammond https://doi.org/10.1029/1999PA000375

Age model and Plio-Pleistocene benthic stable oxygen isotope ratios of ODP Site 184-1143 in the Sourh China Sea J. Tian, P. Wang, X. Cheng, and Q. Li https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.700904

Stable isotope record of Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi of sediment core GeoB7920-2 R. Tjallingii https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.705109

A 1.0 Myr record of Glacial North Atlantic Intermediate Water variability from ODP site 982 in the northeast Atlantic (https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/2550) K. A. Venz, D. A. Hodell, C. Stanton, and D. A. Warnke https://doi.org/10.1029/1998PA900013

Isotope data of sediment core GIK17961-2 L. Wang, M. Sarnthein, H. Erlenkeuser, J. O. Grimalt, P. M. Grootes, S. Heilig, E. V. Ivanova, M. Kienast, C. Pelejero, and U. Pflaumann https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.54714

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Our study presents an analysis of a four-dimensional compilation of globally distributed carbon isotope time series that span 20 to 6 thousand years ago. We explore carbon cycle connections between the deep ocean, atmosphere, and land-based carbon storage on thousand-year time scales to provide useful constraints for global carbon cycle reconstructions. Additionally, these carbon isotope time series are suitable for comparison with deglacial simulations from isotope-enabled Earth system models.
Our study presents an analysis of a four-dimensional compilation of globally distributed carbon...
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