01 Apr 2022
01 Apr 2022
Status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal CP.

Asymmetric changes of temperature in the Arctic during the Holocene based on a transient run with the CESM

Hongyue Zhang1,2, Jesper Sjolte2, Zhengyao Lu3, Jian Liu1,4,5, Weiyi Sun1, and Linfeng Wan6 Hongyue Zhang et al.
  • 1Key Laboratory for Virtual Geographic Environment, Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of Geographical Environment Evolution of Jiangsu Province, Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, School of Geography Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
  • 2Department of Geology – Quaternary Science, Lund University, Lund, 223 62, Sweden
  • 3Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Lund, 223 62, Sweden
  • 4Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Numerical Simulation of Large-Scale Complex Systems, School of Mathematical Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
  • 5Open Studio for the Simulation of Ocean-Climate-Isotope, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China
  • 6Institute of Advanced Ocean Study, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China

Abstract. The Arctic temperature changes are closely linked to midlatitude weather variability and extreme events, which has attracted much attention in recent decades. Syntheses of proxy data from poleward of 60° N indicate that there was asymmetric cooling of -1.54 °C and -0.61 °C for Atlantic Arctic and Pacific Arctic during the Holocene, respectively. We also present a similar consistent cooling pattern from an accelerated transient Holocene climate simulation based on the Community Earth System Model. Our results indicate that the asymmetric Holocene Arctic cooling trend is dominated by the winter temperature variability with -0.67 °C cooling for Atlantic Arctic and 0.09 °C warming for Pacific Arctic, which is particularly pronounced at the proxy sites. Our findings indicate that sea ice in the North Atlantic expanded significantly during the Late Holocene, while a sea ice retreat is seen in the North Pacific, amplifying the cooling in the Atlantic Arctic by the sea ice feedback. The positive Arctic dipole pattern, which promotes warm southerly winds to the North Pacific, offsets parts of the cooling trend in Pacific Arctic. The Arctic dipole pattern also causes sea ice expansion in the North Atlantic, further amplifying the cooling asymmetry. We found that the temperature asymmetry is more pronounced in a simulation driven only by orbital forcing, indicating that the orbital modulation of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, which in turn links to the Arctic dipole pattern, further affects the temperature asymmetry.

Hongyue Zhang et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on cp-2022-22', Anonymous Referee #1, 29 Apr 2022
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Hongyue Zhang, 27 Jun 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on cp-2022-22', Anonymous Referee #2, 23 May 2022
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Hongyue Zhang, 27 Jun 2022

Hongyue Zhang et al.

Hongyue Zhang et al.


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Short summary
Based on proxy data and modeling, the Arctic temperature has an asymmetric cooling trend with more cooling over the Atlantic Arctic than the Pacific Arctic during the Holocene, dominated by orbital forcing. There is a seasonal difference in the asymmetric cooling trend, which is dominated by the DJF temperature variability. The Arctic dipole mode of sea level pressure and sea ice play a major role in asymmetric temperature changes, which is possibly modulated by orbital forcing of PDO.