Received: 05 Feb 2018 – Accepted for review: 15 Feb 2018 – Discussion started: 26 Feb 2018
Abstract. Using seven model simulations from the PMIP3, we study the mean summer (June–September) climate and its variability in India during the Last Millennium (LM; CE 850–1849) with emphasis on the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and Little Ice Age (LIA), after validation of the simulated current day climate and trends.
We find that the above (below) LM-mean summer global temperatures during the MWP (LIA) are associated with relatively higher (lower) number of concurrent El Niños as compared to La Niñas. The models simulate higher (lower) Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) during the MWP (LIA). This is notwithstanding a strong simulated negative correlation between the timeseries of NINO3.4 index and that of the area-averaged ISMR, Interestingly, the percentage of strong El Niños (La Niñas) causing negative (positive) ISMR anomalies is higher in the LIA (MWP), a non-linearity that apparently is important for causing higher ISMR in the MWP. Distribution of simulated boreal summer velocity potential at 850 hPa during MWP in models, in general, shows a zone of anomalous convergence in the central tropical Pacific flanked by two zones of divergence, suggesting a westward shift in the Walker circulation as compared to the simulations for LM as well as and a majority of historical simulations, and current day observed signal. The anomalous divergence centre in the west also extends into the equatorial eastern Indian Ocean, resulting in an anomalous convergence zone over India and therefore excess rainfall during the MWP as compared to the LM; the results are qualitative, given the inter-model spread.
How to cite. Tejavath, C. T., Ashok, K., Chakraborty, S., and Ramesh, R.: The ENSO teleconnections to the Indian summer monsoon climate through the Last Millennium as simulated by the PMIP3, Clim. Past Discuss. [preprint], https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-2018-7, 2018.
Analysing multiple CMIP5/PMIP3 Last Millennium simulations, we find that the Indian region was warmer and wetter during the medieval warm period, and cooler and drier in the little ice age, as compared to the last millennium mean conditions. This supports findings from the few available proxy findings. The Indian summer monsoon-ENSO association is robust through the last millennium, but varied on centennial time scales.
Analysing multiple CMIP5/PMIP3 Last Millennium simulations, we find that the Indian region was...