Journal cover Journal topic
Climate of the Past An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Journal topic

Journal metrics

IF value: 3.536
IF3.536
IF 5-year value: 3.967
IF 5-year
3.967
CiteScore value: 6.6
CiteScore
6.6
SNIP value: 1.262
SNIP1.262
IPP value: 3.90
IPP3.90
SJR value: 2.185
SJR2.185
Scimago H <br class='widget-line-break'>index value: 71
Scimago H
index
71
h5-index value: 40
h5-index40
Volume 12, issue 11
Clim. Past, 12, 2087–2106, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-12-2087-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Clim. Past, 12, 2087–2106, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-12-2087-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 18 Nov 2016

Research article | 18 Nov 2016

Jens Esmark's Christiania (Oslo) meteorological observations 1816–1838: the first long-term continuous temperature record from the Norwegian capital homogenized and analysed

Geir Hestmark1 and Øyvind Nordli2 Geir Hestmark and Øyvind Nordli
  • 1Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis, CEES, Department of Biosciences, Box 1066 Blindern, University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo, Norway
  • 2Norwegian Meteorological Institute (MET Norway), Research and Development Department, Division for Model and Climate Analysis, P.O. Box 43 Blindern, 0313 Oslo, Norway

Abstract. In 2010 we rediscovered the complete set of meteorological observation protocols made by Jens Esmark (1762–1839) during his years of residence in the Norwegian capital of Oslo (then Christiania). From 1 January 1816 to 25 January 1839, Esmark at his house in Øvre Voldgate in the morning, early afternoon and late evening recorded air temperature with state-of-the-art thermometers. He also noted air pressure, cloud cover, precipitation and wind directions, and experimented with rain gauges and hygrometers. From 1818 to the end of 1838 he twice a month provided weather tables to the official newspaper Den Norske Rigstidende, and thus acquired a semi-official status as the first Norwegian state meteorologist. This paper evaluates the quality of Esmark's temperature observations and presents new metadata, new homogenization and analysis of monthly means. Three significant shifts in the measurement series were detected, and suitable corrections are proposed. The air temperature in Oslo during this period is shown to exhibit a slow rise from 1816 towards 1825, followed by a slighter fall again towards 1838.

Publications Copernicus
Download
Short summary
The detailed and continuous meteorological observations of Jens Esmark from the capital of Norway in the period 1816 to 1838 are evaluated, homogenized and reanalysed with modern methods to characterize the weather in Oslo in this period.
The detailed and continuous meteorological observations of Jens Esmark from the capital of...
Citation