Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-2021-179
https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-2021-179
 
07 Jan 2022
07 Jan 2022
Status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal CP.

Subdaily meteorological measurements of temperature, direction of the movement of the clouds, and cloud cover in the Late Maunder Minimum by Louis Morin in Paris

Thomas Pliemon1, Ulrich Foelsche1,2, Christian Rohr3,4, and Christian Pfister3,4 Thomas Pliemon et al.
  • 1Institute for Geophysics, Astrophysics and Meteorology/Institute of Physics (IGAM/IP), University of Graz
  • 2Wegener Center for Climate and Global Change (WEGC), University of Graz
  • 3Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern
  • 4Institute of History, Section of Economic, Social and Environmental History (WSU), University of Bern

Abstract. We have digitized three meteorological variables (temperature, direction of the movement of the clouds, and cloud cover) from copies of Louis Morin’s original measurements (Source: Institute of History / Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern) and subjected them to quality analysis to make these data available to the scientific community. Our available data cover the period 1665–1709 (temperature beginning in 1676). We compare the early instrumental temperature dataset with statistical methods and proxy data to validate the measurements in terms of inhomogeneities and claim that they are, apart from small inhomogeneities, reliable. The Late Maunder Minimum (LMM) is characterized by cold winters and autumns, and moderate springs and summers, with respect to the reference period of 1961–1990. Winter months show a significant lower frequency of westerly direction of movement of the clouds. This reduction of advection from the ocean leads to a cooling in Paris in winter. The influence of the advection becomes apparent when comparing the last decade of the 17th century (cold) and the first decade of the 18th century (warm). A lower frequency of westerly direction of movement of the clouds can also be seen in summer, but the influence is stronger in winter than in summer. Consequently, the unusually cold winters in the LMM can be attributed to a lower frequency of westerly direction of movement of the clouds. An impact analysis reveals that the winter of 1708/09 was a devastating one with respect of consecutive ice days, although other winters are more pronounced (e.g., the winters of 1676/77, 1678/79, 1683/84, 1692/93, 1694/95 and 1696/97) in terms of mean temperature, ice 15 days, cold days or consecutive cold days. An investigation of the cloud cover data revealed a high discrepancy in the seasons, where the winter season (DJF) (−13.2 %) and the spring season (MAM) (−12.6 %) show a negative anomaly of the total cloud cover (TCC), whereas summer (JJA) (−0.5 %) shows a moderate anomaly of TCC with respect to the 30 year mean of the Meteobluedata (1985–2014).

Thomas Pliemon et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • CC1: 'Comment on cp-2021-179 - The 'late Maunder minimum' is not a period of climate', Gareth S. Jones, 10 Jan 2022
    • AC1: 'Reply on CC1', Thomas Pliemon, 06 Apr 2022
  • RC1: 'Comment on cp-2021-179', Anonymous Referee #1, 06 Feb 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on cp-2021-179', Anonymous Referee #2, 08 Feb 2022

Thomas Pliemon et al.

Thomas Pliemon et al.

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Short summary
We have digitized and analyzed meteorological variables (temperature, direction of the movement of the clouds, and cloud cover), which were noted by Louis Morin in the period 1665–1709 in Paris. This time period is characterized by cold winters and autumns, and moderate springs and summers. A low frequency of westerlies in the winter months leads to a cooling. This time period, except for summer, appears to have less cloud cover compared to now.