The penultimate deglaciation: protocol for PMIP4 transient numerical simulations between 140 and 127 ka
- 1Climate Change Research Center, PANGEA, ARC Centre of Excellence in Climate System Science, the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
- 2Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia
- 3Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, Copenhagen, 2900, Denmark
- 4British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0ET, UK
- 5Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE), Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL), CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-Sur-Yvette, 91190, France
- 6Department of Geological Sciences, University of Florida, P.O. Box 112120, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
- 7Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, Canada
- 8Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
- 9School of Geography, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
- 10Laboratoire EDYTEM UMR CNRS 5204, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, 73376 Le Bourget du Lac, France
- 11Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1ER, UK
- 12School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
- 13Center for Climatic Research, Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
- 14National Institute of Polar Research, Research Organizations of Information and Systems, 10-3 Midori-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8518, Japan
- 15Department of Polar Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 10-3 Midori-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8518, Japan
- 16Institute of Biogeosciences, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 2-15 Natsushima-cho, Yokosuka 237-0061, Japan
- 17Climate and Global Dynamics Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO 80305, USA
- 18Environmental Change Research Centre, Department of Geography, University College London, London, UK
- 19Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3EQ, UK
- 20Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany
- 21Key Laboratory of Western China's Environmental Systems (Ministry of Education), College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, China
- *These authors contributed equally to this work.
Abstract. The penultimate deglaciation (~ 138–128 thousand years before present, hereafter ka) is the transition from the penultimate glacial maximum to the Last Interglacial (LIG, ~ 129–116 ka). The LIG stands out as one of the warmest interglacials of the last 800 ka, with high-latitude temperature warmer than today and global sea level likely higher by at least 6 meters. The LIG therefore receives ever-growing attention, in particular to identify mechanisms and feedbacks responsible for such regional warmth that is comparable to that expected before 2100. Considering the transient nature of the Earth system, the LIG climate and ice-sheets evolution were certainly influenced by the changes occurring during the penultimate deglaciation. It is thus important to investigate the climate and environmental response to the large changes in boundary conditions (i.e. orbital configuration, atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, ice sheet geometry) occurring during this time interval.
A deglaciation working group has recently been set up as part of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) phase 4, with a protocol to perform transient simulations of the last deglaciation (19–11 ka). Similar to the last deglaciation, the disintegration of continental ice-sheets during the penultimate deglaciation led to significant changes in the oceanic circulation during Heinrich Stadial 11 (~ 136–129 ka). However, the two deglaciations bear significant differences in magnitude and temporal evolution of climate and environmental changes.
Here, as part of the PAGES-PMIP working group on Quaternary Interglacials, we propose a protocol to perform transient simulations of the penultimate deglaciation to complement the PMIP4 effort. This design includes time-varying changes in orbital forcing, greenhouse gas concentrations, continental ice-sheets as well as freshwater input from the disintegration of continental ice-sheets. This experiment is designed to assess the coupled response of the climate system to all forcings. Additional sensitivity experiments are proposed to evaluate the response to each forcing. Finally, a selection of paleo records representing different parts of the climate system is presented, providing an appropriate benchmark for upcoming model-data comparisons across the penultimate deglaciation.
Laurie Menviel et al.
Laurie Menviel et al.
Laurie Menviel et al.
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